Maternal perinatal depressive symptoms and offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age: a longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Evidence exists that maternal depression in the perinatal period has an adverse effect on a range of early childhood outcomes and increases the risk of offspring depression during adolescence. However, the association between maternal depression during the perinatal period and offspring psychotic experiences has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate whether there is an association between maternal antenatal or postnatal depression and offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age. METHODS:This longitudinal study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective birth cohort, which recruited 14?541 pregnant women with an estimated delivery date between April 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 1992. Perinatal depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age were measured using the Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview. Offspring of mothers with complete data on maternal perinatal depression measures, and complete data on outcome (psychotic experiences) and confounding variables were included in the main analysis. For the main analysis, we used logistic regression to examine the associations between maternal depression (antenatal and postnatal) and offspring psychotic experiences at the age of 18 years. We used biprobit regression to model the association between maternal antenatal depression and the two offspring outcomes (psychotic experiences and depression) at 18 years of age jointly. FINDINGS:3067 offspring for whom data were available on maternal perinatal depression and offspring psychotic experiences aged 18 years were included in analyses. Maternal antenatal depressive symptoms were associated with offspring psychotic experiences at 18 years of age, with an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1·38 (95% CI 1·18-1·61, p=0·0001) and after adjustment for confounders, an OR of 1·26 (1·06-1·49, p=0·0074). Maternal antenatal depressive symptoms were associated with both offspring psychotic experiences at the age of 18 years (n=2830, OR for a 5-point increase in EPDS score: 1·32 [95% CI 1·16-1·51], p<0·0001) and offspring depression at 18 years (OR for a 5-point increase in EPDS score: 1·18 [1·03-1·34], p=0·016). From joint modelling, there was no evidence that the association between maternal antenatal depression and offspring psychotic experiences differed in strength compared with offspring depression (p=0·19). INTERPRETATION:The offspring of mothers who experience depression in the perinatal period are more likely to report psychotic experiences at 18 years of age. If the association is found to be causal, it would strengthen the case for identifying and treating maternal depression during and after pregnancy. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The sleep quality of pregnant women in the third trimester is related to mental health. However, there is still a lack of large-scale cohort research exploring this relationship in the second trimester. Thus, we assessed the associations of sleep quality during the second trimester with antenatal stress and antenatal and postnatal depression. METHODS:We examined 1152 pregnant women from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of sleep quality in the second trimester with antenatal stress, antenatal depression, and postnatal depression. We used linear regression models and logistic regression models to examine the associations of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during pregnancy with perinatal stress (Pregnancy Pressure Scale [PPS]) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]) status. We further assessed the relationship in groups divided according to maternal age. RESULTS:PSQI scores were positively associated with antenatal PPS scores (?: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 1.76), antenatal EPDS scores (?: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.78), and postpartum EPDS scores (?: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.64). Poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ?5) was associated with antenatal stress status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.77), antenatal depression status (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.48, 4.72), and postpartum depression status (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.64) after adjusting maternal age, BMI, gestational age, smoking, educational level, annual household income and social support. The association of poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ?5) in the second trimester with postnatal depression status was significant among women more than or equal to 30?years old (OR: 4.12, 95% CI: 2.18, 7.78) but not among women less than 30?years old after adjusting covariates above. CONCLUSION:Poor sleep quality in the second trimester among Chinese pregnant women is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Strategies to boost sleep quality should be considered during prenatal health care to improve women's mental health status.
Project description:Perinatal distress and depression can have significant impacts on both the mother and baby. The present study investigated psychosocial and obstetric factors associated with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) Australian women in Sydney, New South Wales. The study used retrospectively linked maternal and child health data from two Local Health Districts in Australia (N = 25,407). Perinatal distress was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, scores of 10-12) and depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of 13 or more. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial and obstetric factors with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among CALD Australian women was 10.1% for antenatal distress; 7.3% for antenatal depressive symptoms; 6.2% for postnatal distress and 3.7% for postnatal depressive symptoms. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were associated with a lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, maternal history of childhood abuse and being known to child protection services. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with postnatal distress and depressive symptoms. Higher socioeconomic status had a protective effect on antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms. Our study suggests that current perinatal mental health screening and referral for clinical assessment is essential, and also supports a re-examination of perinatal mental health policy to ensure access to culturally responsive mental health care that meets patients' needs.
