Apatinib combined with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in patients with taxane-resistant advanced gastric cancer: a single-arm exploratory study.
ABSTRACT: Background:Apatinib combined with chemotherapy might be effective and safe for the management of advanced gastric cancer, but the available data are limited. To investigate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in combination with paclitaxel (PTX) alone or POF (PTX, oxaliplatin, and 5-fluorouracil) in patients with taxane-resistant advanced gastric cancer. Methods:Patients with taxane-resistant advanced gastric cancer were enrolled in the single-center, open-labeled, single-arm, exploratory study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02697838). Apatinib was administered at 850 mg po in combination with weekly PTX or the POF regimen. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), the time to tumor progression (TTP), and safety. Results:Twenty participants were recruited from 08/2016 to 01/2018. The duration of the study treatment was 2.07 (0.03-16.2) months. The median follow-up was 24.8 (0.3-26.0) months. The reasons for termination of treatment were disease progression (n=6), adverse events (AEs) (n=5), and patients' will (n=9). The ORR was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.4-34.7%) and the DCR was 77.8% (95% CI: 52.4-93.6%). The median PFS was 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-5.1) months, the median OS was 4.7 (95% CI: 2.0-7.3) months, and the median TTP was 4.2 (95% CI: 0.562-7.838) months. All 20 (100%) patients had AEs, 17 (85%) had apatinib treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs), and 18 (90%) had chemotherapy TEAEs. The main grade 3-4 TEAEs were neutropenia, leukopenia, hypertension, and anemia. Conclusions:This preliminary study suggests that apatinib combined with PTX or POF might be effective and tolerable in patients with chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer. Studies are necessary to confirm the results. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02697838.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) poses a therapeutic challenge worldwide because of its poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiangiogenic drug apatinib in advanced AFPGC in a real-world setting.<h4>Methods</h4>From September 2015 to December 2017, twenty-one patients identified with AFPGC from the clinical trial AHEAD-G202, an open-label, prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study of apatinib for advanced metastatic gastric cancer, were enrolled to perform this analysis. Patients received oral apatinib as monotherapy or combination therapy. A treatment cycle was defined as 28 days. The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and the secondary outcomes included safety, objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR).<h4>Results</h4>Twenty patients were evaluated for the apatinib efficacy analysis. The ORR of apatinib was 10%, whereas the DCR was 70%. The median PFS was 3.5 months [95%confidence interval (CI): 2.34-4.66]. The median OS was 4.5 months (95%CI: 3.49-5.51). Median OS of AFPGC patients without carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevation achieved 30.8 months. CEA elevation was considered to be a potential independent predictive factor for OS (P?=?0.030) and PFS (P?=?0.047) by the analysis of multivariate analysis. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events (AEs) were hypertension (4.8%), hand-foot syndrome (4.8%), anorexia (4.8%), and vomiting and nausea (4.8%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Apatinib showed promising efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced AFPGC. Antiangiogenic therapy may be a good strategy for the treatment of AFPGC as a rare sub-type of gastric cancer.<h4>Trial registration</h4>AHEAD-G202 (NCT02668380).
