Development of a Full-Length Infectious Cdna Clone of the Grapevine Berry Inner Necrosis Virus.
ABSTRACT: Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV) belongs to the genus Trichovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. The GINV isolate LN_BETA_RS was obtained from a "Beta" grapevine (Vitis riparia × Vitis labrusca) exhibiting chlorotic mottling and ring spot in Xingcheng, Liaoning Province, China. To verify the correlation between GINV and grapevine chlorotic mottling and ring spot disease, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of GINV isolate LN_BETA_RS using the seamless assembly approach. Applied treatments of agroinfiltration infectious cDNA confirmed systemic GINV infection of the Nicotianaoccidentalis 37B by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and transmission electron microscopy, exhibiting chlorotic mottling symptoms on leaves. Infectious cDNA was also transmitted to new healthy N. occidentalis plants through rub-inoculation. Moreover, the cDNA clone was agroinfiltrated into "Beta" and "Thompson Seedless" grapevine plantlets, and the inoculated grapevines exhibited leaf chlorotic mottling and ringspot during the two years of observation. GINV-inoculated "Beta" grapevines had serious leaf chlorotic mottling and ringspot symptoms on the whole plant, while relatively few symptoms were observed on the leaves of agroinoculated "Thompson Seedless" grapevines in early spring and only weak ring spot gradually appeared later in the top young leaves. Our experiments fulfilled Koch's postulates and revealed the causative role of GINV in grapevine chlorotic mottling and ring spot disease.
Project description:A two-year field trial was conducted in a vineyard (northern Egypt)cultivated with Thompson seedless grapevines to evaluate the effectiveness of four "alternative" (biological/chemical) treatments, Bacillus megaterium, boric acid, calcium nitrate and chitosan, against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Mi), compared to that of the nematicide oxamyl. The influence of these treatments on plant nutritional status and fruit yield and quality was also assessed. All treatments significantly inhibited Mi reproduction parameters in both seasons, decreasing the numbers of nematode galls and egg masses (roots) and of second-stage juveniles (soil). Oxamyl application resulted in the highest reductions in Mi-reproduction parameters, followed by boric acid, which also showed the highest relative nematicidal efficacy (respect to oxamyl). In the 1st season, the highest fruit yield (10.34 kg/grapevine) was recorded from boric acid-treated plants, followed by that from oxamyl-treated plants (7.50 kg/grapevine); in the subsequent season (2019), oxamyl use led to the highest yield, followed by boric acid + chitosan use (10.04 and 8.62 kg/grapevine, respectively). In both seasons, application of boric acid alone and combined with chitosan enhanced the total soluble solids (TSS)/total acidity ratio in grape juice. All treatments led to higher nutrient contents (leaf petioles) and chlorophyll levels (leaves) as well as enhanced fruit size and weight. We conclude that the tested treatments can be safely applied for nematode management in Thompson seedless grapevines, with positive effects on fruit yield and quality.
Project description:Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information on virus localization in grapevine tissues and virus-plant interactions at the cytological level is missing at all. Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigations were undertaken to detect virus particles and the associated cytopathic effects in field-grown grapevine showing different symptom severity. Asymptomatic greenhouse-grown grapevines, which tested negative for GPGV by real time RT-PCR, were sampled as controls. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR and ELISA tests excluded the presence of viruses included in the Italian certification program both in field-grown and greenhouse-grown grapevines. Conversely, evidence was found for ubiquitous presence of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated Virus (GRSPaV), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd), and Grapevine Yellow Speckle Viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in both plant groups. Moreover, in every field-grown grapevine, GPGV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ultrastructural observations and immunogold labelling assays showed filamentous flexuous viruses in the bundle sheath cells, often located inside membrane-bound organelles. No cytological differences were observed among field-grown grapevine samples showing different symptom severity. GPGV localization and associated ultrastructural modifications are reported and discussed, in the perspective of assisting management and control of the disease.
