Unintended consequences of infection prevention and control measures during COVID-19 pandemic.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In the current COVID-19 pandemic, aggressive Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures have been adopted to prevent healthcare-associated transmission of COVID-19. We evaluated the impact of a multi-modal IPC strategy originally designed for the containment of COVID-19 on the rates of other hospital-acquired-infections (HAIs). METHODOLOGY:From February-August 2020, a multi-modal IPC strategy was implemented across a large healthcare campus in Singapore, comprising improved segregation of patients with respiratory symptoms, universal masking and heightened adherence to Standard Precautions. The following rates of HAI were compared pre- and post-pandemic: healthcare-associated respiratory-viral-infection (HA-RVI), MRSA and CP-CRE acquisition rates, healthcare-facility-associated C.difficile infections (HCFA-CDI) and device-associated HAIs. RESULTS:Enhanced IPC measures introduced to contain COVID-19 had the unintended positive consequence of containing HA-RVI. The cumulative incidence of HA-RVI decreased from 9.69 cases per 10,000 patient-days to 0.83 cases per 10,000 patient-days (incidence-rate-ratio=0.08; 95%CI=0.05-0.13, p<0.05). Hospital-wide MRSA acquisition rates declined significantly during the pandemic (incidence-rate-ratio=0.54, 95%CI=0.46-0.64, p<0.05), together with central-line-associated-bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates (incidence-rate-ratio=0.24, 95%CI=0.07-0.57, p<0.05); likely due to increased compliance with Standard Precautions. Despite the disruption caused by the pandemic, there was no increase in CP-CRE acquisition, and rates of other HAIs remained stable. CONCLUSION:Multimodal IPC strategies can be implemented at scale to successfully mitigate healthcare-associated transmission of RVIs. Good adherence to personal-protective-equipment and hand hygiene kept other HAI rates stable even during an ongoing pandemic where respiratory infections were prioritized for interventions.
Project description:The impact of infection prevention and control (IPC) programs in limited resource countries such as Russia are largely unknown due to a lack of reliable data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an IPC program with respect to healthcare associated infection (HAI) prevention and to define the incidence of HAIs in a Russian ICU.A pioneering IPC program was implemented in a neuro-ICU at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute in 2010 and included hand hygiene, surveillance, contact precautions, patient isolation, and environmental cleaning measures. This prospective observational cohort study lasted from 2011 to 2016, included high-risk ICU patients, and evaluated the dynamics of incidence, etiological spectrum, and resistance profile of four types of HAIs, including subgroup analysis of device-associated infections. Survival analysis compared patients with and without HAIs.We included 2038 high-risk patients. By 2016, HAI cumulative incidence decreased significantly for respiratory HAIs (36.1% vs. 24.5%, p-value?=?0.0003), urinary-tract HAIs (29.1% vs. 21.3%, p-value?=?0.0006), and healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (HAVM) (16% vs. 7.8%, p-value?=?0.004). The incidence rate of EVD-related HAVM dropped from 22.2 to 13.5 cases per 1000 EVD-days. The proportion of invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems decreased 1.7 and 2 fold, respectively. HAVM significantly impaired survival and independently increasing the probability of death by 1.43.The implementation of an evidence-based IPC program in a middle-income country (Russia) was highly effective in HAI prevention with meaningful reductions in antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a serious threat to patient safety worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Reducing the burden of HAIs through the observation and enforcement of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices remains a priority. Despite growing emphasis on HAI prevention in low- and middle-income countries, limited evidence is available to improve IPC practices to reduce HAIs. This study examined the perspectives of healthcare providers (HPs) and mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit on HAIs and determined the major barriers and facilitators to promoting standard IPC practices. This study draws on data from an ethnographic study using 38 in-depth interviews, four focus group discussions and participant observation conducted among HPs and mothers in neonatal intensive care units of a secondary- and tertiary-level hospital in Ghana. The qualitative data were analysed using a grounded theory approach, and NVivo 12 to facilitate coding. HPs and mothers demonstrated a modest level of understanding about HAIs. Personal, interpersonal, community, organizational and policy-level factors interacted in complex ways to influence IPC practices. HPs sometimes considered HAI concerns to be secondary in the face of a heavy clinical workload, a lack of structured systems and the quest to protect professional authority. The positive attitudes of some HPs, and peer interactions promoted standard IPC practices. Mothers expressed interest in participation in IPC activities. It however requires systematic efforts by HPs to partner with mothers in IPC. Training and capacity building of HPs, provision of adequate resources and improving communication between HPs and mothers were recommended to improve standard IPC practices. We conclude that there is a need for institutionalizing IPC policies and strengthening strategies that acknowledge and value mothers' roles as caregivers and partners in IPC. To ensure this, HPs should be better equipped to prioritize communication and collaboration with mothers to reduce the burden of HAIs.
