OxLDL-Induced Trained Immunity Is Dependent on Mitochondrial Metabolic Reprogramming.
ABSTRACT: Following brief exposure to endogenous atherogenic particles, such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), monocytes/macrophages can adopt a long-term pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is called trained immunity. This mechanism might contribute to the chronic low-grade inflammation that characterizes atherosclerosis. In this study, we aim to elucidate immunometabolic pathways that drive oxLDL-induced trained immunity. Primary isolated human monocytes were exposed to oxLDL for 24 h, and after five days stimulated with LPS to measure the cytokine production capacity. RNA-sequencing revealed broad increases in genes enriched in mitochondrial pathways after 24 h of oxLDL exposure. Further omics profiling of oxLDL-trained macrophages via intracellular metabolomics showed an enrichment for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. Single cell analysis revealed that oxLDL-trained macrophages contain larger mitochondria, potentially likely linked to increased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity. Co-incubation with pharmacological blockers of OXPHOS inhibited oxLDL-induced trained immunity. The relevance of OXPHOS was confirmed in a cohort of 243 healthy subjects showing that genetic variation in genes coding for enzymes relevant to OXPHOS correlated with the capacity of monocytes to be trained with oxLDL. Interestingly, OXPHOS appears to play an important role in the increased cytokine hyperresponsiveness by oxLDL-trained macrophages. The TCA-cycle can also be fuelled by glutamine and free fatty acids, and pharmacological blockade of these pathways could prevent oxLDL-induced trained immunity. This study demonstrates that the mitochondria of oxLDL-trained macrophages undergo changes to their function and form with OXPHOS being an important mechanism for trained immunity, which could unveil novel pharmacological targets to prevent atherogenesis.
Project description:Objective: Damage and pathogen associated molecular patterns such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine can induce long term pro-inflammatory priming in monocytes and macrophages due to metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming-an emerging new concept called trained innate immunity. Vascular smooth muscle cells express pattern recognition receptors involved in trained innate immunity in monocytes. Here we investigated whether the mechanisms of trained innate immunity also control a proinflammatory phenotype in human coronary smooth muscle cells. Methods: Human coronary smooth muscle cells were primed with oxLDL or BCG for 24 h. After a resting time of 4 to 7 days, the cells were restimulated with either PAM3cys4, LPS or TNF? and cytokine production or mRNA expression were measured. Then, mechanisms of monocyte trained innate immunity were analyzed in smooth muscle cells, including receptors, intracellular pathways as well as metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming. Results: Priming with oxLDL or BCG lead to a significantly increased production of IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 following restimulation. OxLDL priming had little effect on the expression of macrophage or SMC marker genes. Proinflammatory priming of smooth muscle cells induced mTOR-HIF1?-signaling and could be blocked by mTOR-, TLR2-, and TLR4-inhibition. Finally, metabolic and epigenetic mechanisms of trained innate immunity in monocytes could be replicated in smooth muscle cells, including increased glucose consumption, lactate production, responsiveness to 6-fluoromevalonate and mevalonate treatment and inhibition of priming by the histone methyltransferase inhibitor methylthioadenosine (MTA). Conclusion: We demonstrate for the first time that mechanisms of the so called trained innate immunity control a proinflammatory phenotype in non-immune cells of the vascular wall. Our findings warrant further research into the specificity of trained innate immunity as an immune cell response as well as the mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle cells inflammation.
Project description:Introduction: Cells of the innate immune system particularly monocytes and macrophages have been recognized as pivotal players both during the initial insult as well as the chronic phase of atherosclerosis. It has recently been shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces a long-term pro-inflammatory response in monocytes due to epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming, an emerging new concept called trained innate immunity. Changes in the cellular redox state are crucial events in the regulation of many physiologic functions in macrophages including transcription, differentiation and inflammatory response. Here we have analyzed the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating this proinflammatory monocyte priming in response to oxLDL-treatment. Methods and Results: Human monocytes were isolated and incubated with oxLDL for 24 h. After 5 days of resting, oxLDL treated cells produced significantly more inflammatory cytokines upon restimulation with the TLR2-agonist Pam3cys. Furthermore, oxLDL incubation induced persistent mTOR activation, ROS formation, HIF1? accumulation and HIF1? target gene expression, while pharmacologic mTOR inhibition or siRNA mediated inhibition of the mTORC1 subunit Raptor prevented ROS formation and proinflammatory priming. mTOR dependent ROS formation was associated with increased expression of NAPDH oxidases and necessary for the emergence of the primed phenotype as antioxidant treatment blocked oxLDL priming. Inhibition of cytosolic ROS formation could also block mTOR activation and HIF1? accumulation suggesting a positive feedback loop between mTOR and cytosolic ROS. Although mitochondrial ROS scavenging did not block HIF1?-accumulation at an early time point (24 h), it was persistently reduced on day 6. Therefore, mitochondrial ROS formation appears to occur initially downstream of the mTOR-cytoROS-HIF1? feedback loop but seems to be a crucial factor that controls the long-term activation of the mTOR-HIF1?-axis. Conclusion: In summary, our data demonstrate that mTOR dependent ROS production controls the oxLDL-induced trained innate immunity phenotype in human monocyte derived macrophages. Pharmacologic modulation of these pathways might provide a potential approach to modulate inflammation, associated with aberrant monocyte activation, during atherosclerosis development.
