Normal range of serum potassium, prevalence of dyskalaemia and associated factors in Chinese older adults: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To investigate the normal range of serum potassium, the prevalence of dyskalaemia and the associated factors in Chinese older adults. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study conducted from September 2017 to March 2018. SETTING:Forty-eight community elderly care facilities in four regions in northern China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1266 (308 apparently healthy and 958 unhealthy) participants 55 years or older and with fasting serum potassium measured. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS:Serum potassium <3.5?mEq/L and >5.5?mEq/L (guidelines definition) and <2.5th and >97.5th percentiles of the distribution among healthy participants (our study definition) were both used to define hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia, respectively. Multivariable generalised estimating equation models were used to adjust for clustering effect in the analyses of factors associated with risk of dyskalaemia and with variations in serum potassium. RESULTS:The study participants had a mean age of 70 (8.8) years. Among apparently healthy participants, the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of serum potassium distribution were 3.7 mEq/L and 5.3 mEq/L, respectively. Using the study definition, the prevalence of hyperkalaemia was 4.3% (95% CI 3.2% to 5.4%) and of hypokalaemia was 4.0% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.1%). Multivariable analyses showed that risk of hyperkalaemia was associated with unhealthy conditions (OR=2.21; 95%?CI 1.17 to 4.18); risk of hypokalaemia was associated with unhealthy conditions (OR=2.56; 95% CI 1.05 to 6.23), older age (OR=1.70 per 10-year increase; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.79) and region (OR=16.87; 95% CI 6.41 to 44.38); and higher serum potassium was associated with male gender (mean difference (MD)=0.12; 95%?CI 0.05 to 0.19) and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60?mL/min/1.73?m2 (MD=0.29; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.46). Using the guidelines definition, hyperkalaemia accounted for 2.7% (1.8%, 3.6%) and hypokalaemia 1.8% (1.1%, 2.5%). Analyses of the associated factors showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS:The study suggested a narrower normal range of serum potassium for defining dyskalaemia, which was common in older Chinese and more prevalent in unhealthy ones. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03290716; Pre-results.
Project description:AIMS:Hyperkalaemia risk precludes optimal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use in patients with heart failure (HF), particularly those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patiromer is a sodium-free, non-absorbed potassium (K+ )-binding polymer approved for the treatment of hyperkalaemia. In PEARL-HF, patiromer 25.2 g (fixed dose) prevented hyperkalaemia in HF patients with or without CKD initiating spironolactone. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a lower starting dose of patiromer (16.4 g/day) followed by individualized titration in preventing hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia when initiating spironolactone. METHODS AND RESULTS:This open-label 8-week study enrolled 63 patients with CKD, serum K+ 4.3-5.1 mEq/L, and chronic HF, who, based on investigator opinion, should receive spironolactone. Eligible patients started spironolactone 25 mg/day and patiromer 16.8 g/day (divided into two doses), with patiromer titrated to maintain serum K+ 4.0-5.1 mEq/L. Mean (standard deviation) serum K+ was 4.78 (0.51) mEq/L at baseline; weekly values were 4.48-4.70 mEq/L during treatment. Serum K+ of 3.5-5.5 mEq/L at the end of study treatment (primary endpoint) was achieved by 57 (90.5%) patients; 53 (84.1%) had serum K+ 4.0-5.1 mEq/L. One patient (1.6%) developed hypokalaemia, and two patients (3.2%) developed hypomagnesaemia. Spironolactone was increased to 50 mg/day in all patients; 43 (68%) patients required one or more patiromer dose titration. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 36 (57.1%) patients, with a low rate of discontinuations [four (6.3%) patients]. The most common AE was mild to moderate abdominal discomfort [four (6.3%) patients]. CONCLUSIONS:In this open-label study, patiromer 16.8 g/day followed by individualized titration maintained serum K+ within the target range in the majority of patients with HF and CKD, all of whom were uptitrated to spironolactone 50 mg/day, patiromer was well tolerated, with a low incidence of hyperkalaemia, hypokalaemia, and hypomagnesaemia.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>We evaluated the effects of patiromer, a potassium (K(+))-binding polymer, in a pre-specified analysis of hyperkalaemic patients with heart failure (HF) in the OPAL-HK trial.