Transcriptomic Profile of Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Pathogenesis of Sjogren's Syndrome Related Xerostomia-Molecular and Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by xerostomia. We aimed to investigate and compare gene expressions in the labial salivary glands of SS patients with xerostomia SS (sicca) and without xerostomia SS (non-sicca) and of healthy subjects (HS) by means of microarray analysis, and to find genes involved in xerostomia. The study group comprised 11 SS patients (3 SS (sicca) and 8 SS (non-sicca)) and 9 HS. The relative gene expression changes were validated with RT-qPCR in the larger study group. Among the differently expressed genes belonging to the "secretion" ontology group with a fold change >2 and with a p value < 0.05, the Transmembrane P24 Trafficking Protein 10 (TMED10), Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family A Member 4 (PDIA4), Calnexin (CANX), Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein (APP), and Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor Motif Containing 6 (TMBIM6) gene expressions in both SS (sicca) and SS (non-sicca) groups were lower than in HS. Significant correlations were observed between TMED10, PDIA4, and CANX gene expression in SS (sicca) patients compared to the controls. There were no differences between the SS (sicca) and SS (non-sicca) study groups in the expression of the aforementioned genes. Results indicate their role in the endoplasmic reticulum system, their overlapping function and the loss of the APP neuroprotective function in xerostomia. It has a multifactorial origin and can be triggered by disturbances to the various signaling pathways in saliva secretion.
Project description:Xerostomia is a chief complaint of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, newer proposals for SS classification remove xerostomia and hyposalivation from the criteria list. Given these developments and the importance of patient-centered research outcomes, we sought to evaluate the utility of patient-reported xerostomia with implications for classification criteria, and clinical trials targeting SS treatment modalities.A nested case-control study was designed within The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research/National Institutes of Health (NIDCR/NIH) SS Cohort - one of the largest SS cohorts in the US. Clinical characteristics of those with and without xerostomia in SS and other salivary gland dysfunctions were compared. Several analytical methods were employed, including multivariable logistic regression modeling.The NIDCR/NIH Sjögren's Syndrome Clinic has an open cohort with ongoing enrollment since 1984. This open cohort comprised of 2046 participants by August 27, 2015. Baseline data of 701 SS, 355 Sicca, and 247 ISS participants within the source cohort were analyzed. Xerostomia was highest among SS participants (87.4%, 95% CI: 84.8%-89.8%) compared to Sicca (72.4%, 95% CI: 67.4%-77.0%, p<0.001) and ISS groups (38.1%, 95% CI: 32.0%-44.4%, p<0.001). Those with xerostomia were more likely to have SS than Sicca/ISS (OR=4.98, 95% CI: 3.78-6.56). The ability of xerostomia to screen for SS among those with salivary gland dysfunction was higher than screening for Sicca/ISS. Screening diagnostics of xerostomia were of greater utility compared to hyposalivation. After adjusting for confounding in multivariable modeling, SS participants with xerostomia were more likely to be White (Black/African Americans (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23-0.68, p-value=0.001) and Asians (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.96, p-value=0.038) were less likely to have xerostomia compared to Whites), have dry eye symptoms for >3months (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 3.62-9.28, p-value <0.001), a lower Van Bijsterveld score (OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.34-0.90, p-value=0.017), a lower stimulated salivary flow rate (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.06-2.65, p-value=0.028), a focus score of >2 (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.20-3.09, p-value=0.007), and salivary gland swelling (OR: 49.39, 95% CI: 2.02-1206.30, p-value=0.017). Age, gender, fatigue, pain, anxiety, and autoantibodies were not significantly associated with xerostomia.Findings from this study indicate that patient-reported xerostomia is highly prevalent among SS patients and is associated with several clinical phenotypes of this complex syndrome, thereby making it an important indicator of SS. The evidence also suggests that xerostomia is not limited to low salivary flow but might be reflective of compositional changes of saliva. Consequently, these findings suggest the need to consider xerostomia in the development of SS classification criteria and in patient-centered outcomes research in SS intervention trials. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Grant # DE000704-15. Dr. Baer is supported by RO1-DE-12354-15A1.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands resulting in diminished production of saliva and tears. The pathophysiology of SS has not yet been fully deciphered. Classically it has been postulated that sicca symptoms in SS patients are a double step process whereby lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands (SG) is followed by epithelial cell destruction resulting in keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Recent advances in the field of the pathophysiology of SS have brought in new players, such as aquaporins (AQPs) and anti AQPs autoantibodies that could explain underlying mechanistic processes and unveil new pathophysiological pathways offering a deeper understanding of the disease. In this review, we delineate the link between the AQP and SS, focusing on salivary glands, and discuss the role of AQPs in the treatment of SS-induced xerostomia.