Project description:Background During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare-associated transmission of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is a concern. To reduce the impact of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses on patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) we devised and evaluated a multi-tiered infection control strategy with the goal of preventing nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV2 and other RVIs across a large healthcare campus. Methodology From January-June 2020, a multi-tiered infection control strategy was implemented across a healthcare campus in Singapore, comprising the largest acute tertiary hospital as well as four other subspecialty centres, with more than 10,000 HCWs. Drawing on our institution’s experience with an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003, this strategy included improved patient segregation and distancing, and heightened infection prevention and control (IPC) measures including universal masking. All symptomatic patients were tested for COVID-19 and common RVIs. Results A total of 16,162 admissions campus-wide were screened; 7.% (1155/16162) tested positive for COVID-19. Less than 5% of COVID-19 cases (39/1155) were initially detected outside of isolation wards in multi-bedded cohorted wards. Improved distancing and enhanced IPC measures successfully mitigated onward spread even amongst COVID-19 cases detected outside of isolation. COVID-19 rates amongst HCWs were kept low (0.13%, 17/13066) and reflected community acquisition rather than nosocomial spread. Rates of healthcare-associated-RVI amongst inpatients fell to zero and this decrease was sustained even after the lifting of visitor restrictions. Conclusion This multi-tiered infection control strategies can be implemented at-scale to successfully mitigate healthcare-associated transmission of respiratory viral pathogens. Highlights • A multi-tiered infection control strategy successfully contained both COVID-19 and common respiratory viral infections throughout a large healthcare system over six months of surveillance.• Despite caring for >1500 COVID-19 cases, no patient-staff transmission occurred.• Rates of healthcare-associated respiratory viral infections fell to zero over a six-month period.• Key components of the strategy included improved patient segregation and distancing, and universal masking.
Project description:Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs.The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden because of their high severity. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was higher than the total burden of all other 32 communicable diseases included in the BCoDE 2009-2013 study. The main limitations of the study are the variability in the parameter estimates, in particular the disease models' case fatalities, and the use of the Rhame and Sudderth formula for estimating incident number of cases from prevalence data.We estimated the EU/EEA burden of HAIs in DALYs in 2011-2012 using a transparent and evidence-based approach that allows for combining estimates of morbidity and of mortality in order to compare with other diseases and to inform a comprehensive ranking suitable for prioritization. Our results highlight the high burden of HAIs and the need for increased efforts for their prevention and control. Furthermore, our model should allow for estimations of the potential benefit of preventive measures on the burden of HAIs in the EU/EEA.
Project description:Objective:To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Egyptian hospitals reporting to the national HAI surveillance system. Methods:Design: Descriptive analysis of CRE HAIs and retrospective observational cohort study using national HAI surveillance data. Setting: Egyptian hospitals participating in the HAI surveillance system. The patient population included patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in participating hospitals. Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases were Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter isolates from blood, urine, wound or respiratory specimen collected on or after day 3 of ICU admission. CRE HAI cases were those resistant to at least one carbapenem. For CRE HAI cases reported during 2011-2017, a hospital-level and patient-level analysis were conducted using only the first CRE isolate by pathogen and specimen type for each patient. For facility, microbiology, and clinical characteristics, frequencies and means were calculated among CRE HAI cases and compared with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases through univariate and multivariate logistic regression using STATA 13. Results:There were 1598 Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases, of which 871 (54.1%) were carbapenem resistant. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that carbapenem resistance was associated with specimen type, pathogen, location prior to admission, and length of ICU stay. Between 2011 and 2017, there was an increase in the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases due to CRE (p-value?=?0.003) and the incidence of CRE HAIs (p-value?=?0.09). Conclusions:This analysis demonstrated a high and increasing burden of CRE in Egyptian hospitals, highlighting the importance of enhancing infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and antimicrobial stewardship activities and guiding the implementation of targeted IPC measures to contain CRE in Egyptian ICU's .