Project description:Some small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However, to our knowledge, no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore, only 1 small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations is important to inform prevention.To investigate the hypothesis that there are independent associations between antenatal and postnatal depression with offspring depression and that the risk pathways are different, such that the risk is moderated by disadvantage (low maternal education) with postnatal depression but not with antenatal depression.Prospective investigation of associations between symptoms of antenatal and postnatal parental depression with offspring depression at age 18 years in a UK community-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) with data from more than 4500 parents and their adolescent offspring.Diagnosis of offspring aged 18 years with major depression using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision.Antenatal depression was an independent risk factor. Offspring were 1.28 times (95% CI, 1.08-1.51; P = .003) more likely to have depression at age 18 years for each standard deviation increase in maternal depression score antenatally, independent of later maternal depression. Postnatal depression was also a risk factor for mothers with low education, with offspring 1.26 times (95% CI, 1.06-1.50; P = .01) more likely to have depression for each standard deviation increase in postnatal depression score. However, for more educated mothers, there was little association (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88-1.36; P = .42). Analyses found that maternal education moderated the effects of postnatal but not antenatal depression. Paternal depression antenatally was not associated with offspring depression, while postnatally, paternal depression showed a similar pattern to maternal depression.The findings suggest that treating maternal depression antenatally could prevent offspring depression during adulthood and that prioritizing less advantaged mothers postnatally may be most effective.
Project description:Importance:Maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties of offspring during childhood that can increase the risk of depression in adolescence and adulthood. Objective:To investigate the association between perinatal maternal depression and an increased long-term risk of depression in their adolescent and adult offspring. Data Sources:A systematic search of the electronic databases of PubMed and PsycINFO was conducted from May 2019 to June 2019. Study Selection:A total of 6309 articles were identified, of which 88 articles were extracted for full-text review by 2 reviewers. Only articles reporting data from prospective longitudinal studies that assessed maternal depression during antenatal and/or postnatal periods and resulting offspring 12 years or older with measures of established psychometric properties were included. Exclusion criteria consisted of all other study designs, mothers with other medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and offspring younger than 12 years. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers, and discrepancies were mediated by an expert third reviewer. Meta-analysis was performed using Bayesian statistical inference and reported using Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guideline. The association of depression timing with the sex of offspring was explored using metaregression. Main Outcomes and Measures:Offspring depression was evaluated using standardized depression scales or clinical interviews. Results:Six studies with a total of 15?584 mother-child dyads were included in the meta-analysis, which found the offspring of mothers who experienced perinatal depression to have increased odds of depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.60-2.65; posterior probability [PP] [OR >1], 98.6%). Although metaregression found no evidence for an overall association between perinatal depression timing and offspring depression (antenatal vs postnatal, PP [OR >1]?=?53.8%), subgroup analyses showed slightly higher pooled odds for the antenatal studies (OR, 1.78; 95% CrI, 0.93-3.33; PP [OR >1]?=?96.2%) than for the postnatal studies (OR, 1.66; 95% CrI, 0.65-3.84; PP [OR >1]?=?88.0%). Female adolescent offspring recorded higher rates of depression in metaregression analyses, such that a 1% increase in the percentage of female (relative to male) offspring was associated with a 6% increase in the odds of offspring depression (OR, 1.06; 95% CrI, 0.99-1.14; ?2?=?0.31). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, maternal perinatal depression, especially antenatal depression, was associated with the risk of depression in adolescence and adulthood. More research into the mechanisms of depression risk transmission and assessments of postinterventional risk reduction could aid in the development of future strategies to tackle depressive disorders in pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perinatal depression is a common condition of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Depression negatively affects engagement in HIV care, but systematic screening for perinatal depression is not done in most sub-Saharan African countries. Estimating the burden and timing of perinatal depression can help inform medical programs with the current scale-up of HIV care for pregnant women. METHODS:Women (n?