Project description:Grapevine yellow speckle viroid-2 (GYSVd-2) is a viroid found only in grapevines in China and Australia. Here, we report the molecular characterization of GYSVd-2 isolated from three grapevine varieties in China. A total of 90 cDNA clones were sequenced including 30 cDNA clones obtained from each of the Black Olympia, Zaoyu, and Thomson Seedless isolates. Sequencing analysis identified 20, 18, and 12 different sequence variants from the 3 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, each of the isolates included one predominant sequence variant. Compared to the Australian variant of GYSVd-2 (Accession number: NC_003612), the Black Olympia variant was identical and the Zaoyu variant contained one substitution. In contrast, the Thomson Seedless isolate significantly varied from the Australian variant with three substitutions, two insertions, and four deletions. In silico structure analysis predicted that the variations were clustered in the terminal left, the pathogenicity, and the variable region of the predicted secondary structure of GYSVd-2.
Project description:Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a putative causal agent of grapevine leaf mottling and deformation disease that has been reported worldwide throughout the grapevine-growing regions. Fifty-four grapevines collected from five Algerian grapevine-growing regions were tested for the presence of GPGV in phloem tissues. Eight of the tested grapevines were infected by GPGV. Viromes of two selected Vitis vinifera cv. Sabel grapevines infected by GPGV and showing virus-like symptoms were analyzed by small RNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial coding sequence (cds) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain showed that all Algerian GPGV isolates were grouped with some already-described asymptomatic isolates. This study provides the first survey of the occurrence of GPGV in Algeria. Moreover, Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Grapevine virus B, Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus, Hop stunt viroid and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 were detected in Algeria for the first time.
Project description:Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most economically important fruit crops in the world, suffers significant yield losses from powdery mildew, a major fungal disease caused by Erysiphe necator. In addition to suppressing host immunity, phytopathogens modulate host proteins termed susceptibility (S) factors to promote their proliferation in plants. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) technology was used to enable the targeted mutagenesis of MLO (mildew resistance Locus O) family genes that are thought to serve as S factors for powdery mildew fungi. Small deletions or insertions were induced in one or both alleles of two grapevine MLO genes, VvMLO3 and VvMLO4, in the transgenic plantlets of the powdery mildew-susceptible cultivar Thompson Seedless. The editing efficiency achieved with different CRISPR/Cas9 constructs varied from 0 to 38.5%. Among the 20 VvMLO3/4-edited lines obtained, one was homozygous for a single mutation, three harbored biallelic mutations, seven were heterozygous for the mutations, and nine were chimeric, as indicated by the presence of more than two mutated alleles in each line. Six of the 20 VvMLO3/4-edited grapevine lines showed normal growth, while the remaining lines exhibited senescence-like chlorosis and necrosis. Importantly, four VvMLO3-edited lines showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, which was associated with host cell death, cell wall apposition (CWA) and H2O2 accumulation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology can be successfully used to induce targeted mutations in genes of interest to improve traits of economic importance, such as disease resistance in grapevines.
Project description:Members of the plant-specific GASA (gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis) gene family have multiple potential roles in plant growth and development, particularly in flower induction and seed development. However, limited information is available about the functions of these genes in fruit plants, particularly in grapes. We identified 14 GASA genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and performed comprehensive bioinformatics and expression analyses. In the bioinformatics analysis, the locations of genes on chromosomes, physiochemical properties of proteins, protein structure, and subcellular positions were described. We evaluated GASA proteins in terms of domain structure, exon-intron distribution, motif arrangements, promoter analysis, phylogenetic, and evolutionary history. According to the results, the GASA domain is conserved in all proteins and the proteins are divided into three well-conserved subgroups. Synteny analysis proposed that segmental and tandem duplication have played a role in the expansion of the GASA gene family in grapes, and duplicated gene pairs have negative selection pressure. Most of the proteins were predicted to be in the extracellular region, chloroplasts, and the vacuole. In silico promoter analysis suggested that the GASA genes may influence different hormone signaling pathways and stress-related mechanisms. Additionally, we performed a comparison of the expression between seedless (Thompson seedless) and seeded (Red globe) cultivars in different plant parts, including the ovule during different stages of