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) with serum K(+) levels ?5.1 mEq/L to <6.5 mEq/L (n = 243) received patiromer (4.2 g or 8.4 g BID initially) for 4 weeks (initial treatment phase); the primary efficacy endpoint was mean change in serum K(+) from baseline to week 4. Eligible patients (those with baseline K(+) ?5.5 mEq/L to <6.5 mEq/L and levels ?3.8 mEq/L to <5.1 mEq/L at the end of week 4) entered an 8-week randomized withdrawal phase and were randomly assigned to continue patiromer or switch to placebo; the primary efficacy endpoint was the between-group difference in median change in the serum K(+) over the first 4 weeks of that phase. One hundred and two patients (42%) had heart failure (HF). The mean [± standard error (SE)] change in serum K(+) from baseline to week 4 was -1.06 ± 0.05 mEq/L [95% confidence interval (CI), -1.16,-0.95; P < 0.001]; 76% (95% CI, 69,84) achieved serum K(+), 3.8 mEq/L to <5.1 mEq/L. In the randomized withdrawal phase, the median increase in serum K(+) from baseline of that phase was greater with placebo (n = 22) than patiromer (n = 27) (P < 0.001); recurrent hyperkalaemia (serum K(+), ?5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 52% on placebo and 8% on patiromer (P < 0.001). Mild-to-moderate constipation was the most common adverse event (11%); hypokalaemia occurred in 3%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In patients with CKD and HF who were hyperkalaemic on RAASi, patiromer was well tolerated, decreased serum K(+), and, compared with placebo, reduced recurrent hyperkalaemia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate serum potassium levels and rates of hypokalaemia in patients treated with liquorice-containing Japanese traditional Kampo-medicines Yokukansan (YK) and Yokukansan-ka-chinpihange (YKCH). DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:Patients receiving YK preparations for dementia and other psychiatric disorders in the University of Tsukuba Hospital in Japan. PARTICIPANTS:389 patients (male/female: 174/215, 68.6±16.1 years) were treated with YK preparations for 231 days (range 6-2788 days). Patients whose potassium levels were <3.6 mEq/L before administration of YK preparations, and drug non-compliant patients, were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:The occurrence rate of hypokalaemia and assessment of the risk factors for YK preparation-induced hypokalaemia. RESULTS:Of the 389 patients treated with YK preparations, 94 (24.2%) developed hypokalaemia (potassium levels <3.6?mEq/L) 34 days (range 1-1600 days) after administration of the preparations. 36 (38.3%) patients had co-administration with lower potassium-inducing drugs (LPIDs; diuretics, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and glycyrrhizin), which was more frequent in the patients without hypokalaemia (17.3%) (p<0.05). A Cox proportional hazard model identified four risk factors for hypokalaemia: YK administration (not YKCH) (HR 3.093, 95% CI 1.408 to 6.798), co-administration of LPIDs (HR 2.743, 95% CI 1.754 to 4.289), hypoalbuminaemia at baseline (HR 2.145, 95% 1.360 to 3.384), and full dosage administration (7.5?g/day) (HR 1.600, 95% CI 1.005 to 2.549). CONCLUSIONS:Serum potassium monitoring should be done at least monthly in patients with the following risk factors: LPID co-administration, YK administration, hypoalbuminaemia, and full dosage administration.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a complex multifactorial event and most commonly caused by ventricular tachycardia/ fibrillation (VT/ VF). Some antihypertensive drugs could induce hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia, which may increase susceptibility to VT/VF and SCA.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the association between different classes of antihypertensive drugs classified according to their potential impact on serum potassium levels and the occurrence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) based on VT/VF.<h4>Methods</h4>A case-control study was performed among current users of antihypertensive drugs. Cases were OHCA victims with electrocardiogram documented VT/VF drawn from the AmsteRdam REsuscitation STudies (ARREST) registry, and controls were non-OHCA individuals from the PHARMO database. Antihypertensive drugs were classified into: (i) antihypertensives with neutral effect on serum potassium levels; (ii) hypokalaemia-inducing antihypertensives; (iii) hyperkalaemia-inducing antihypertensives; (iv) combination of antihypertensives with hypo- and hyperkalaemic effects.<h4>Results</h4>We included 1345 cases and 4145 controls. The risk of OHCA was significantly increased among users of hypokalaemia-inducing antihypertensives [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.76] and among users of a combination of antihypertensives with hypo- and hyperkalaemic effects (adjusted OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.17-1.72) vs. users of antihypertensives with neutral effect. There was no difference in OHCA risk between users of hyperkalaemia-inducing antihypertensives vs. users of antihypertensive drugs with neutral effect (adjusted OR 1.15; 95%CI 0.95-1.40).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The risk of OHCA is significantly increased in patients who were current users of hypokalaemia-inducing antihypertensives and patients using a combination of antihypertensives with hypo- and hyperkalaemic effects.