Project description:Highlights • Of 1565 patient, 140 (8.9%) separate HAIs from 73 different organisms developed in 59 (3.7%) patients.• Tocilizumab, steroids and hydroxychloroquine are associated with higher rate of HAIs.• HAIs are not associated with increased risk of death. Introduction Healthcare Associated infections (HAI) after a viral illness are important source of morbidity and mortality, this has not been studied well in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods We included all COVID-19 positive adult patients (?18 years) hospitalized between March 1, 2020 to August 5th, 2020. We used CDC definitions of HAI in the acute care setting. Outcomes studied were rates and types of infections and in hospital mortality.. We constructed several multivariable logistic regression models to examine characteristics associated with development of HAI. Results Of 1565 patients, 140 separate HAIs from 73 different organisms developed in 59 (3.7%) patients. Of these, 23 were gram positive, 39 were gram negative and 11 were fungal. Patient developing HAI did not have higher odds of death (OR 0.85,95%CI 0.40-1.81, p?=?0.69). HAIs were associated with use of tocilizumab (OR 5.04, 95%CI 2.4-10.6, p?<?0.001), steroids (OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.4-10, p?=?0.007), hydroxychloroquine(OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.0-8.8, p?=?0.05) and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis (OR 3.7, 95%CI 1.1-12.8, p?=?0.04). Conclusions HAI are common in hospitalized covid-19 patients. Tocilizumab and steroids were associated with increased risk of HAIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Incidence rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) depend upon infection control policy and practices, and the effectiveness of the implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Amongst intensive care unit (ICU) patients with HAIs, a substantial number of pathogens were reported to be multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). However, impacts of ICU HAIs due to MDRB (MDRB-HAIs) remain understudied. Our study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of MRDB-HAIs versus HAIs due to non-MDRB (non-MRDB-HAIs). METHODS:Among 60,317 adult patients admitted at ICUs of a 2680-bed medical centre in Taiwan between January 2010 and December 2017, 279 pairs of propensity-score matched MRDB-HAI and non-MRDB-HAI were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Between the MDRB-HAI group and the non-MDRB-HAI group, significant differences were found in overall hospital costs, costs of medical and nursing services, medication, and rooms/beds, and in ICU length-of-stay (LOS). As compared with the non-MDRB-HAI group, the mean of the overall hospital costs of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 26%; for categorized expenditures, the mean of costs of medical and nursing services of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 8%, of medication by 26.9%, of rooms/beds by 10.3%. The mean ICU LOS in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 13%. Mortality rates in both groups did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS:These data clearly demonstrate more negative impacts of MDRB-HAIs in ICUs. The quantified financial burdens will be helpful for hospital/government policymakers in allocating resources to mitigate MDRB-HAIs in ICUs; in case of need for clarification/verification of the medico-economic burdens of MDRB-HAIs in different healthcare systems, this study provides a model to facilitate the evaluations.
Project description:Introduction: The objective of the analysis was to determine the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in neurosurgical patients, paying special attention to two time points, 2003 and 2017, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a surveillance program introduced in 2003 and efforts to reduce infection rates. Materials and methods: Continuous surveillance during 2003?2017 carried out using the HAI-Net methodology allowed us to detect 476 cases of HAIs among 10,332 patients staying in a 42-bed neurosurgery unit. The intervention in this before?after study (2003?2017) comprised standardized HAI surveillance with regular analysis and feedback. Results: The HAI incidence during the whole study was 4.6%. Surgical site infections (SSIs) accounted for 33% of all HAIs with an incidence rate of 1.5%. The remaining infections were pneumonia (1.1%) and bloodstream infections (0.9%). The highest SSI incidence concerned spinal fusion (FUSN, 2.2%), craniotomy (1.9%), and ventricular shunt (5.1%) while the associated total HAI incidence rates were 4.1%, 8.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. A significant reduction was found in HAI incidence between 2003 and 2017 in regard to the most common surgery types: laminectomy (4.5% vs. 0.8%); FUSN (11.8% vs. 0.8%); and craniotomy (10.1% vs. 0.4%). Significant changes were also achieved in selected elements of the unit's work: pre-hospitalization duration, hospital stay, and surgery length reductions. Simultaneously, the general condition of patients became significantly worse: there was an increase in patients' age and decreases in their general condition as expressed by ASA scores (The American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system). Conclusions: HAI epidemiology changed substantially during the study period. Among the main types of HAI, SSIs were slightly predominant, but non-surgical HAIs accounted for almost two thirds of all infections; this indicates the need for surveillance of infection types other than SSIs in surgical patients. The implementation of active surveillance based on regular analysis and feedback led to a significant reduction in HAI incidence.
