Fusing Accelerometry with Videography to Monitor the Effect of Fatigue on Punching Performance in Elite Boxers.
ABSTRACT: Wearable sensors and motion capture technology are accepted instruments to measure spatiotemporal variables during punching performance and to study the externally observable effects of fatigue. This study aimed to develop a computational framework enabling three-dimensional inverse dynamics analysis through the tracking of punching kinematics obtained from inertial measurement units and uniplanar videography. The framework was applied to six elite male boxers performing a boxing-specific punch fatigue protocol. OpenPose was used to label left side upper-limb landmarks from which sagittal plane kinematics were computed. Custom-made inertial measurement units were embedded into the boxing gloves, and three-dimensional punch accelerations were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping to evaluate the effects of both fatigue and laterality. Tracking simulations of a sub-set of left-handed punches were formulated as optimal control problems and converted to nonlinear programming problems for solution with a trapezoid collocation method. The laterality analysis revealed the dominant side fatigued more than the non-dominant, while tracking simulations revealed shoulder abduction and elevation moments increased across the fatigue protocol. In future, such advanced simulation and analysis could be performed in ecologically valid contexts, whereby multiple inertial measurement units and video cameras might be used to model a more complete set of dynamics.
Project description:An objective method to detect muscle fatigue-related kinematic changes may reduce workplace injuries. However, heterogeneous responses to muscle fatigue suggest that subject-specific analyses are necessary. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) could be used in conjunction with a spine motion composite index (SMCI) to quantify subject-specific changes in spine kinematics during a repetitive spine flexion-extension (FE) task; and (2) determine if the SMCI was correlated with measures of global trunk muscle fatigue. Spine kinematics were measured using wearable IMUs in 10 healthy adults during a baseline set followed by 10 sets of 50 spine FE repetitions. After each set, two fatigue measures were collected: perceived level of fatigue using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and maximal lift strength. SMCIs incorporating 10 kinematic variables from 2 IMUs (pelvis and T8 vertebrae) were calculated and used to quantify subject-specific changes in movement. A main effect of set was observed (F (1.7, 15.32) = 10.42, p = 0.002), where the SMCI became significantly greater than set 1 starting at set 4. Significant correlations were observed between the SMCI and both fatigue VAS and maximal lift strength at the individual and study level. These findings support the use of wearable IMUs to detect subject-specific changes in spine motion associated with muscle fatigue.
Project description:Backward walking (BW) is being increasingly used in neurologic and orthopedic rehabilitation as well as in sports to promote balance control as it provides a unique challenge to the sensorimotor control system. The identification of initial foot contact (IC) and terminal foot contact (TC) events is crucial for gait analysis. Data of optical motion capture (OMC) kinematics and inertial motion units (IMUs) are commonly used to detect gait events during forward walking (FW). However, the agreement between such methods during BW has not been investigated. In this study, the OMC kinematics and inertial data of 10 healthy young adults were recorded during BW and FW on a treadmill at different speeds. Gait events were measured using both kinematics and inertial data and then evaluated for agreement. Excellent reliability (Interclass Correlation > 0.9) was achieved for the identification of both IC and TC. The absolute differences between methods during BW were 18.5 ± 18.3 and 20.4 ± 15.2 ms for IC and TC, respectively, compared to 9.1 ± 9.6 and 10.0 ± 14.9 for IC and TC, respectively, during FW. The high levels of agreement between methods indicate that both may be used for some applications of BW gait analysis.
Project description:Various noninvasive measurement devices can be used to assess cervical motion. The size, complexity, and cost of gold-standard systems make them not suited to clinical practice, and actually difficult to use outside a dedicated laboratory. Nowadays, ultra-low-cost inertial measurement units are available, but without any packaging or a user-friendly interface. The so-called DYSKIMOT is a home-designed, small-sized, motion sensor based on the latter technology, aiming at being used by clinicians in "real-life situations". DYSKIMOT was compared with a gold-standard optoelectronic system (Elite). Our goal was to evaluate the DYSKIMOT accuracy in assessing fast head rotations kinematics. Kinematics was simultaneously recorded by systems during the execution of the DidRen Laser test and performed by 15 participants and nine patients. Kinematic variables were computed from the position, speed and acceleration time series. Two-way ANOVA, Passing-Bablok regressions, and dynamic time warping analysis showed good to excellent agreement between Elite and DYSKIMOT, both at the qualitative level of the time series shape and at the quantitative level of peculiar kinematical events' measured values. In conclusion, DYSKIMOT sensor is as relevant as a gold-standard system to assess kinematical features during fast head rotations in participants and patients, demonstrating its usefulness in both clinical practice and research environments.