=?299) initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV were recruited from a government antenatal clinic in Malawi in 2015-2016 into a cohort study. Probable perinatal depression was assessed at enrollment and at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We estimated point prevalence and incidence of depression as well as concordance between EPDS and PHQ-9 scores. RESULTS:One in ten women screened positive for probable antenatal depression, whereas 1-6% screened positive postpartum. Sensitivity analyses to account for loss to follow-up suggested that postpartum depression prevalence could have ranged from 1-11%. At postpartum time points, 0-3% of participants screened positive for incident probable depression. EPDS and PHQ-9 scores were concordant for 96% of assessments during antenatal and postpartum visits. LIMITATIONS:Lack of diagnostic psychiatric evaluation precludes actual diagnosis of major depression, and social desirability bias may have contributed to low postpartum scores. CONCLUSIONS:Probable depression was more common during the antenatal period than postpartum among our participants. Given the association between depression and negative HIV outcomes, screening for depression during pregnancy should be integrated into antenatal HIV care.
Project description:Perinatal depression involves interplay between individual chronic and acute disease burdens, biological and psychosocial environmental and behavioural factors. Here we explored the predictive potential of specific psycho-socio-demographic characteristics for antenatal and postpartum depression symptoms and contribution to severity scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) screening tool. We determined depression risk trajectories in 480 women that prospectively completed the EPDS during pregnancy (TP1) and postpartum (TP2). Multinomial logistic and penalised linear regression investigated covariates associated with increased antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores contributing to the average or the difference of paired scores across time points. History of anxiety was identified as the strongest contribution to antenatal EPDS scores followed by the social status, whereas a history of depression, postpartum depression (PPD) and family history of PPD exhibited the strongest association with postpartum EPDS. These covariates were the strongest differentiating factors that increased the spread between antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores. Available covariates appeared better suited to predict EPDS scores antenatally than postpartum. As women move from the antenatal to the postpartum period, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors appear to play a smaller role in risk, and a personal and family history of depression and PPD become increasingly important.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We utilised data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort, a large prospective cohort in southern Brazil, to examine the association of moderate and severe antenatal depression with child birth outcomes and explore interactions with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS:Data was available for n = 3046 participants and their infants. We measured antenatal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, ?13 for moderate and ?17 for severe depression). Outcome measures included gestational age, birth weight, length and head circumference, using the Intergrowth-21st standards. We controlled for known confounders including obstetric risk. RESULTS:We did not find differences in childbirth outcomes by maternal depression status for participants with at least moderate depression, although there was an increased risk for female offspring to be small for gestational age (SGA, OR 2.33[1.37,3.97]). For severe depression (EPDS?17) we found an increased risk for lower APGAR scores (OR 1.63[1.02,2.60]) and being SGA (OR 1.77[1.06,2.97], with an increased risk for female offspring in particular to be in lower weight centiles (-10.71 [-16.83,-4.60]), to be SGA (OR 3.74[1.89, 7.44]) and in the lower 10th centile for length (OR 2.19[1.25,3.84]). LIMITATIONS:include the use of a maternal report questionnaire to ascertain depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:In this recent large longitudinal cohort in Brazil we did not find independent effects of depression on adverse birth outcomes or interactions with sociodemographic characteristics. We found an increased risk of being SGA for female offspring of women with moderate and severe depression, in line with other research suggesting females may be more susceptible to antenatal disturbances. FUNDING:This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust, United Kingdom (095582), the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). EN was supported by the UK Economic and Social Research Council GCRF Postdoctoral Fellowship (ES/P009794/1).