Project description:Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the treatment of stage IV osteogenic sarcoma after chemotherapy failure through a single-arm, prospective, and open clinical phase II study. Methods: Information on 34 patients with stage IV osteogenic sarcoma treated with apatinib after failure of chemotherapy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between September 2015 and December 2019 was collected and analyzed. The participants included 23 males and 11 females, with an average age of 35.24 years (11-73 years). The objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), PFS rate (PFR), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. The treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and safety of apatinib were also evaluated. Results: Of the 34 patients, 33 were able to be evaluated for efficacy. One patient received apatinib treatment for less than one cycle; therefore, only safety analysis was performed. The 12-week clinical evaluation showed that 2 patients had a partial response (PR), 24 patients had stable disease (SD), and 7 patients had progressive disease (PD). The ORR, DCR, and PFR at 12 weeks were 6.06% (2/33), 78.79% (26/33), and 82%, respectively. By the end of the follow-up, 6 patients had SD (18.18%, 6/33), 27 patients had PD (81.82%, 27/33), and 15 patients died because of disease progression (45.45%, 15/33). The ORR was 0 (0/33), the DCR was 18.18% (6/33), and the median PFS (mPFS) was 7.89 months (95% CI: 4.56-11.21). The median OS (mOS) was 17.61 months (95% CI: 10.85-24.37). The most common treatment-related AEs were hand-foot syndrome (35.29%, 12/34), proteinuria (32.35%, 11/34), and hypertension (32.35%, 11/34). Conclusions: Apatinib is effective and well tolerated in stage IV osteogenic sarcoma patients after chemotherapy failure.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>We performed this clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib and oral etoposide in patients with HER2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with HER2-negative MBC previously treated with anthracycline and taxanes and failed ?1 prior chemotherapy regimens were recruited. The starting dose of apatinib was 500 and 425 mg in patients with ECOG scores of 0-1 and 2, respectively. The etoposide capsules were given at 50 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on days 1 to 10 for 21 days. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and safety.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-one eligible patients were enrolled. The median follow-up time was 11 months. The median PFS for all patients was 6.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.0-7.9], and 6.9 months (95% CI 5.3-8.6) and 6.6 months (95% CI 1.4-11.7) for patients with apatinib 425 and 500mg once daily, respectively. The ORR was 35.5% (11/31). The DCR was 87.1% (27/31). The median OS was 20.4 months (95% CI 11.4-29.3). The median PFS of patients who had hypertension and proteinuria was longer than that for those without hypertension and proteinuria. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were hypertension (12/31, 38.7%), fatigue (3/31, 9.7%), thrombocytopenia (3/31, 9.7%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Apatinib combined with etoposide capsules is effective and tolerable in heavily pretreated, metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer patients. A lower apatinib dose provide equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity.<h4>Clinical trial registration</h4>https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT03535961.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Effective therapeutic options are limited for patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The incorporation of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a molecular anti?angiogenic agent into the commonly adopted chemotherapy may produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of camrelizumab plus apatinib combined with chemotherapy as the first?line treatment of advanced ESCC. <h4>Methods</h4> In this single?arm prospective phase II trial, patients with unresectable locally advanced or recurrent/metastatic ESCC received camrelizumab 200 mg, liposomal paclitaxel 150 mg/m2, and nedaplatin 50 mg/m2 on day 1, and apatinib 250 mg on days 1?14. The treatments were repeated every 14 days for up to 9 cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with camrelizumab and apatinib. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). Secondary endpoints included disease control rate (DCR), progression?free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. <h4>Results</h4> We enrolled 30 patients between August 7, 2018 and February 23, 2019. The median follow?up was 24.98 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.05?26.16 months). The centrally assessed ORR was 80.0% (95% CI: 61.4%?92.3%), with a median duration of response of 9.77 months (range: 1.54 to 24.82+ months). The DCR reached 96.7% (95% CI: 82.8%?99.9%). The median PFS was 6.85 months (95% CI: 4.46?14.20 months), and the median OS was 19.43 months (95% CI: 9.93 months – not reached). The most common grade 3?4 treatment?related adverse events (AEs) were leukopenia (83.3%), neutropenia (60.0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase level (26.7%). Treatment?related serious AEs included febrile neutropenia, leukopenia, and anorexia in one patient (3.3%), and single cases of increased blood bilirubin level (3.3%) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (3.3%). No treatment?related deaths occurred. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Camrelizumab plus apatinib combined with liposomal paclitaxel and nedaplatin as first?line treatment demonstrated feasible anti?tumor activity and manageable safety in patients with advanced ESCC. Randomized trials to evaluate this new combination strategy are warranted. <h4>Trial registration</h4> This trial was registered on July 27, 2018, at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT03603756).