development. Furthermore, some genes were differentially expressed in different tissues, signifying their role in grapevine growth and development. Several genes (VvGASA2 and 7) showed different expression levels in later phases of seed development in Red globe and Thompson seedless, suggesting their involvement in seed development. Our study presents the first genome-wide identification and expression profiling of grapevine GASA genes and provides the basis for functional characterization of GASA genes in grapes. We surmise that this information may provide new potential resources for the molecular breeding of grapes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gibberellins (GAs) and their regulator DELLA are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development and most of our current knowledge in the DELLA-facilitated GA signaling was obtained from the studies of annual species. To understand GA-DELLA signaling in perennial species, we created ten GA-insensitive transgenic grapevines carrying a DELLA mutant allele (Vvgai1) in the background of Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' and conducted comprehensive analysis of their RNA expression profiles in the shoot, leaf and root tissues. RESULTS:The transgenic lines showed varying degrees of dwarf stature and other typical DELLA mutant phenotypes tightly correlated with the levels of Vvgai1 expression. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the shoot, leaf and root tissues of the transgenic lines and these DEGs were involved in diverse biological processes; many of the DEGs showed strong tissue specificity and about 30% them carried a DELLA motif. We further discovered unexpected expression patterns of several key flowering induction genes VvCO, VvCOL1 and VvTFL1. CONCLUSIONS:Our results not only confirmed many previous DELLA study findings in annual species, but also revealed new DELLA targets and responses in grapevine, including the roles of homeodomain transcription factors as potential co-regulators with DELLA in controlling the development of grapevine which uniquely possess both vegetative and reproductive meristems at the same time. The contrasting responses of some key flowering induction pathway genes provides new insights into the divergence of GA-DELLA regulations between annual and perennial species in GA-DELLA signaling.
Project description:The Grapevine Pinot Gris disease (GPG-d) is a novel disease characterized by symptoms such as leaf mottling and deformation, which has been recently reported in grapevines, and mostly in Pinot gris. Plants show obvious symptoms at the beginning of the growing season, while during summer symptom recovery frequently occurs, manifesting as symptomless leaves. A new Trichovirus, named Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV), which belongs to the family Betaflexiviridae was found in association with infected plants. The detection of the virus in asymptomatic grapevines raised doubts about disease aetiology. Therefore, the primary target of this work was to set up a reliable system for the study of the disease in controlled conditions, avoiding interfering factor(s) that could affect symptom development. To this end, two clones of the virus, pRI::GPGV-vir and pRI::GPGV-lat, were generated from total RNA collected from one symptomatic and one asymptomatic Pinot gris grapevine, respectively. The clones, which encompassed the entire genome of the virus, were used in Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of Vitis vinifera and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. All inoculated plants developed symptoms regardless of their inoculum source, demonstrating a correlation between the presence of GPGV and symptomatic manifestations. Four months post inoculum, the grapevines inoculated with the pRI::GPGV-lat clone developed asymptomatic leaves that were still positive to GPGV detection. Three to four weeks later (i.e. ca. 5 months post inoculum), the same phenomenon was observed in the grapevines inoculated with pRI::GPGV-vir. This observation perfectly matches symptom progression in infected field-grown grapevines, suggesting a possible role for plant antiviral mechanisms, such as RNA silencing, in the recovery process.
Project description:Salt stress is a rising threat to agriculture system. The accumulation of salts near the plant roots hampers the normal uptake of water causing osmotic stress and ionic toxicity to the plant. Thompson Seedless is a popular table grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., which is sensitive to salt stress when grown on its own roots; grafting it onto a wild rootstock such as 110 Richtor (110R) makes it tolerant to salt stress. In the present study, shotgun-proteomics approach was used for the investigation of salt stress induced molecular response of own rooted and 110R grafted Thompson Seedless grapevines. A salt stress experiment was conducted on sixteen month old potted grapevines. The grapevines were treated with 150mM NaCl solution for seven days and the control vines were irrigated with tap water. The young leaf samples were collected from control and treated vines at three time-points viz. 6 hours, 48 hours and 7 days of salt stress. The stress responsive proteins identified through statistical analysis revealed a distinct response to salinity in both the vines.
Project description:Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic ('seedless') table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine.