CD73 Overexpression Promotes Progression and Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: CD73 is involved in tumor immune escape and promotes the growth and progression of cancer cells. The functional role of CD73 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not yet been established. In 511 patients with PTC, immunohistochemistry for CD73 on tissue microarrays showed that the high expression of CD73 was associated with an aggressive histologic variant (p = 0.002), extrathyroidal extension (p < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), and BRAFV600E mutation (p = 0.015). Survival analysis results showed that patients with high CD73 expression had worse recurrence-free survival (p = 0.023). CD73 inhibitors induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibited the migration and invasion of PTC cells, and suppressed tumor growth in PTC xenograft nude mice. High expression of CD73 (NT5E) mRNA was associated with unfavorable clinicopathologic characteristics, the abundance of Tregs and dendritic cells, depletion of natural killer (NK) cells, and high expression of immune checkpoint genes and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related genes in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Taken together, CD73 expression promotes tumor progression and predicts low recurrence-free survival. Targeting the CD73-adenosine axis in the tumor microenvironment offers an attractive pathway for therapeutic strategies aimed at advanced PTC.
Project description:The NT5E (CD73) molecule represents an ecto-5'-nucleotidase expressed on the cell surface of various cell types. Hydrolyzing extracellular adenosine monophosphate into adenosine and inorganic phosphate, NT5E performs numerous homeostatic functions in healthy organs and tissues. Importantly, NT5E can act as inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule, since free adenosine generated by NT5E inhibits cellular immune responses, thereby promoting immune escape of tumor cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules regulating gene expression on posttranscriptional level through binding to mRNAs, resulting in translational repression or degradation of the targeted mRNA molecule. In tumor cells, miRNA expression patterns are often altered which in turn might affect NT5E surface expression and eventually influence the efficacy of antitumor immune responses. This review describes the diverse roles of NT5E, summarizes current knowledge about transcription factors controlling NT5E expression, and highlights the significance of miRNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of NT5E expression.
Project description:CD73 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cell surface protein that is encoded by NT5E gene, plays multiple roles in tumor processes. Previous studies have presented a potential value of CD73 served as a detectable biomarker for prognosis of several solid tumors, but the results were more controversially. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to precisely evaluate the prognostic role of CD73 in solid tumors. The included studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science and EBSCO from Jan 1990 to Jan 2016. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) were carried out using a fixed or random effects model. Totally, 13 studies about 12,533 patients were included. CD73-high expression was correlating with poor OS (pooled HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.19-1.37). In addition, CD73 expression had borderline association with worse DFS (pooled HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.62). Egger's tests indicated that there was no evidence of significant publication bias. CD73 is an efficient prognostic biomarker in solid tumors, and over-expression of CD73 is associated with inverse OS or DFS. But this predictive value and target therapy for clinical practice yet needs advanced research.
Project description:At the time of diagnosis, 60% of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) present tumors in an advanced stage (III-IV) of disease and 80% will relapse within the first two years post-treatment, due to their frequent radio(chemo)resistance. To identify new molecular targets and companion biomarkers, we have investigated the miRNome of 75 stage III-IV oropharynx tumors without relapse (R) or with loco-regional relapse (non-responder, NR) within two years post-treatment. Interestingly, miR-422a was significantly downregulated in NR tumors, in agreement with the increase in cell proliferation and adhesion induced by miR-422a inhibition in vitro. Furthermore, we identified CD73/NT5E oncogene as target of miR-422a. Indeed, modulation of the endogenous level of miR-422a inversely influences the expression and the enzymatic activity of CD73. Moreover, knocking down CD73 mimics the effects of miR-422a upregulation. Importantly, in tumors, miR-422a and CD73 expression levels are inversely correlated, and both are predictive of relapse free survival - especially considering loco(regional) recurrence - in vitro two independent cohorts of advanced oropharynx or HNSCC (N=255) tumors. In all, we reported, for the first time, that MiR-422a and its target CD73 are involved in early loco(regional) recurrence of HNSCC tumors and are new targets for personalized medicine.
Project description:Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), encoded by NT5E, is the major enzymatic source of extracellular adenosine. CD73 controls numerous pathophysiological responses and is a potential disease target, but its regulation is poorly understood. We examined NT5E regulation by alternative splicing. Genomic database analysis of human transcripts led us to identify NT5E-2, a novel splice variant that was expressed at low abundance in normal human tissues but was significantly up-regulated in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NT5E-2 encodes a shorter CD73 isoform we named CD73S. The presence of CD73S protein, which lacks 50 amino acids, was detected in HCC using an isoform-specific antibody. A noncanonical mouse mRNA, similar to human CD73S, was observed, but the corresponding protein was undetectable. The two human isoforms exhibited functional differences, such that ectopic expression of canonical CD73 (CD73L) in human HepG2 cells was associated with decreased expression of the proliferation marker Ki67, whereas CD73S expression did not have an effect on Ki67 expression. CD73S was glycosylated, catalytically inactive, unable to dimerize, and complexed intracellularly with the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin. Furthermore, CD73S complexed with CD73L and promoted proteasome-dependent CD73L degradation. The findings reveal species-specific CD73 regulation, with potential significance to cancer, fibrosis, and other diseases characterized by changes in CD73 expression and function.
Project description:CD73 is a cell surface immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor progression and metastasis. While patients whose cancer cells express elevated CD73 are typically associated with an unfavorable outcome, the clinical impact of CD73 expression in patients with Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of CD73 in HNSCC using gene and protein expression analyses. Our results demonstrate that high levels of CD73 are significantly associated with reduced overall survival in patients with HNSCC. We also investigated the functional role of CD73 in vitro and demonstrated that CD73 promotes HNSCC migration and invasion through adenosine A3R stimulation and the activation of EGF/EGFR signaling. Moreover, in vivo xenograft studies demonstrated that CD73 promotes tumorigenesis. In conclusion, our study highlights a role for CD73 as a poor prognostic marker of patient survival and also as a candidate therapeutic target in HNSCCs.
Project description:CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E), serves as an immune checkpoint by generating adenosine (ADO), which suppresses immune activation through the A2A receptor. Elevated CD73 levels in tumor tissues correlate with poor clinical outcomes. However, the crucial source of CD73 activity within the tumor microenvironment remains unspecified. Here, we demonstrate that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute the prominent CD73hi population in human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and two CD73- murine tumor models, including a modified CRC. Clinically, high CAF abundancy in CRC tissues correlates strongly with elevated CD73 activity and poor prognosis. Mechanistically, CAF-CD73 expression is enhanced via an ADO-A2B receptor-mediated feedforward circuit triggered by tumor cell death, which enforces the CD73-checkpoint. Simultaneous inhibition of A2A and A2B pathways with CD73-neutralization synergistically enhances antitumor immunity in CAF-rich tumors. Therefore, the strategic and effective targeting of both the A2B-mediated ADO-CAF-CD73 feedforward circuit and A2A-mediated immune suppression is crucial for improving therapeutic outcomes.
Project description:Despite its indolent course, one-third of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases relapses, which directly impact on the quality of patients' lives. The molecular predictors of recurrence of PTC are poorly defined. We aimed at evaluating the long-term (10-20 years) prognostic value of aggressiveness markers in advanced PTC. To this end, immunohistochemistry for BRAFV600E, Estrogen receptor ?, Progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and E-cadherin were performed in 53 primary advanced PTC from an up to 20 years follow-up patients from a well-characterized Brazilian cohort. Categorical data were summarized using frequencies and groups were compared using Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. The expressions of the aggressiveness markers were associated with clinical-pathological data using the single-covariate logistic regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method with the Log-rank and Peto tests was used to estimate the probability of PTC-free survival. Persistence and recurrence (active disease) were associated with age (?55 years), tumor size (>2 cm), extrathyroidal extension, local aggressiveness, macroscopic lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage at initial treatment. The BRAFV600E mutation status was associated with extrathyroidal extension, local aggressiveness, and inversely associated with distant metastasis at initial treatment. All progesterone receptor-positive patients had active disease and displayed a shorter time of PTC-free survival than the negative ones using the Kaplan-Meir analysis (p = 0.001, Log Rank; p = 0.005, Peto). Loss of E-cadherin expression was associated with an increase in the probability of active disease (OR = 3.75). BRAFV600E could be useful as a biomarker of local aggressiveness, while PR positive and E-cadherin loss of expression could predict the recurrence of advanced PTC.
Project description:In immune cells, CD73 dephosphorylates and converts extracellular AMP into adenosine, which binds the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR). Blockade of this interaction, which induces an immunosuppressed niche in the tumor microenvironment, represents a potential novel treatment strategy. The clinical significance of CD73 and A2AR expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, has yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here we evaluated CD73 and A2AR protein expression levels using immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 642 resected NSCLC specimens. Furthermore, we compared the expression profiles of 133 paired primary tumors and lymph node metastases. CD73 and A2AR expression levels were significantly higher in females than in males, in never smokers than in ever smokers, and in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas. Among adenocarcinomas, significantly higher CD73 and A2AR expression was observed in TTF-1-positive and mutant EGFR-positive tumors than in their counterparts. Compared with CD73, A2AR expression was more inconsistent between primary tumors and lymph node metastases. Among NSCLC patients, high CD73 expression was an independent indicator of poor prognosis in multivariate Cox regression analyses for overall survival [hazard ratio (HR), 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38-3.46] and recurrence-free survival (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.42-2.95). In contrast, high A2AR expression was an independent predictor of favorable prognosis for overall survival (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50-0.98) and recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.97). Together, these findings indicate that CD73 and A2AR have opposing prognostic effects, although cases involving CD73 or A2AR expression share some clinicopathological features.
Project description:Radiotherapy (RT) is a central component of standard treatment for many cancer patients. RT alone or in multimodal treatment strategies has a documented contribution to enhanced local control and overall survival of cancer patients, and cancer cure. Clinical RT aims at maximizing tumor control, while minimizing the risk for RT-induced adverse late effects. However, acute and late toxicities of IR in normal tissues are still important biological barriers to successful RT: While curative RT may not be tolerable, sub-optimal tolerable RT doses will lead to fatal outcomes by local recurrence or metastatic disease, even when accepting adverse normal tissue effects that decrease the quality of life of irradiated cancer patients. Technical improvements in treatment planning and the increasing use of particle therapy have allowed for a more accurate delivery of IR to the tumor volume and have thereby helped to improve the safety profile of RT for many solid tumors. With these technical and physical strategies reaching their natural limits, current research for improving the therapeutic gain of RT focuses on innovative biological concepts that either selectively limit the adverse effects of RT in normal tissues without protecting the tumor or specifically increase the radiosensitivity of the tumor tissue without enhancing the risk of normal tissue complications. The biology-based optimization of RT requires the identification of biological factors that are linked to differential radiosensitivity of normal or tumor tissues, and are amenable to therapeutic targeting. Extracellular adenosine is an endogenous mediator critical to the maintenance of homeostasis in various tissues. Adenosine is either released from stressed or injured cells or generated from extracellular adenine nucleotides by the concerted action of the ectoenzymes ectoapyrase (CD39) and 5' ectonucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) that catabolize ATP to adenosine. Recent work revealed a role of the immunoregulatory CD73/adenosine system in radiation-induced fibrotic disease in normal tissues suggesting a potential use as novel therapeutic target for normal tissue protection. The present review summarizes relevant findings on the pathologic roles of CD73 and adenosine in radiation-induced fibrosis in different organs (lung, skin, gut, and kidney) that have been obtained in preclinical models and proposes a refined model of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity including the disease-promoting effects of radiation-induced activation of CD73/adenosine signaling in the irradiated tissue environment. However, expression and activity of the CD73/adenosine system in the tumor environment has also been linked to increased tumor growth and tumor immune escape, at least in preclinical models. Therefore, we will discuss the use of pharmacologic inhibition of CD73/adenosine-signaling as a promising strategy for improving the therapeutic gain of RT by targeting both, malignant tumor growth and adverse late effects of RT with a focus on fibrotic disease. The consideration of the therapeutic window is particularly important in view of the increasing use of RT in combination with various molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy to enhance the tumor radiation response, as such combinations may result in increased or novel toxicities, as well as the increasing number of cancer survivors.
Project description:Background:CD73 is an ecto-enzyme that promotes tumor immune escape through the production of immunosuppressive extracellular adenosine in the tumor microenvironment. Several CD73 inhibitors and adenosine receptor antagonists are being evaluated in phase I clinical trials. Patients and methods:Full-face sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast tumors from 122 samples of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) from the BIG 02-98 adjuvant phase III clinical trial were included in our analysis. Using multiplex immunofluorescence and image analysis, we assessed CD73 protein expression on tumor cells, tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and stromal cells. We investigated the associations between CD73 protein expression with disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and the extent of tumor immune infiltration. Results:Our results demonstrated that high levels of CD73 expression on epithelial tumor cells were significantly associated with reduced DFS, OS and negatively correlated with tumor immune infiltration (Spearman's R= -0.50, P < 0.0001). Patients with high levels of CD73 and low levels of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes had the worse clinical outcome. Conclusions:Taken together, our study provides further support that CD73 expression is associated with a poor prognosis and reduced anti-tumor immunity in human TNBC and that targeting CD73 could be a promising strategy to reprogram the tumor microenvironment in this BC subtype.