Project description:Background: Camrelizumab (SHR1210) is a high-affinity, humanized immunoglobulin programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody. It was developed by Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. Ltd. and has been approved for relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients and hepatocellular carcinoma patients in China. Apatinib is an orally administered vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has been approved for advanced gastric adenocarcinoma or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma in China. Camrelizumab alone and its combination with apatinib have been used in the treatment of various solid cancers. Methods: We searched Embase, PubMed, and other databases with the keyword “camrelizumab” or “SHR1210,” and evaluated the safety and efficacy data of the involved studies. Adverse events (AEs) mentioned in at least two studies were summarized, including any grade and grade ?3 treatment-related AEs. Meanwhile, efficacy data were collected, such as overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), duration of response, 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate, median PFS time, 12-month overall survival rate, and median overall survival time. Results: The major AEs of camrelizumab alone were reactive cutaneous capillary endothelial proliferation, fatigue, aspartate aminotransferase increase, proteinuria, pruritus, and alanine transaminase increase. The ORR and DCR were 20.2% (95% CI: 15.1–26.6%, p = 0.000, I2 = 70.360) and 45.8% (95% CI: 39.0–52.7%, p = 0.256, I2 = 58.661), respectively. In the three studies of combination therapy, two studies were combined with apatinib and one combined with chemotherapy. For these studies, common AEs were hypertension, platelet count decrease, nausea, proteinuria, aspartate aminotransferase increase, and white blood cell count decrease. The pooled ORR, DCR, and 6-month PFS rate were 41.8% (95% CI: 29.7–54.9%, p = 0.220, I2 = 86.265), 82.4% (95% CI: 75.9–87.4%, p = 0.000, I2 = 55.207), and 56.2% (95% CI: 35.8–74.6%, p = 0.559, I2 = 79.739), respectively. Conclusion: Camrelizumab and its combination are tolerable and appear to be efficient in treating numerous solid cancers. The combination therapy appears to have better efficacy with durable toxicity. However, these remain to be shown in future studies. Besides, baseline lactate dehydrogenase, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, tumor mutation burden, and the incidence of reactive cutaneous capillary endothelial proliferation may be efficacy predictors and need to be clarified in further studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apatinib is an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Some clinical trials have demonstrated that apatinib is efficacious against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to probe efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. DESIGN:Multicenter, prospective, single arm study. SETTING:Three teaching hospitals centers in the Sichuan. PARTICIPANTS:Fourteen patients with stage IVA/B nonsquamous NSCLC had previously received at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. INTERVENTION:Patients who were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 were given docetaxel (75?mg/m, i.v., d1) plus oral apatinib (250?mg/d), 4 weeks as one cycle, until disease progression or intolerance to adverse events (AE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints comprised objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and AE incidence rate. RESULTS:All patients carried adenocarcinoma by pathological type. The median follow-up duration was 9.76 months. Out of 14 cases, 12 were evaluable, showing ORR of 33.33%, DCR of 66.67%, DCR of 50% in cases with brain metastasis, median PFS of 2.92 months (95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and 6-month OS of 80%. Primary AEs encompassed: leukopenia in 7 cases (58.33%), hand-foot skin reaction in 5 cases (41.67%), and diarrhea in 4 cases (33.33%). Among them, grade 3 AEs were: leukopenia in 4 cases (33.33%), and hand-foot skin reaction in 1 case (8.33%). No grade 4/5 AEs were reported. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted respectively for PFS and OS. These factors encompassed: gender, age, gene mutations, clinical stage, ECOG scores, quantity of metastatic foci, brain metastasis, and hand-foot skin reaction. Results demonstrated zero risk factors for PFS or OS. CONCLUSION:Apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, is effective and safe against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, with good tolerance profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03416231.
Project description:Apatinib (YN968D1) is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). We conducted a single-arm, nonrandomized phase II study (NCT03121846) to assess the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with stage IV sarcoma. We recruited 64 patients with stage IV sarcoma who had failed chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival rate (PFR), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) at week 12. Treatment-related adverse effects (AEs) were evaluated. Fifty-nine patients were assessed for efficacy and 64 patients for AEs. The median PFS was 7.93 months. At 12 weeks, the PFR was 74%, the ORR was 16.95% (10/59), and the DCR was 86.44% (51/59). The final ORR was 15.25% (9/59) and the DCR was 57.63% (34/59). Notably, 22 patients (34.38%) who developed hypertension, hand-foot-skin reaction, or proteinuria had significantly longer OS than those without these AEs (18.20 vs. 10.73 months; P?=?0.002). We conclude that apatinib is effective and well tolerated in patients with advanced sarcoma. The development of hypertension, hand-foot-skin reaction, or proteinuria may indicate a favorable prognosis, representing a novel finding in sarcoma patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to assess the effect of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) chemotherapy regimens in elderly patients (?70 years old) with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:The clinical records of elderly patients aged ?70 years with advanced squamous NSCLC were reviewed retrospectively. All of these patients received nab-PTX, with or without combination of chemotherapy in Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2017. We analyzed the toxicity profiles, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR). RESULTS:Totally, 52 elderly patients with squamous NSCLC were included in the analysis. For all patients, the ORR was 34.6%, the DCR was 80.8%, median PFS was 5.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-7.8 months), and median OS was 14.3 months (95% CI: 11.0-17.8 months). Combination with chemotherapy significantly prolonged OS (19.3 vs 11.2 months, P = .016), despite a nonsignificant improvement in PFS (7.1 vs 4.2 months, P = .060) vs monotherapy. For patients who received nab-PTX as first-line treatment, the median PFS and OS were 6.7 months and 17.2 months, respectively, and the median OS in combination therapy subgroup was significantly higher than that in monotherapy group (20.3 vs 11.2 months, P = .013). Meanwhile, the median PFS and OS of patients with nab-PTX as second- or later-line treatment were 4.4 months and 13.3 months, respectively, but no survival benefit was achieved by the combination chemotherapy when compared with single-agent chemotherapy. Hematologic toxicities were the most common adverse events (AEs), which include grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (13.7%), thrombocytopenia (4.1%), and anemia (6.8%). The main nonhematologic toxicities were peripheral sensory neuropathy (39.7%), followed by anorexia and nausea/vomiting. CONCLUSION:In elderly advanced squamous NSCLC patients, the treatment of nab-PTX was effective and well tolerated.
Project description:Apatinib, a VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, showed survival benefits in Asian patients with heavily pretreated advanced gastric cancer. However, the adverse event (AEs) profile of apatinib has limited its use. Dosing schedules are used to alleviate toxicities despite no supportive evidence. This study aimed to analyze the toxicity and effectiveness of apatinib alone, especially with different dosing strategies in advanced gastric cancer patients under a real-world setting. Data from the subpopulation of patients who failed ?2 chemotherapy regimens enrolled in the AHEAD-G202 trial were analyzed. The primary endpoint was safety. The secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Totally 120 patients were included into three groups by the initial daily doses: 43 (35.8%) patients in the low-dose (250 mg) group, 67 (55.8%) patients in the mid-dose (425 mg to 500 mg) group, and 10 (8.3%) patients in the high-dose (675 to 850 mg) group. Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent AEs were infrequent (<5%), with the most commonly reported grade 3/4 AEs being hand-foot syndrome (4.2%), hypertension (4.2%,), fatigue (4.2%), and difficulty in swallowing (4.2%) which gradually decreased among the high-, mid-, and low-dose groups. The median OS and PFS were 6.33 months (95% CI, 4.57-7.73) and 3.83 months (95% CI: 1.40-4.20), respectively and were comparable among the three doses groups. We found heavily pretreated advanced gastric cancer patients can tolerate and benefit from lower-doses of apatinib therapy. The lower initial daily dosing strategy represents an alternative approach for optimizing apatinib dosing in clinical practice.
Project description:Background and purpose:Apatinib is a novel, oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR-2. Recent clinical trials have revealed its broad-spectrum anticancer effect. However, most recent studies of apatinib have involved single-arm studies with insufficient cases, different doses of drugs, and different incidences of adverse events (AEs), which has resulted in a lack of accurate measurement of the efficacy and safety of apatinib. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib. Methods:In total, 21 studies from five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], and Cochrane Library) were included in this meta-analysis. All statistical analyses in this meta-analysis were performed using Stata 14.0 software. We used objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) to evaluate the efficacy of apatinib for five major types of solid tumors. Additionally, we used the total incidence of AEs and the incidence of the three most common grade 3-4 AEs to evaluate the safety of apatinib. Results:The pooled results for the efficacy of apatinib in the treatment of different types of solid tumors revealed that patients treated with apatinib exhibited good disease control. In addition, it was likely that an increased dose of apatinib resulted in an increased ORR in lung and breast cancer and an increased DCR in liver and gastric cancer. Although AEs appeared in 84% of patients included in this meta-analysis, most of these AEs were of grades 1-2 and were well tolerated and controlled. The most common grade 3-4 AEs included hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, and proteinuria. Importantly, there were no significant differences in these grade 3-4 AEs with higher doses of apatinib. Conclusion:Apatinib is a novel VEGFR-2 inhibitor with proven efficacy and safety for solid tumors. The meta-analysis reveals the broad-spectrum anticancer effect of apatinib.