Analysis of the Relationship between Asthma and Coffee/Green Tea/Soda Intake.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the association between asthma and the intake of coffee/green tea/soda. We used Health Examinee data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (2004-2016). The participants (n = 3146 with asthma; n = 158,902 non-asthma) were asked about the frequency and amount of their coffee/green tea/soda intake. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for asthma according to the frequency and amount of coffee/green tea/soda intake. Compared to the group consuming no coffee, the aORs for asthma were 0.82 (95% CI = 0.73-0.93, p = 0.002) in the group consuming coffee 1-2 times/day and 0.87 (95% CI = 0.78-0.97, p = 0.011) in the group consuming coffee in quantities of 1 cup, respectively. However, the frequency and amount of green tea and soda consumption were not significantly associated with asthma after adjusting for coffee consumption (all p > 0.05). These findings were consistent in the female subgroup (1-2 times/day: aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.66-0.87, p < 0.001, and 1 cup each time: aOR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.90, p < 0.001) but not in the male subgroup. Drinking 1 cup of coffee each time and 1-2 times per day may have protective effects against asthma in a Korean population. However, the associations between asthma and green tea/soda cannot be clearly established.
Project description:Some beverages and smoking cause an inflammatory response in the lungs and airways in a similar way, ultimately affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurrence. Using a nationally representative health survey database, this study investigates the individual and joint effects of consumption of different beverages and smoking on COPD. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 15,961 Korean adults in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey of 2008-2015. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine the association of beverage consumption and smoking with an FEV1/FVC ratio and odds ratio (OR) for COPD. The mean FEV1/FVC ratio decreased with increasing soda intake (p = 0.016), coffee intake (p = 0.031), and smoking status; however, the mean FEV1/FVC ratio increased with increasing green tea intake frequency (p = 0.029). When soda intake increased to 10 times/month, the OR of having COPD increased to 1.04 times (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). The positive joint effect of soda intake and smoking on COPD was marginally significant (p = 0.058). We found that soda intake, coffee intake, and smoking increased airflow limitation while green tea intake decreased it. In addition, soda intake and smoking had a positive joint effect on COPD in the Korean population.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the relation between pre-pregnancy caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB). METHODS:Our prospective cohort study included 15,590 pregnancies from 11,072 women with no history of SAB in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009). Beverage intake was assessed every 4 years using a validated questionnaire. Pregnancies were self-reported with case pregnancies lost spontaneously at <20 weeks gestation. Multivariable log-binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:There was a positive linear trend across categories of pre-pregnancy caffeine intake and risk of SAB such that women consuming >400 mg/day had 1.11 (95 % CI 0.98, 1.25) times the risk of SAB compared to women consuming <50 mg/day (p trend = 0.05). Total coffee intake had a positive, linear association with SAB. Compared to women with no pre-pregnancy coffee intake, women consuming ?4 servings/day had a 20 % (6, 36 %) increased risk of SAB (p trend = 0.01). There was no difference in the association between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of SAB. Pre-pregnancy intake of caffeinated tea, caffeinated soda, and decaffeinated soda had no association with SAB. CONCLUSIONS:Pre-pregnancy coffee consumption at levels ?4 servings/day is associated with increased risk of SAB, particularly at weeks 8-19.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Coffee and black tea contain a mixture of compounds that have the potential to influence breast cancer risk and survival. However, epidemiologic data on the relation between coffee and black tea consumption and breast cancer survival are sparse. METHODS: We investigated the association between coffee and black tea consumption and survival among 3243 women with invasive breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: From 1987 to 2010 there were 394 breast cancer-specific deaths and 973 total deaths. Coffee and black tea were not associated with breast cancer-specific or overall mortality. Women consuming 4+ cups of coffee per day had a covariate and clinical characteristics-adjusted HR (95% CI) of death from breast cancer of 1.14 (0.71-1.83; p(trend)=0.81) compared with those consuming <1 cup per day. Women consuming 2+ cups of black tea per day had a covariate and clinical characteristics-adjusted HR (95% CI) of death from breast cancer of 1.02 (0.67-1.55; p(trend)=0.94) compared with non-tea drinkers. Caffeine was also not associated with breast cancer-specific (HR for top to bottom quartile=1.06; 95% CI=0.79-1.44; p(trend)=0.71) or overall mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that coffee, black tea, and caffeine consumption before breast cancer diagnosis do not influence breast cancer-specific and overall survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. METHODS:We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Intake for each was classified as never, occasional (<1 cup per day), and regular (?1 cup per day). A coronary artery calcium progression ratio was derived from mixed effect regression models using loge(calcium score+1) as the outcome, with coefficients exponentiated to reflect coronary artery calcium progression ratio versus the reference. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate the association between beverage intake and incident cardiovascular events. RESULTS:Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years for coronary artery calcium and 11.1 years for cardiovascular events, participants who regularly drank tea (?1 cup per day) had a slower progression of coronary artery calcium compared with never drinkers after multivariable adjustment. This correlated with a statistically significant lower incidence of cardiovascular events for ?1 cup per day tea drinkers (adjusted hazard ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.95). Compared with never coffee drinkers, regular coffee intake (?1 cup per day) was not statistically associated with coronary artery calcium progression or cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.20). Caffeine intake was marginally inversely associated with coronary artery calcium progression. CONCLUSIONS:Moderate tea drinkers had slower progression of coronary artery calcium and reduced risk for cardiovascular events. Future research is needed to understand the potentially protective nature of moderate tea intake.
Project description:Background:Cross-sectional studies suggest that coffee drinking is associated with better renal function. However, to our knowledge, no prospective study has examined its relation with the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective:We examined the relations between coffee, tea, soda, and total caffeine consumption and the risk of ESRD among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. Methods:We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 men and women aged 45-74 y at recruitment from 1993 to 1998. Baseline information on the consumption of caffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages (tea and sodas), habitual diet, medical history, and lifestyle factors was obtained via in-person interviews. The standard serving size of 1 cup was assigned as 237 mL in the questionnaire. Incident ESRD cases were identified via linkage with the nationwide registry. We used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of ESRD risk associated with the consumption of caffeinated beverages, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results:After a mean follow-up of 16.8 y, 1143 cohort subjects developed ESRD. Compared with those who drank coffee less than daily, the HR (95% CI) was 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) for those who drank 1 cup of coffee/d and 0.82 (0.71, 0.96) for those who drank ?2 cups/d (P-trend = 0.012). When stratified by sex, this association was observed in men but not in women. Compared with those who drank less than daily, the HR (95% CI) for drinking ?2 cups/d was 0.71 (0.57, 0.87) among men and 0.97 (0.78, 1.19) among women (P-interaction = 0.03). Conversely, intakes of tea, soda, or total caffeine were not associated with the risk of ESRD in multivariable models. Conclusion:The consumption of ?2 cups of coffee/d may reduce the risk of ESRD in the general population, especially among men. This study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03356340.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Caffeine is associated with a lower risk of some neurological diseases, but few prospective studies have investigated caffeine intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality. We therefore determined associations between coffee, tea and caffeine intake, and risk of ALS mortality. METHODS:We conducted pooled analyses of eight international, prospective cohort studies, including 351 565 individuals (120 688 men and 230 877 women). We assessed coffee, tea and caffeine intake using validated food-frequency questionnaires administered at baseline. We used Cox regression to estimate study- and sex-specific risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ALS mortality, which were then pooled using a random-effects model. We conducted analyses using cohort-specific tertiles, absolute common cut-points and continuous measures of all exposures. RESULTS:During follow-up, 545 ALS deaths were documented. We did not observe statistically significant associations between coffee, tea or caffeine intake and risk of ALS mortality. The pooled multivariable risk ratio (MVRR) for ?3 cups per day vs. >0 to <1 cup per day was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.74-1.47) for coffee and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.77-1.79) for tea. The pooled MVRR comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of caffeine intake (mg/day) was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.80-1.23). No statistically significant results were observed when exposures were modeled as tertiles or continuously. CONCLUSIONS:Our results do not support associations between coffee, tea or total caffeine intake and risk of ALS mortality.
Project description:Prior research suggests an acutely elevated risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in the hour after coffee intake. However, the risk of ischemic stroke associated with transient exposure to coffee remains unclear. We hypothesized that caffeine intake is associated with a transiently increased risk of ischemic stroke.In this multicenter case-crossover study, we interviewed 390 subjects (209 men, 181 women) between January 2001 and November 2006 a median of 3 days after acute ischemic stroke. Each subject's coffee consumption in the hour before stroke symptoms was compared with his or her usual frequency of consumption in the prior year.Of the 390 subjects, 304 (78%) drank coffee in the prior year, 232 within 24 hours and 35 within 1 hour of stroke onset. The relative risk (RR) of stroke in the hour after consuming coffee was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.8; p < 0.001). There was no apparent increase in risk in the hour following consumption of caffeinated tea (RR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.0; p = 0.85) or cola (RR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.4-2.4; p = 0.95). The association between ischemic stroke in the hour after coffee consumption was only apparent among those consuming ?1 cup per day but not for patients who consumed coffee more regularly (p for trend = 0.002). Relative risks remained similar when the sample was restricted to those who were not simultaneously exposed to other potential triggers and the results remained significant after stratifying by time of day.Coffee consumption transiently increases the risk of ischemic stroke onset, particularly among infrequent drinkers.
Project description:Higher coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in cohort studies, but the physiological pathways through which coffee affects glucose metabolism are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between habitual coffee and tea consumption and glucose metabolism in a multi-ethnic Asian population and possible mediation by inflammation.We cross-sectionally examined the association between coffee, green tea, black tea and Oolong tea consumption and glycemic (fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-beta, plasma HbA1c) and inflammatory (plasma adiponectin and C-reactive protein) markers in a multi-ethnic Asian population (N = 4139).After adjusting for multiple confounders, we observed inverse associations between coffee and HOMA-IR (percent difference: - 8.8% for ? 3 cups/day versus rarely or never; Ptrend = 0.007), but no significant associations between coffee and inflammatory markers. Tea consumption was not associated with glycemic markers, but green tea was inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (percent difference: - 12.2% for ? 1 cup/day versus < 1 cup/week; Ptrend = 0.042).These data provide additional evidence for a beneficial effect of habitual caffeinated coffee consumption on insulin sensitivity, and suggest that this effect is unlikely to be mediated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Project description:Many epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between caffeine and fertility, with inconsistent results. Some studies suggest that various caffeine-containing beverages may affect fertility differently.We evaluated the relation of caffeine, coffee, tea, and sodas with time to pregnancy in a prospective cohort study of 3628 women planning a pregnancy, in Denmark (2007-2010). Women reported beverage intake at baseline and every 8 weeks during follow-up until they became pregnant or for up to 12 cycles. We used discrete-time Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for potential confounders.There was little relation between fecundability and caffeine intake of 300+ mg/day compared with < 100 mg/day (FR = 1.04 [95% CI = 0.90-1.21]) or coffee intake of 3+ servings/day compared with none (1.05 [0.85-1.33]). Soda consumption was associated with reduced fecundability: for all types of sodas combined, the adjusted FRs were 0.89 (0.80-0.98), 0.85 (0.71-1.02), 0.84 (0.57-1.25), and 0.48 (0.21-1.13) for < 1, 1, 2, and 3+ servings per day, respectively, compared with none. Tea drinking was associated with a slight increase in fecundability, with FR = 1.27 (0.98-1.64) for 2+ servings/day versus none.In this prospective study of time to pregnancy, the association between caffeine intake and fertility differed by beverage type. Although we controlled for many confounders, our findings of reduced fecundability among soda drinkers and increased fecundability among tea drinkers could have resulted from confounding by unmeasured lifestyle characteristics.
Project description:Coffee and other sources of methylxanthines and risk of Type I vs Type II endometrial cancer (EC) have not been evaluated previously.Prospective cohort of 23,356 postmenopausal women with 471 Type I and 71 Type II EC cases.Type I EC was statistically significantly associated with caffeinated (relative risk (RR)=0.65 for 4+ cups per day vs ?1 cup per month: 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.89) but not decaffeinated (RR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.50-1.15) coffee intake; there were no associations with tea, cola or chocolate, or for Type II EC. The inverse association with caffeinated coffee intake was specific to women with a body mass index 30+?kg?m(-2) (RR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.36-0.89).Coffee may protect against Type I EC in obese postmenopausal women.