UCHL1 regulates oxidative activity in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that was originally identified in neurons. Our recent study showed that UCHL1 was expressed in C2C12 myoblast cells and mouse skeletal muscle. Here we report that in mouse skeletal muscle, UCHL1 is primarily expressed in oxidative muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle specific gene knockout (smKO) of UCHL1 in mice reduced oxidative activity in skeletal muscle measured by SDH staining. The in situ muscle contraction test revealed that gastrocnemius muscle from UCHL1 smKO mice was more prone to fatigue in response to the repetitive stimulation. This data suggests that UCHL1 plays a role in maintenance of muscle oxidative metabolism. Moreover, UCHL1 smKO caused a significant reduction in key proteins that are involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in soleus muscles, suggesting that UCHL1 may be involved in regulation of mitochondrial content and function. Immunostaining showed the co-localization of UCHL1 and mitochondrial marker VDAC in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial fractionation assay revealed that, although UCHL1 was primarily present in the cytosolic fraction, a low level of UCHL1 protein was present in mitochondrial fraction. The level of phosphorylation of AMPK?, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, were unchanged in UCHL1 smKO muscle. On the other hand, immunoprecipitation from soleus muscle sample indicated the interaction between UCHL1 and HSP60, a chaperon protein that is involved in mitochondrial protein transport. There was a trend of downregulation of HSP60 in UCHL1 smKO muscle. Overall, our data suggests UCHL1 is a novel regulator of mitochondrial function and oxidative activity in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a chaperone localizing in skeletal muscle mitochondria, whose role is poorly understood. In the present study, the levels of Hsp60 in fibres of the entire posterior group of hindlimb muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) were evaluated in mice after completing a 6-week endurance training program. The correlation between Hsp60 levels and the expression of four isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?) were investigated only in soleus. Short-term overexpression of hsp60, achieved by in vitro plasmid transfection, was then performed to determine whether this chaperone could have a role in the activation of the expression levels of PGC1? isoforms. The levels of Hsp60 protein were fibre-type specific in the posterior muscles and endurance training increased its content in type I muscle fibers. Concomitantly with the increased levels of Hsp60 released in the blood stream of trained mice, mitochondrial copy number and the expression of three isoforms of PGC1? increased. Overexpressing hsp60 in cultured myoblasts induced only the expression of PGC1 1?, suggesting a correlation between Hsp60 overexpression and PGC1 1 ? activation.
Project description:Preservation of mitochondrial function, which is dependent on mitochondrial homeostasis (biogenesis, dynamics, disposal/recycling), is critical for maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Skeletal muscle performance declines upon aging (sarcopenia) and is accompanied by decreased mitochondrial function in fast-glycolytic muscles. Oxidative metabolism promotes mitochondrial homeostasis, so we investigated whether mitochondrial function is preserved in oxidative muscles. We compared tibialis anterior (predominantly glycolytic) and soleus (oxidative) muscles from young (3 mo) and old (28-29 mo) C57BL/6J mice. Throughout life, the soleus remained more oxidative than the tibialis anterior and expressed higher levels of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, fission/fusion and autophagy. The respiratory capacity of mitochondria isolated from the tibialis anterior, but not the soleus, declined upon aging. The soleus and tibialis anterior exhibited similar aging-associated changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, fission/fusion, disposal and autophagy marker expression, but opposite changes in fiber composition: the most oxidative fibers declined in the tibialis anterior, while the more glycolytic fibers declined in the soleus. In conclusion, oxidative muscles are protected from mitochondrial aging, probably due to better mitochondrial homeostasis ab initio and aging-associated changes in fiber composition. Exercise training aimed at enriching oxidative fibers may be valuable in preventing mitochondria-related aging and its contribution to sarcopenia.
Project description:Skeletal muscle atrophy is thought to result from hyperactivation of intracellular protein degradation pathways, including autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the precise contributions of these pathways to muscle atrophy are unclear. Here, we show that an autophagy deficiency in denervated slow-twitch soleus muscles delayed skeletal muscle atrophy, reduced mitochondrial activity, and induced oxidative stress and accumulation of PARK2/Parkin, which participates in mitochondrial quality control (PARK2-mediated mitophagy), in mitochondria. Soleus muscles from denervated Park2 knockout mice also showed resistance to denervation, reduced mitochondrial activities, and increased oxidative stress. In both autophagy-deficient and Park2-deficient soleus muscles, denervation caused the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Denervation induced proteasomal activation via NFE2L1 nuclear translocation in control mice, whereas it had little effect in autophagy-deficient and Park2-deficient mice. These results suggest that PARK2-mediated mitophagy plays an essential role in the activation of proteasomes during denervation atrophy in slow-twitch muscles.