Project description:Disturbances in potassium homoeostasis presenting as low or high serum potassium are common, especially among hospitalised patients. Given the fact that untreated hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia is associated with high morbidity and mortality, it is critical to recognise and treat these disorders promptly. In this article, normal potassium homoeostasis is reviewed initially and then a pathophysiological approach to work-up and management of hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia is presented. Recent advances with respect to the role of kidney in handling of the potassium, the regulation of renal ion transporters in hypokalaemia, and treatment of hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia will be discussed.
Project description:To evaluate efficacy and safety of RLY5016 (a non-absorbed, orally administered, potassium [K+]-binding polymer) on serum K+ levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) receiving standard therapy and spironolactone.One hundred and five patients with HF and a history of hyperkalaemia resulting in discontinuation of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor/blocker and/or beta-adrenergic blocking agent or chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min were randomized to double-blind treatment with 30 g/day RLY5016 or placebo for 4 weeks. Spironolactone, initiated at 25 mg/day, was increased to 50 mg/day on Day 15 if K+ was ?5.1 mEq/L. Endpoints included the change from baseline in serum K+ at the end of treatment (primary); the proportion of patients with hyperkalaemia (K+ >5.5 mEq/L); and the proportion titrated to spironolactone 50 mg/day. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory tests. RLY5016 (n= 55) and placebo (n= 49) patients had similar baseline characteristics. At the end of treatment, compared with placebo, RLY5016 had significantly lowered serum K+ levels with a difference between groups of -0.45 mEq/L (P < 0.001); a lower incidence of hyperkalaemia (7.3% RLY5016 vs. 24.5% placebo, P= 0.015); and a higher proportion of patients on spironolactone 50 mg/day (91% RLY5016 vs. 74% placebo, P= 0.019). In patients with CKD (n= 66), the difference in K+ between groups was -0.52 mEq/L (P= 0.031), and the incidence of hyperkalaemia was 6.7% RLY5016 vs. 38.5% placebo (P= 0.041). Adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal, and mild or moderate in severity. Adverse events resulting in study withdrawal were similar (7% RLY5016, 6% placebo). There were no drug-related serious AEs. Hypokalaemia (K+ <3.5 mEq/L) occurred in 6% of RLY5016 patients vs. 0% of placebo patients (P= 0.094).RLY5016 prevented hyperkalaemia and was relatively well tolerated in patients with HF receiving standard therapy and spironolactone (25-50 mg/day).
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>At present, the clinical burden of hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia among European heart failure patients, and relationships between serum potassium and adverse clinical outcomes in this population, is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between mortality, major adverse cardiac events, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) discontinuation across serum potassium levels, in a UK cohort of incident heart failure patients.<h4>Methods and results</h4>This was a retrospective observational cohort study of newly diagnosed heart failure patients listed in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, with a first record of heart failure (index date) between 2006 and 2015. Hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia episodes were defined as the number of serum potassium measurements exceeding each threshold (<3.5, ?5.0, ?5.5, and ?6.0 mmol/L), without such a measurement in the preceding 7 days. Risk equations developed using Poisson generalized estimating equations were utilized to estimate adjusted incident rate ratios (IRRs) relating serum potassium and clinical outcomes (death, major adverse cardiac event, and RAASi discontinuation). Among 21,334 eligible heart failure patients, 1969 (9.2%), 7648 (35.9%), 2725 (12.8%), and 763 (3.6%) experienced episodes of serum potassium <3.5, ?5.0, ?5.5, and ?6.0 mmol/L, respectively. The adjusted IRRs for mortality exhibited a U-shaped association pattern with serum potassium. Relative to the reference category (4.5 to <5.0 mmol/L), adjusted IRRs for mortality were estimated as 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.69-2.33), 1.23 (1.12-1.36), 1.35 (1.14-1.60), and 3.02 (2.28-4.02), for patients with serum potassium <3.5, ?5.0 to <5.5, ?5.5 to <6.0, and ?6.0 mmol/L, respectively. The adjusted IRRs for major adverse cardiac events demonstrated a non-statistically significant relationship with serum potassium. Discontinuation of RAASi therapy exhibited a J-shaped trend in association with serum potassium. Compared with the reference category (4.5 to <5.0 mmol/L), adjusted IRRs were estimated as 1.07 (0.89-1.28) in patients with serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L, increasing to 1.32 (1.14-1.53) and 2.19 (1.63-2.95) among those with serum potassium ?5.5 to <6.0 and ?6.0 mmol/L, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In UK patients with new onset heart failure, both hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia were associated with increased mortality risk, and hyperkalaemia was associated with increased likelihood of RAASi discontinuation. Our results demonstrate the potential importance of serum potassium monitoring for heart failure outcomes and management.
