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Electrostatic Surface Properties of Blood and Semen Extracellular Vesicles: Implications of Sialylation and HIV-Induced Changes on EV Internalization.

ABSTRACT: Although extracellular vesicle (EV) surface electrostatic properties (measured as zeta potential, ?-potential) have been reported by many investigators, the biophysical implications of charge and EV origin remains uncertain. Here, we compared the ?-potential of human blood EVs (BEVs) and semen EVs (SEVs) from 26 donors that were HIV-infected (HIV+, n = 13) or HIV uninfected (HIV-, n = 13). We found that, compared to BEVs that bear neutral surface charge, SEVs were significantly more negatively charged, even when BEVs and SEVs were from the same individual. Comparison of BEVs and SEVs from HIV- and HIV+ groups revealed subtle HIV-induced alteration in the ?-potential of EVs, with the effect being more significant in SEVs (??-potential = -8.82 mV, p-value = 0.0062) than BEVs (??-potential = -1.4 mV, p-value = 0.0462). These observations were validated by differences in the isoelectric point (IEP) of EVs, which was in the order of HIV + SEV ? HIV-SEV ? HIV + BEV ? HIV-BEV. Functionally, the rate and efficiency of SEV internalization by the human cervical epithelial cell line, primary peripheral blood lymphocytes, and primary blood-derived monocytes were significantly higher than those of BEVs. Mechanistically, removal of sialic acids from the surface of EVs using neuraminidase treatment significantly decreased SEV's surface charge, concomitant with a substantial reduction in SEV's internalization. The neuraminidase effect was independent of HIV infection and insignificant for BEVs. Finally, these results were corroborated by enrichment of glycoproteins in SEVs versus BEVs. Taken together, these findings uncover fundamental tissue-specific differences in surface electrostatic properties of EVs and highlight the critical role of surface charge in EV/target cell interactions.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7601085 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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