Project description:Camera-based 3D motion analysis systems are considered to be the gold standard for movement analysis. However, using such equipment in a clinical setting is prohibitive due to the expense and time-consuming nature of data collection and analysis. Therefore, Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) have been suggested as an alternative to measure movement in clinical settings. One area which is both important and challenging is the assessment of turning kinematics in individuals with movement disorders. This study aimed to validate the use of IMUs in the measurement of turning kinematics in healthy adults compared to a camera-based 3D motion analysis system. Data were collected from twelve participants using a Vicon motion analysis system which were compared with data from four IMUs placed on the forehead, middle thorax, and feet in order to determine accuracy and reliability. The results demonstrated that the IMU sensors produced reliable kinematic measures and showed excellent reliability (ICCs 0.80-0.98) and no significant differences were seen in paired t-tests in all parameters when comparing the two systems. This suggests that the IMU sensors provide a viable alternative to camera-based motion capture that could be used in isolation to gather data from individuals with movement disorders in clinical settings and real-life situations.
Project description:3D joint kinematics can provide important information about the quality of movements. Optical motion capture systems (OMC) are considered the gold standard in motion analysis. However, in recent years, inertial measurement units (IMU) have become a promising alternative. The aim of this study was to validate IMU-based 3D joint kinematics of the lower extremities during different movements. Twenty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. They performed bilateral squats (SQ), single-leg squats (SLS) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). The IMU kinematics was calculated using a recently-described sensor-fusion algorithm. A marker based OMC system served as a reference. Only the technical error based on algorithm performance was considered, incorporating OMC data for the calibration, initialization, and a biomechanical model. To evaluate the validity of IMU-based 3D joint kinematics, root mean squared error (RMSE), range of motion error (ROME), Bland-Altman (BA) analysis as well as the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated. The evaluation was twofold. First, the IMU data was compared to OMC data based on marker clusters; and, second based on skin markers attached to anatomical landmarks. The first evaluation revealed means for RMSE and ROME for all joints and tasks below 3°. The more dynamic task, CMJ, revealed error measures approximately 1° higher than the remaining tasks. Mean CMC values ranged from 0.77 to 1 over all joint angles and all tasks. The second evaluation showed an increase in the RMSE of 2.28°- 2.58° on average for all joints and tasks. Hip flexion revealed the highest average RMSE in all tasks (4.87°- 8.27°). The present study revealed a valid IMU-based approach for the measurement of 3D joint kinematics in functional movements of varying demands. The high validity of the results encourages further development and the extension of the present approach into clinical settings.
Project description:Microcontainers are reservoir-based advanced drug delivery systems (DDS) that have proven to increase the bioavailibity of the small-molecule drugs, targeting of biomolecules, protection of vaccines and improved treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, high-throughput loading of these micron-sized devices with drug has been challenging. Hot punching is a new technique that is a fast, simple and single-step process where the microdevices are themselves used as mold to punch biocompatible and biodegradable drug-polymer films, thereby loading the containers. Here, we investigate the effect of hot punching on the drug distribution as well as drug release from the loaded drug-polymer matrices. Zero-order sustained drug release is observed for the model drug Furosemide embedded in biodegradable polymer, Poly-?-caprolactone, which is attributed to the unique spatial distribution of Furosemide during the loading process.