Project description:Hypokalaemia is frequently encountered in the daily clinical practices of a paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). It is a strong independent predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure. Thus, prompt potassium replacement therapy holds pivotal importance in therapy for hypokalaemia. Although intravenous potassium replacement (IVPR) in hypokalaemia is the preferred route in most intensive care settings, it is associated with known safety risks and can lead to arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and death if inappropriately administered. Enteral potassium replacement (EPR), with its superior safety profile, may be a better alternative to IVPR.Primary outcome To compare the efficacy EPR and IVPR for treatment of hypokalaemia. Secondary outcome measures include a comparison of adverse effects (hyperkalaemia, diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeds, nausea and vomiting) after EPR and IVPR and a comparison of the number of dose/s required to achieve resolution of hypokalaemia for each episode of hypokalaemia.The Enteral Versus Intravenous Potassium Supplementation trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, non-blinded trial with two arms. Intervention arms will be block randomised on alternate weeks for IVPR and EPR. Recruited patients will receive treatment accordingly. For analysis, the percentage change in serum potassium levels in mEq/L after each event of potassium replacement in both arms will be used as an end point to compare the efficacy EPR and IVPR for treatment of hypokalaemia.The study will be conducted at the PCICU at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.This study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee and Clinical Trials Unit at The Aga Khan University with respect to scientific content and compliance with applicable research and human subjects regulations.This trial is registered at Clinical Trials.Gov.NCT02015962.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Diuretic treatment is often needed in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) and carries a risk of abnormal potassium levels. We examined the relation between different levels of potassium and mortality.<h4>Methods and results</h4>From Danish national registries we identified 2596 patients treated with loop diuretics after their first MI episode where potassium measurement was available within 3 months. All-cause mortality was examined according to seven predefined potassium levels: hypokalaemia <3.5 mmol/L, low normal potassium 3.5-3.8 mmol/L, normal potassium 3.9-4.2 mmol/L, normal potassium 4.3-4.5 mmol/L, high normal potassium 4.6-5.0 mmol/L, mild hyperkalaemia 5.1-5.5 mmol/L, and severe hyperkalaemia: >5.5 mmol/L. Follow-up was 90 days and using normal potassium 3.9-4.2 mmol/L as a reference, we estimated the risk of death with a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. After 90 days, the mortality rates in the seven potassium intervals were 15.7, 13.6, 7.3, 8.1, 10.6, 15.5, and 38.3%, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted risk for death was statistically significant for patients with hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 1.91, confidence interval (95%CI): 1.14-3.19], and mild and severe hyperkalaemia (HR: 2, CI: 1.25-3.18 and HR: 5.6, CI: 3.38-9.29, respectively). Low and high normal potassium were also associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.84, CI: 1.23-2.76 and HR: 1.55, CI: 1.09-2.22, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Potassium levels outside the interval 3.9-4.5 mmol/L were associated with a substantial risk of death in patients requiring diuretic treatment after an MI.
Project description:Hyperkalaemia burden in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) under nephrology care is undefined. We prospectively followed 2443 patients with two visits (referral and control with 12-month interval) in 46 nephrology clinics. Patients were stratified in four categories of hyperkalaemia (serum potassium, sK ? 5.0 mEq/L) by sK at visit 1 and 2: Absent (no-no), Resolving (yes-no), New Onset (no-yes), Persistent (yes-yes). We assessed competing risks of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) and death after visit 2. Age was 65 ± 15 years, eGFR 35 ± 17 mL/min/1.73 m², proteinuria 0.40 (0.14?1.21) g/24 h. In the two visits sK was 4.8 ± 0.6 and levels ?6 mEq/L were observed in 4%. Hyperkalaemia was absent in 46%, resolving 17%, new onset 15% and persistent 22%. Renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors (RASI) were prescribed in 79% patients. During 3.6-year follow-up, 567 patients reached ESKD and 349 died. Multivariable competing risk analysis (sub-hazard ratio-sHR, 95% Confidence Interval-CI) evidenced that new onset (sHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05?1.72) and persistent (sHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02?1.58) hyperkalaemia predicted higher ESKD risk versus absent, independently from main determinants of outcome including eGFR change. Conversely, no effect on mortality was observed. Results were confirmed by testing sK as continuous variable. Therefore, in CKD under nephrology care, mild-to-moderate hyperkalaemia status is common (37%) and predicts per se higher ESKD risk but not mortality.