Project description:Understanding the impact of the disease on quality of life is crucial in patient management. In this cross-sectional study, general and oral health-related quality of life questionnaires, and thorough examinations of oral and ocular dryness were performed in age- and sex-matched patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS group), non-Sjögren's syndrome sicca (non-SS group) and healthy controls. General and oral health-related quality of life were investigated with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the 14-Item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires, respectively. Subjective symptoms of xerostomia and ocular dryness were recorded using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory and Ocular Surface Disease Index, respectively. Clinical examinations included evaluation of clinical oral dryness scores, candida counts, unstimulated and stimulated saliva secretory rates, tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and ocular surface staining. Both patient groups had pronounced signs and symptoms of xerostomia and ocular dryness. Even though the non-SS patients had less severe clinical signs than the pSS patients, they demonstrated much poorer general and oral health-related quality of life. In conclusion, non-SS patients require more attention in order to improve their quality of life.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the association of smoking habits with the clinical, serological, and histopathological manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and non-Sjögren's sicca (non-SS sicca). METHODS:Cross-sectional case-control study of 1288 patients with sicca symptoms (587 SS and 701 non-SS sicca) evaluated in a multi-disciplinary research clinic. Smoking patterns were obtained from questionnaire data and disease-related clinical and laboratory data were compared between current, past, ever, and never smokers. RESULTS:Current smoking rates were 4.6% for SS patients compared to 14.1% in non-SS sicca (p = 5.17x10E-09), 18% in a local lupus cohort (p = 1.13x10E-14) and 16.8% in the community (p = 4.12x10E-15). Current smoking was protective against SS classification (OR 0.35, 95%CI 0.22-0.56, FDR q = 1.9E10-05), focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.15-0.44, FDR q = 1.52x10E-06), focus score ?1 (OR 0.22, 95%CI 0.13-0.39, FDR q = 1.43x10E-07), and anti-Ro/SSA(+) (OR 0.36, 95%CI 0.2-0.64, FDR q = 0.0009); ever smoking was protective against the same features and against anti-La/SSB(+) (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.39-0.70, FDR q = 5.82x10E-05). Duration of smoking was inversely correlated with SS even after controlling for socioeconomic status, BMI, alcohol and caffeine consumption. CONCLUSIONS:Current tobacco smoking is negatively and independently associated with SS, protecting against disease-associated humoral and cellular autoimmunity. The overall smoking rate amongst SS patients is significantly lower than in matched populations and the effects of smoking are proportional to exposure duration. In spite of the protective effects of tobacco on SS manifestations, it is associated with other serious comorbidities such as lung disease, cardiovascular risk and malignancy, and should thus be strongly discouraged in patients with sicca.