Project description:The concentration of NADH was determined a high-oxidative muscle (soleus) and a high-glycolytic muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) from resting rats. The NADH content of freeze-clamped control muscles was 0.35 +/- 0.04 (mean +/- S.D.) and 0.31 +/- 0.04 mmol/kg dry wt. in EDL and soleus respectively, and increased to peak values of 0.58 +/- 0.05 (EDL) and 0.87 +/- 0.10 (soleus) after 10 min of NaCN treatment. The [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio, which was not significantly changed in soleus and increased only slightly in EDL after NaCN incubation, shows that only minor changes occurred in the cytosolic NADH concentration. Provided that the major part of muscle NADH is located in the mitochondria it can be calculated that the mitochondrial NADH content in skeletal muscle at rest is about 36 (soleus) and 60% (EDL) of the anoxic value, respectively. These results are in contrast with previous studies with the surface-fluorescence technique, where mitochondrial NAD appeared to be almost completely reduced in resting skeletal muscle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both mitophagy, a selective mechanism for clearance of mitochondria, and mitochondrial biogenesis are key processes determining mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity of the musculature. Abnormalities in these processes could therefore contribute to deterioration of peripheral muscle oxidative capacity as observed in e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although it has been suggested that inflammatory mediators can modulate both mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, it is unknown whether acute pulmonary inflammation affects these processes in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesised that molecular signalling patterns of mitochondrial breakdown and biogenesis temporally shift towards increased breakdown and decreased biogenesis in the skeletal muscle of mice exposed to one single bolus of IT-LPS, as a model for acute lung injury and pulmonary inflammation. METHODS:We investigated multiple important constituents and molecular regulators of mitochondrial breakdown, biogenesis, dynamics, and mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle over time in a murine (FVB/N background) model of acute pulmonary- and systemic inflammation induced by a single bolus of intra-tracheally (IT)-instilled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we compared the expression of these constituents between gastrocnemius and soleus muscle. RESULTS:Both in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, IT-LPS instillation resulted in molecular patterns indicative of activation of mitophagy. This coincided with modulation of mRNA transcript abundance of genes involved in mitochondrial fusion and fission as well as an initial decrease and subsequent recovery of transcript levels of key proteins involved in the molecular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, no solid differences in markers for mitochondrial content were found. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that one bolus of IT-LPS results in a temporal modulation of mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis in both oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle, which is insufficient to result in a reduction of mitochondrial content.
Project description:Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous flavoprotein localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. In vivo, AIF provides protection against neuronal and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Conversely in vitro, AIF has been demonstrated to have a pro-apoptotic role upon induction of the mitochondrial death pathway, once AIF translocates to the nucleus where it facilitates chromatin condensation and large scale DNA fragmentation. Given that the aif hypomorphic harlequin (Hq) mutant mouse model displays severe sarcopenia, we examined skeletal muscle from the aif hypomorphic mice in more detail. Adult AIF-deficient skeletal myofibers display oxidative stress and a severe form of atrophy, associated with a loss of myonuclei and a fast to slow fiber type switch, both in "slow" muscles such as soleus, as well as in "fast" muscles such as extensor digitorum longus, most likely resulting from an increase of MEF2 activity. This fiber type switch was conserved in regenerated soleus and EDL muscles of Hq mice subjected to cardiotoxin injection. In addition, muscle regeneration in soleus and EDL muscles of Hq mice was severely delayed. Freshly cultured myofibers, soleus and EDL muscle sections from Hq mice displayed a decreased satellite cell pool, which could be rescued by pretreating aif hypomorphic mice with the manganese-salen free radical scavenger EUK-8. Satellite cell activation seems to be abnormally long in Hq primary culture compared to controls. However, AIF deficiency did not affect myoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, AIF protects skeletal muscles against oxidative stress-induced damage probably by protecting satellite cells against oxidative stress and maintaining skeletal muscle stem cell number and activation.
