ABSTRACT: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an inflammatory disease caused by immunologic reactions initiated against Aspergillus fumigatus colonizing the airways of patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. The common manifestations include treatment-resistant asthma, transient and fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. It is believed that globally there are about five million cases of ABPA, with India alone accounting for about 1.4 million cases. The occurrence of ABPA among asthmatic patients in special clinics may be as high as 13 per cent. Thus, a high degree of suspicion for ABPA should be entertained while treating a patient with bronchial asthma, particularly in specialized clinics. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can delay (or even prevent) the onset of bronchiectasis, which suggests that all patients of bronchial asthma should be screened for ABPA, especially in chest clinics. The current review summarizes the recent advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of ABPA.
Project description:Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder resulting from immune responses directed against inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. It manifests with poorly controlled asthma, fleeting pulmonary opacities and structural lung damage in the form of bronchiectasis. Initially defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, it has also been described in patients with other structural lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Kartagener syndrome is a manifestation of primary ciliary dyskinesia characterised by the presence of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. We report a case of ABPA in an adult suffering from Kartagener syndrome. We also performed a systematic review of the literature on the association between Kartagener syndrome and ABPA.
Project description:Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF) and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy) and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.
Project description:In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, which is still evolving, is required for diagnosis. Imaging plays a compelling role in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi is still considered pathognomonic in patients without CF. Elevated serum IgE levels and Aspergillus-specific IgE and/or IgG are also vital for the diagnosis. Mucoid impaction occurring in the paranasal sinuses results in AAS, which also requires a set of diagnostic criteria. Demonstration of fungal elements in sinus material is the hallmark of AAS. In spite of similar histopathologic features, co-existence of ABPA and AAS is still uncommon. Oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of management of allergic aspergillosis. Antifungal agents play an adjunctive role in ABPA as they help reduce the fungal load. Saprophytic colonization in cavitary ABPA may lead to aspergilloma formation, which could increase the severity of the disease. The presence of ABPA, AAS, and aspergilloma in the same patient has also been documented. All patients with Aspergillus-sensitized asthma must be screened for ABPA, and AAS should always be looked for.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early recognition and diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is critical to improve patient symptoms, and antifungal therapy may prevent or delay progression of bronchiectasis and development of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. OBJECTIVE:A recently commercialized lateral flow assay (Aspergillus ICT) (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyons, France) detects Aspergillus-specific antibodies in <30 minutes, requiring minimal laboratory equipment. We evaluated this assay for diagnosis of ABPA compared to diseased (asthma and/or bronchiectasis) controls. METHODS:ABPA and control sera collected at the National Aspergillosis Centre (Manchester, UK) and/or from the Manchester Allergy, Respiratory and Thoracic Surgery research biobank were evaluated using the Aspergillus ICT assay. Results were read both visually and digitally (using a lateral flow reader). Serological Aspergillus-specific IgG and IgE, and total IgE titres were measured by ImmunoCAP. RESULTS:For 106 cases of ABPA versus all diseased controls, sensitivity and specificity for the Aspergillus ICT were 90.6% and 87.2%, respectively. Sensitivity for 'proven' ABPA alone (n = 96) was 89.8%, and 94.4% for 'presumed' ABPA (n = 18). 'Asthma only' controls (no bronchiectasis) and 'bronchiectasis controls' exhibited 91.4% and 81.7% specificity, respectively. Comparison of Aspergillus ICT result with Aspergillus-specific IgG and IgE titres showed no evident immunoglobulin isotype bias. Digital measurements displayed no correlation between ImmunoCAP Aspergillus-specific IgE level and ICT test line intensity. CONCLUSIONS:The Aspergillus ICT assay exhibits good sensitivity for ABPA serological screening. It is easy to perform and interpret, using minimal equipment and resources; and provides a valuable simple screening resource to rapidly distinguish more serious respiratory conditions from Aspergillus sensitization alone.
Project description:There remains a lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports, and an electronic survey was conducted of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 US physicians in the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology database of members and fellows, 245 health professionals (48%) had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE because 44.9% used ?417 kU/L, whereas 42.0% used ?1000 kU/L. Analysis of these findings suggests that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. With regard to pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids plus inhaled corticosteroids plus antifungal agent were used with 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited.
Project description:Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex pulmonary disorder characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus, and almost always seen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and asthma. Fungal hyphae leads to an ongoing inflammation in the airways that may result in bronchiectasis, fibrosis, and eventually loss of lung function. Despite the fact that ABPA is thought to be more prevalent in CF than in asthma, the literature on ABPA in CF is more limited. The diagnosis is challenging and may be delayed because it is made based on a combination of clinical features, and radiologic and immunologic findings. With clinical deterioration of a patient with CF, ABPA is important to be kept in mind because clinical manifestations mimic pulmonary exacerbations of CF. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important in preventing complications related to ABPA. Treatment modalities involve the use of anti-inflammatory agents to suppress the immune hyperreactivity and the use of antifungal agents to reduce fungal burden. Recently, in an effort to treat refractory patients or to reduce adverse effects of steroids, other treatment options such as monoclonal antibodies have started to be used. Intensive research of these new agents in the treatment of children is being conducted to address insufficient data.
Project description:Bronchoscopic findings often show mucoid impaction in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); however, endobronchial mucosal nodular lesions have not been reported. We herein present the first such case of a 52-year-old woman with ABPA with endobronchial mucosal nodular lesions. The endobronchial lesions were located in the orifice of the mucoid impaction, and disappeared after 4 weeks of treatment with prednisolone and itraconazole. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from bronchial lavage fluid collected from the site of mucoid impaction. Based on these clinical findings, we speculate that the bronchial lesions were caused by an inflammatory and allergic reaction to Aspergillus antigens.
Project description:Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In patients with asthma, the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus can cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Familial ABPA is reported, and some genetic factors have been associated with the disease, however, these are small studies (n ? 38) and do not explain all cases of ABPA. METHODS:We analysed SNPs in 95 ABPA patients, comparing frequencies to 152 atopic asthmatic and 279 healthy controls. Twenty two genes were selected from literature, and 195 tagging SNPs were analysed for genetic association with ABPA using logistic regression corrected for multiple testing. We also analysed monocyte-derived macrophage gene expression before and during co-culture with A. fumigatus. RESULTS:Seventeen ABPA-associated SNPs (ABPA v Atopic asthma) were identified. Three remained significant after correction for multiple testing; IL13 rs20541, IL4R rs3024656, TLR3 rs1879026. We also identified minor differences in macrophage gene expression responses in the ABPA group compared to the control groups. CONCLUSIONS:Multiple SNPs are now associated with ABPA. Some are novel associations. These associations implicate cytokine pathways and receptors in the aberrant response to A. fumigatus and susceptibility to ABPA, providing insights into the pathogenesis of ABPA and/or its complications. We hope these results will lead to increased understanding and improved treatment and diagnostics for ABPA.