Project description:The use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) has gained popularity for the estimation of lower limb kinematics. However, implementations in clinical practice are still lacking. The aim of this review is twofold-to evaluate the methodological requirements for IMU-based joint kinematic estimation to be applicable in a clinical setting, and to suggest future research directions. Studies within the PubMed, Web Of Science and EMBASE databases were screened for eligibility, based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) studies must include a methodological description of how kinematic variables were obtained for the lower limb, (2) kinematic data must have been acquired by means of IMUs, (3) studies must have validated the implemented method against a golden standard reference system. Information on study characteristics, signal processing characteristics and study results was assessed and discussed. This review shows that methods for lower limb joint kinematics are inherently application dependent. Sensor restrictions are generally compensated with biomechanically inspired assumptions and prior information. Awareness of the possible adaptations in the IMU-based kinematic estimates by incorporating such prior information and assumptions is necessary, before drawing clinical decisions. Future research should focus on alternative validation methods, subject-specific IMU-based biomechanical joint models and disturbed movement patterns in real-world settings.
Project description:This study assesses the reliability and agreement of trunk and lower limb joints' 3D kinematics, measured by inertial measurement units, during walking and more demanding movement tasks. For data analysis, tasks were divided in open and closed chain phases. Twenty healthy participants were included. On day one, measurements were conducted by "Operator 1" and "Operator 2" to determine between-operator reliability/agreement. On day two, the measurements were conducted by Operator 1, in order to determine within-session reliability/agreement. Furthermore, between-session reliability/agreement was assessed based on data from Operator 1, captured on day one and two. Within-session reliability/agreement was high, and better than between-session and between-operator results for all tasks. The results for walking were generally better than for other movement tasks, for all joint kinematics, and for both open and closed chain phases. Only for the ab/adduction and flexion/extension angles during forward and sideward lunge, reliability and agreement results were comparable to walking, for both the open and closed chain phases. The fact that lunges show similar reliability results than walking for open and closed chain phases, but require more motor control to perform, indicates that the performance of lunges might be interesting to use in further research aiming to identify kinematic differences between populations.
Project description:Objectives:To investigate spinal kinematics, tibial and sacral impacts during fast bowling, among bowlers with a history of low back pain (LBP) (retrospective) and bowlers who developed LBP in the follow-up season (prospective). Methods:35 elite male fast bowlers; senior (n=14; age=24.1±4.3 years; height=1.89±0.05?m; weight=89.2±4.6?kg) and junior (n=21; age=16.9±0.7; height=1.81±0.05; weight=73.0±9.2?kg) were recruited from professional county cricket clubs. LBP history was gathered by questionnaire and development of LBP was monitored for the follow-up season. Spinal kinematics, tibial and sacral impacts were captured using inertial measurement units placed over S1, L1, T1 and anteromedial tibia. Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons and effect sizes were calculated to investigate differences in retrospective and prospective LBP groups. Results:Approximately 38% of juniors (n=8) and 57% of seniors (n=8) reported a history of LBP. No differences were evident in spinal kinematics or impacts between those with LBP history and those without for seniors and juniors. Large effect sizes suggest greater rotation during wind-up (d=1.3) and faster time-to-peak tibial impacts (d=1.5) in those with no history of LBP. One junior (5%) and four (29%) seniors developed LBP. No differences were evident in spinal kinematics or impacts between those who developed LBP and those who did not for seniors. In seniors, those who developed LBP had lower tibial impacts (d=1.3) and greater lumbar extension (d=1.9) during delivery. Conclusion:Retrospective analysis displayed non-significant differences in kinematics and impacts. It is unclear if these are adaptive or impairments. Prospective analysis demonstrated large effect sizes for lumbar extension during bowling suggesting a target for future coaching interventions.
Project description:In rehabilitation, assistive and space robotics, the capability to track the body posture of a user in real time is highly desirable. In more specific cases, such as teleoperated extra-vehicular activity, prosthetics and home service robotics, the ideal posture-tracking device must also be wearable, light and low-power, while still enforcing the best possible accuracy. Additionally, the device must be targeted at effective human-machine interaction. In this paper, we present and test such a device based upon commercial inertial measurement units: it weighs 575 grams in total, lasts up to 10.5 hours of continual operation, can be donned and doffed in under a minute and costs less than 290 EUR. We assess the attainable performance in terms of error in an online trajectory-tracking task in Virtual Reality using the device through an experiment involving 10 subjects, showing that an average user can attain a precision of 0.66 cm during a static precision task and 6.33 cm while tracking a moving trajectory, when tested in the full peri-personal space of a user.