Project description:Perinatal depression is highly prevalent in low-and-middle-income countries and has been linked to poor child health. Suboptimal maternal nutrition may be a risk factor for perinatal depression. In this randomised-controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi, we set out to test the hypothesis that women taking a fatty acid-rich lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) would have fewer depressive symptoms postpartum than those taking iron-folate (IFA) or multiple-micronutrient (MMN) capsules. Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and randomised to receive LNS or MMN during pregnancy and for 6?months postpartum, or IFA during pregnancy only. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using validated translations of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), antenatally (SRQ only) and at 6?months postpartum (SRQ and EPDS). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. One thousand three hundred and ninety one women were randomised (LNS?=?462, MMN?=?466, IFA?=?463). The groups were similar across a range of baseline variables. At 6?months postpartum, 1078 (77.5%) had SRQ completed; mean (SD) scores were LNS 1.76(2.73), MMN 1.92(2.75), IFA 1.71(2.66), P?=?0.541. One thousand and fifty seven (76.0%) had EPDS completed; mean (SD) scores were LNS 5.77(5.53), MMN 5.43(4.97), IFA 5.52(5.18), P?=?0.676. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on SRQ or EPDS scores (continuous or dichotomised) in unadjusted or adjusted models. In conclusion, fortification of maternal diet with LNS compared with MMN or IFA did not reduce postnatal depressive symptoms in this study.
Project description:Antenatal maternal depressive symptoms influence fetal brain development and increase the risk for depression in offspring. Such vulnerability is often moderated by the offspring's genetic variants. This study aimed to examine whether FKBP5, a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and in utero brain development, using an Asian cohort with 161 mother-offspring dyads. Antenatal maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonatal structural brain images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shortly after birth. Maternal and neonatal FKBP5 gene was genotyped using Illumina OmniExpress arrays. A gene set-based mixed effect model for gene-environment interaction (MixGE) was used to examine interactive effects between neonatal genetic variants of FKBP5 and antenatal maternal depressive symptoms on neonatal amygdala and hippocampal volumes, and cortical thickness. Our study revealed that genetic variants in neonatal FKBP5 moderate the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and right hippocampal volume but only show a trend for such moderation on amygdala volumes and cortical thickness. Our findings are the first to reveal that the association between maternal depressive symptoms and in utero neurodevelopment of specific brain regions is modified through complex genetic variation in neonatal FKBP5. Our results suggest that an increased risk for depression may be transmitted from mother to child during fetal life and that the effect is dependent upon neonatal FKBP5 genotype.
Project description:Maternal experience of childhood maltreatment and maternal antenatal depression are both associated with offspring childhood maltreatment and offspring adjustment problems. We have investigated the relative impact of maternal childhood maltreatment and exposure to depression in utero on offspring maltreatment and psychopathology.The sample included 125 families from the South London Child Development Study. A prospective longitudinal design was used. Data on maternal childhood maltreatment, maternal antenatal depression (36 weeks of pregnancy), offspring childhood maltreatment (age 11 years) and offspring adolescent antisocial behaviour and depression (ages 11 and 16 years) were obtained from parents and offspring through clinical interview.Mothers who experienced childhood maltreatment were significantly more likely to be depressed during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 10.00]. Offspring of mothers who experienced only childhood maltreatment or only antenatal depression were no more at risk of being maltreated or having psychopathology; however, offspring of mothers who experienced both maternal childhood maltreatment and antenatal depression were exposed to significantly greater levels of childhood maltreatment and exhibited significantly higher levels of adolescent antisocial behaviour compared with offspring not so exposed. Furthermore, maternal childhood maltreatment accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in offspring childhood maltreatment in only those offspring exposed to depression in utero.Maternal childhood maltreatment and maternal antenatal depression are highly associated. The co-occurrence of both insults significantly increases the risk of offspring adversity. The antenatal period is an optimum period to identify vulnerable women and to provide interventions.