Project description:Oxidative capacity of muscles correlates with capillary density and with microcirculation, which in turn depend on various regulatory factors, including NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To determine the role of eNOS in patterns of regulation of energy metabolism in various muscles, we studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in saponin-permeabilized fibres as well as the energy metabolism enzyme profile in the cardiac, soleus (oxidative) and gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles isolated from mice lacking eNOS (eNOS(-/-)). In soleus muscle, the absence of eNOS induced a marked decrease in both basal mitochondrial respiration without ADP (-32%; P <0.05) and maximal respiration in the presence of ADP (-29%; P <0.05). Furthermore, the eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle showed a decrease in total creatine kinase (-29%; P <0.05), citrate synthase (-31%; P <0.01), adenylate kinase (-27%; P <0.05), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (-43%; P <0.01) and pyruvate kinase (-26%; P <0.05) activities. The percentage of myosin heavy chains I (slow isoform) was significantly increased from 24.3+/-1.5% in control to 30.1+/-1.1% in eNOS(-/-) soleus muscle ( P <0.05) at the expense of a slight non-significant decrease in the three other (fast) isoforms. Besides, eNOS(-/-) soleus showed a 28% loss of weight. Interestingly, we did not find differences in any parameters in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscles compared with respective controls. These results show that eNOS knockout has an important effect on muscle oxidative capacity as well on the activities of energy metabolism enzymes in oxidative (soleus) muscle. The absence of such effects in cardiac and glycolytic (gastrocnemius) muscle suggests a specific role for eNOS-produced NO in oxidative skeletal muscle.
Project description:Clinical use of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) promotes skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness, adversely affecting patient mobility and strength. Although the mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction remain unclear, studies implicate the significant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this pathology. Supraphysiological ROS levels can enhance protein degradation via autophagy, and it is established that DOX upregulates autophagic signaling in skeletal muscle. To determine the precise contribution of accelerated autophagy to DOX-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction, we inhibited autophagy in the soleus via transduction of a dominant negative mutation of the autophagy related 5 (ATG5) protein. Targeted inhibition of autophagy prevented soleus muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction acutely following DOX administration, which was associated with a reduction in mitochondrial ROS and maintenance of mitochondrial respiratory capacity. These beneficial modifications were potentially the result of enhanced transcription of antioxidant response element-related genes and increased antioxidant capacity. Specifically, our results showed significant upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate quinone dehydrogenase-1, and catalase in the soleus with DOX treatment when autophagy was inhibited. These findings establish a significant role of autophagy in the development of oxidative stress and skeletal muscle weakness following DOX administration.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle fiber composition and muscle energetics are not static and change in muscle disease. This study was performed to determine whether a mitochondrial myopathy is associated with adjustments in skeletal muscle fiber-type composition. METHODS: Ten rats were treated with zidovudine, an antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that induces a myopathy by interfering with mitochondrial functions. Soleus muscles were examined after 21 weeks of treatment. Ten untreated rats served as controls. RESULTS: Zidovudine induced a myopathy with mitochondrial DNA depletion, abnormalities in mitochondrial ultrastructure, and reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity. Mitochondrial DNA was disproportionally more diminished in type I compared with type II fibers, whereas atrophy predominated in type II fibers. Compared with those of controls, zidovudine-exposed soleus muscles contained an increased proportion (256%) of type II fibers, whereas neonatal myosin heavy chains remained repressed, indicating fiber-type transformation in the absence of regeneration. Microarray gene-expression analysis confirmed enhanced fast-fiber isoforms, repressed slow-fiber transcripts, and reduced neonatal fiber transcripts in the mitochondrial myopathy. Respiratory chain transcripts were diminished, whereas the enzymes of glycolysis and glycogenolysis were enhanced, indicating a metabolic adjustment from oxidative to glycolytic capacities. A coordinated regulation was found of transcription factors known to orchestrate type II fiber formation (upregulation of MyoD, Six1, Six2, Eya1, and Sox6, and downregulation of myogenin and ERR?). CONCLUSIONS: The type I to type II fiber transformation in mitochondrial myopathy implicates mitochondrial function as a new regulator of skeletal muscle fiber type.
Project description:Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique mitochondrial phospholipid that, in skeletal muscle, is enriched with linoleic acid (18:2n6). Together, CL content and CL 18:2n6 composition are critical determinants of mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle is comprised of slow and fast fibers that have high and low mitochondrial content, respectively. In response to overloading and unloading stimuli, these muscles undergo a fast-to-slow oxidative fiber type shift and a slow-to-fast glycolytic fiber type shift, respectively, with a concomitant change in mitochondrial content. Here, we examined changes in CL content and CL 18:2n6 composition under these conditions along with tafazzin (Taz) protein, which is a transacylase enzyme that generates CL lipids enriched with 18:2n6. Our results show that CL content, CL 18:2n6 composition, and Taz protein content increased with an overload stimulus in plantaris. Conversely, CL content and CL 18:2n6 composition was reduced with an unloaded stimulus in soleus. Interestingly, Taz protein was increased in the unloaded soleus, suggesting that Taz may provide some form of compensation for decreased CL content and CL 18:2n6 composition. Together, this study highlights the dynamic nature of CL and Taz in skeletal muscle, and future studies will examine the physiological significance behind the changes in CL content, CL 18:2n6 and Taz.