Project description:While all salivary glands (SGs) can be involved in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), their respective role in pathogenesis remains unclear. To assess immunopathway activation in paired parotid and labial gland tissue from biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients, paraffin-embedded, paired parotid and labial salivary gland tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 39 pSS and 20 non-SS sicca patients. The patients were subdivided based on fulfillment of ACR-EULAR criteria and histopathology and the samples were analyzed for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The principal component analysis of SG gene expression could only separate biopsy-positive pSS from non-SS sicca patients. However, when comparing the transcriptome of biopsy-positive pSS and biopsy-negative non-SS sicca patients, 1235 and 624 DEGs (FDR<-1 or >1) were identified for parotid and labial glands, respectively. The number of DEGs between biopsy negative pSS and non-SS sicca patients was scarce. The overall, transcript expression levels correlated strongly between parotid and labial glands (R2=0.86, p‐value<0.0001). Gene signatures present in both glands of biopsy‐positive pSS patients included IFN‐α signaling, IL-12/IL-18 signaling, CD3/CD28 T-cell activation, CD40 signaling in B-cells, DN2 B-cells, and FcRL4+ B-cells. Signature scores varied considerably amongst pSS patients. In conclusion, the transcriptomes of paired major and minor SGs in pSS were overall comparable, although significant inter-individual heterogeneity in immunopathway activation existed. The SG transcriptome of biopsy-negative pSS was indistinguishable from non-SS sicca patients. The different patterns of SG immunopathway activation in pSS argue for personalized treatment approaches. Overall design: Differential expression analysis of a cohort of 39 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome and 20 non-SS sicca patients. characteristics: ACR EULAR = positive -> patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome characteristics: ACR EULAR = negative -> non-SS sicca patients
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune exocrinopathy mainly affecting lachrymal and salivary glands, results in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown; currently, only palliative treatment is available. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether gene transfer of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), based on its immunomodulatory properties, might be useful in the management of SS. METHODS: A recombinant serotype 2 adeno-associated virus encoding the human VIP transgene (rAAV2hVIP) was constructed and its efficacy tested in the female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for SS after retrograde instillation in submandibular glands (SMGs). 10(10) particles/gland of rAAV2hVIP or rAAV2LacZ (encoding beta-galactosidase; control vector) were administered at 8 weeks of age (before sialadenitis onset). Salivary flow rates were determined before vector delivery and at time of death (16 weeks). After death, saliva, serum, and SMGs were harvested. Salivary output, inflammatory infiltrates (focus scores), VIP protein expression, cytokine profile, and serum anti-VIP antibodies were analysed. RESULTS: rAAV2hVIP significantly improved the salivary flow, increased SMG and serum expression of VIP, and reduced SMG cytokines interleukin (IL) 2, IL10, IL12 (p70), and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and serum RANTES, compared with the control vector. No difference in focus scores or apoptotic rates was found; neutralising antibodies were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Local delivery of rAAV2hVIP can have disease modifying and immunosuppressive effects in SMGs of the NOD mouse model of SS. The new strategy of employing VIP prophylactically may be useful for both understanding and managing the salivary component of SS.
Project description:Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease, among the most common ones, that targets mainly the exocrine glands as well as extra-glandular epithelial tissues. Their lymphocytic infiltration leads to manifestations from other organs (e.g., kidneys, lungs, liver, or thyroid), apart from sicca symptoms (xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis). SS is more prevalent in women than in men (9:1). Moreover, p.SS patients are in increased risk to develop lymphoma. Certain autoantibodies (e.g., antibodies against ribonucleoprotein autoantigens Ro-SSA and La-SSB) are ultimate hallmarks for the disease. It was not known until recently that culture-independent techniques like next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilitate the study of the microbe communities in humans and scientists achieved to define the outlines of the microbiome contribution in health and disease. Researchers have started to investigate the alterations in diversity of the oral, ocular, or intestinal microbiota in SS. Recent studies indicate that dysbiosis may play a significant role in SS pathogenesis. At the same time, the cause or effect is not clear yet because the dysfunction of salivary glands induces alterations in oral and intestinal microbiome which is linked to worsen of symptoms and disease severity. If the human microbiome proves to play a key role in pathogenesis and manifestation of SS, the next step could be new and promising therapeutic approaches such as probiotics or prebiotics. This mini review focuses on the alterations of microbiome of SS patients, their connection with immune tolerance and new therapeutic strategies involving diet manipulation toward future personalized medicine.