Project description:Background:To quantify the five year incidence trend of all healthcare-associated infections (HAI) using a real-time HAI electronic surveillance system in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. Methods:The real-time surveillance system scans the hospital's electronic databases related to HAI (e.g. microbiological reports and antibiotics administration) to identify HAI cases. We conducted retrospective secondary analyses of the data exported from the surveillance system for inpatients with all types of HAIs from January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2017. Incidence of HAI is defined as the number of HAIs per 1000 patient-days. We modeled the incidence data using negative binomial regression. Results:In total, 23361 HAI cases were identified from 633990 patients, spanning 6242375 patient-days during the 5-year period. Overall, the adjusted five-year HAI incidence rate had a marginal reduction from 2013 (4.10 per 1000 patient days) to 2017 (3.62 per 1000 patient days). The incidence of respiratory tract infection decreased significantly. However, the incidence rate of bloodstream infections and surgical site infection increased significantly. Respiratory tract infection (43.80%) accounted for the most substantial proportion of HAIs, followed by bloodstream infections (15.74%), and urinary tract infection (12.69%). A summer peak in HAIs was detected among adult and elderly patients. Conclusions:This study shows how continuous electronic incidence surveillance based on existing hospital electronic databases can provide a practical means of measuring hospital-wide HAI incidence. The estimated incidence trends demonstrate the necessity for improved infection control measures related to bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, non-intensive care patients, and non-device-associated HAIs, especially during summer months.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use (AMU) are important drivers of antimicrobial resistance, yet there is minimal data from the Pacific region. We sought to determine the point prevalence of HAIs and AMU at Fiji's largest hospital, the Colonial War Memorial Hospital (CWMH) in Suva. A secondary aim was to evaluate the performance of European Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control (ECDC) HAI criteria in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:We conducted a point prevalence survey of HAIs and AMU at CWMH in October 2019. Survey methodology was adapted from the ECDC protocol. To evaluate the suitability of ECDC HAI criteria in our setting, we augmented the survey to identify patients with a clinician diagnosis of a HAI where diagnostic testing criteria were not met. We also assessed infection prevention and control (IPC) infrastructure on each ward. RESULTS:We surveyed 343 patients, with median (interquartile range) age 30?years (16-53), predominantly admitted under obstetrics/gynaecology (94, 27.4%) or paediatrics (83, 24.2%). Thirty patients had one or more HAIs, a point prevalence of 8.7% (95% CI 6.0% to 12.3%). The most common HAIs were surgical site infections (n =?13), skin and soft tissue infections (7) and neonatal clinical sepsis (6). Two additional patients were identified with physician-diagnosed HAIs that failed to meet ECDC criteria due to insufficient investigations. 206 (60.1%) patients were receiving at least one antimicrobial. Of the 325 antimicrobial prescriptions, the most common agents were ampicillin (58/325, 17.8%), cloxacillin (55/325, 16.9%) and metronidazole (53/325, 16.3%). Use of broad-spectrum agents such as piperacillin/tazobactam (n =?6) and meropenem (1) was low. The majority of prescriptions for surgical prophylaxis were for more than 1 day (45/76, 59.2%). Although the number of handwashing basins throughout the hospital exceeded World Health Organization recommendations, availability of alcohol-based handrub was limited and most concentrated within high-risk wards. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of HAIs in Fiji was similar to neighbouring high-income countries, but may have been reduced by the high proportion of paediatric and obstetrics patients, or by lower rates of inpatient investigations. AMU was very high, with duration of surgical prophylaxis an important target for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.