Project description:The significance of distinct B cell abnormalities in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains to be established. We undertook this study to analyze the phenotype and messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript profiles of B cell subsets in patients with primary SS and to compare them with those in sicca syndrome patients and healthy controls.CD19+ B cells from 26 patients with primary SS, 27 sicca syndrome patients, and 22 healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Gene expression profiles of purified B cell subsets (from 3-5 subjects per group per test) were analyzed using Affymetrix gene arrays.Patients with primary SS had lower frequencies of CD27+IgD- switched memory B cells and CD27+IgD+ unswitched memory B cells compared with healthy controls. Unswitched memory B cell frequencies were also lower in sicca syndrome patients and correlated inversely with serologic hyperactivity in both disease states. Further, unswitched memory B cells in primary SS had lower expression of CD1c and CD21. Gene expression analysis of CD27+ memory B cells separated patients with primary SS from healthy controls and identified a subgroup of sicca syndrome patients with a primary SS-like transcript profile. Moreover, unswitched memory B cell gene expression analysis identified 187 genes differentially expressed between patients with primary SS and healthy controls.A decrease in unswitched memory B cells with serologic hyperactivity is characteristic of both established primary SS and a subgroup of sicca syndrome, which suggests the value of these B cells both as biomarkers of future disease progression and for understanding disease pathogenesis. Overall, the mRNA transcript analysis of unswitched memory B cells suggests that their activation in primary SS takes place through innate immune pathways in the context of attenuated antigen-mediated adaptive signaling. Thus, our findings provide important insight into the mechanisms and potential consequences of decreased unswitched memory B cells in primary SS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mononuclear cell infiltration of exocrine glands, production of Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies, along with oral and ocular dryness, are characteristic features of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Non-SS sicca subjects, an underexplored group in relation to pSS, display similar sicca symptoms, with possible mild signs of inflammation in their salivary glands, yet with no serological detection of autoantibody production. In this study, we investigated inflammatory manifestations in the salivary gland tissue, tear fluid and saliva of non-SS subjects, as compared to pSS patients and healthy individuals. METHODS:Fifteen non-SS, 10 pSS and 10 healthy subjects were included in the analyses. Histological evaluation of salivary gland biopsies was performed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was conducted on tear fluid and stimulated whole saliva, and proteomic biomarker profiles were generated. Extracellular vesicle (EVs) isolation and characterisation from both fluids were also combined with LC-MS. The LC-MS data were analysed for quantitative differences between patient and control groups using Scaffold. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Functional Enrichment Analysis Tool (FunRich) were applied for functional analyses. RESULTS:Histopathological evaluation of salivary gland biopsies showed implications of milder inflammation in non-SS subjects through mononuclear cell infiltration, fibrosis and fatty replacement, as compared to pSS patients. Although unaffected in the non-SS group, upregulation of proinflammatory pathways and proteins involved in ubiquitination (LMO7 and HUWE1) and B cell differentiation (TPD52) were detected in tear fluid of pSS patients. Moreover, overexpression of proteins STOM, ANXA4 and ANXA1, regulating cellular innate and adaptive immunological pathways, were further identified in EVs from tear fluid of pSS patients. Finally, whole saliva and EVs isolated from whole saliva of pSS patients expressed proteins vital for innate MHC class I cellular regulation (NGAL) and T cell activation (CD44). CONCLUSIONS:Non-SS sicca subjects may show implications of mild inflammation in their glandular tissue, while their protein profile was strikingly more similar to healthy controls than to pSS patients. Hence, the tear and salivary biomarkers identified could be implemented as potential non-invasive diagnostic tools that may aid in increasing diagnostic accuracy when evaluating non-SS subjects and pSS patients and monitoring disease progression.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study. Multiple cis-eQTLs were associated with transcript levels of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) peaking at rs10774671 (PeQTL = 6.05 × 10-14). Association of rs10774671 with SS susceptibility was identified and confirmed through meta-analysis of two independent cohorts (Pmeta = 2.59 × 10-9; odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.86). The risk allele of rs10774671 shifts splicing of OAS1 from production of the p46 isoform to multiple alternative transcripts, including p42, p48, and p44. We found that the isoforms were differentially expressed within each genotype in controls and patients with and without autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results showed that the three alternatively spliced isoforms lacked translational response to type I IFN stimulation. The p48 and p44 isoforms also had impaired protein expression governed by the 3' end of the transcripts. The SS risk allele of rs10774671 has been shown by others to be associated with reduced OAS1 enzymatic activity and ability to clear viral infections, as well as reduced responsiveness to IFN treatment. Our results establish OAS1 as a risk locus for SS and support a potential role for defective viral clearance due to altered IFN response as a genetic pathophysiological basis of this complex autoimmune disease.