Project description:Innate immune memory is the phenomenon whereby innate immune cells such as monocytes or macrophages undergo functional reprogramming after exposure to microbial components such as Beta glucan or the BCG vaccine. Here we characterize the transcriptional events following oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) duced trained innate immunity using RNA-seq data. Overall design: Primary human monocytes were exposed to oxLDL or media alone for 24 hours in culture. oxLDL was then removed and cells were allowed to differentiate to macrophages for an additional 5 days. RNA was collected at baseline, day 1, day 6 and upon 4 hour re-exposure to LPS at day 6. .
Project description:Stimulation of monocytes with microbial and non-microbial products, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), induces a protracted pro-inflammatory, atherogenic phenotype sustained by metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming via a process called trained immunity. We investigated the intracellular metabolic mechanisms driving oxLDL-induced trained immunity in human primary monocytes and observed concomitant upregulation of glycolytic activity and oxygen consumption. In two separate cohorts of healthy volunteers, we assessed the impact of genetic variation in glycolytic genes on the training capacity of monocytes and found that variants mapped to glycolytic enzymes PFKFB3 and PFKP influenced trained immunity by oxLDL. Subsequent functional validation with inhibitors of glycolytic metabolism revealed dose-dependent inhibition of trained immunity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the glucose metabolism modulator metformin abrogated the ability for human monocytes to mount a trained response to oxLDL. These findings underscore the importance of cellular metabolism for oxLDL-induced trained immunity and highlight potential immunomodulatory strategies for clinical management of atherosclerosis. KEY MESSAGES: Brief stimulation of monocytes to oxLDL induces a prolonged inflammatory phenotype. This is due to upregulation of glycolytic metabolism. Genetic variation in glycolytic genes modulates oxLDL-induced trained immunity. Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis prevents trained immunity.
Project description:Innate immune memory is the phenomenon whereby innate immune cells such as monocytes or macrophages undergo functional reprogramming after exposure to microbial components. In this study we apply RNA-seq analysis to healthy human monocytes exposed to oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL), in vitro. Overall design: Monocytes from healthy donors were cultured in vitro for 24 hours with media or oxLDL
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Extravasation of macrophages and formation of lipid-laden foam cells are key events in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The degradation of atherogenic lipoproteins subsequently leads to alterations in cellular lipid metabolism that influence inflammatory signaling. Especially sphingolipids and ceramides are known to be involved in these processes. We therefore analyzed monocyte derived macrophages during differentiation and after loading with enzymatically (eLDL) and oxidatively (oxLDL) modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL).<h4>Methods</h4>Primary human monocytes were isolated from healthy, normolipidemic blood donors using leukapheresis and counterflow elutriation. On the fourth day of MCSF-induced differentiation eLDL (40 ?g/ml) or oxLDL (80 ?g/ml) were added for 48h. Lipid species were analyzed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry. Taqman qPCR was performed to investigate transcriptional changes in enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, membrane lipids were studied using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.<h4>Results</h4>MCSF dependent phagocytic differentiation of blood monocytes had only minor effects on the sphingolipid composition. Levels of total sphingomyelin and total ceramide remained unchanged, while lactosylceramides, cholesterylesters and free cholesterol decreased. At the species level most ceramide species showed a reduction upon phagocytic differentiation. Loading with eLDL preferentially increased cellular cholesterol while loading with oxLDL increased cellular ceramide content. Activation of the salvage pathway with a higher mRNA expression of acid and neutral sphingomyelinase, neutral sphingomyelinase activation associated factor and glucosylceramidase as well as increased surface expression of SMPD1 were identified as potentially underlying mechanisms. Moreover, flow-cytometric analysis revealed a higher cell-surface-expression of ceramide, lactosylceramide (CDw17), globotriaosylceramide (CD77), dodecasaccharide-ceramide (CD65s) and GM1 ganglioside upon oxLDL loading. ApoE in contrast to apoA-I preferentially bound to the ceramide enriched surfaces of oxLDL loaded cells. Confocal microscopy showed a co-localization of acid sphingomyelinase with ceramide rich membrane microdomains.<h4>Conclusion</h4>eLDL leads to the formation of lipid droplets and preferentially induces cholesterol/sphingomyelin rich membrane microdomains while oxLDL promotes the development of cholesterol/ceramide rich microdomains via activation of the salvage pathway.
Project description:Innate immune memory is the phenomenon whereby innate immune cells such as monocytes or macrophages undergo functional reprogramming after exposure to microbial components. In this study we apply epigenetic, H3K27ac and H3K4me3 ChIP-seq, analysis to healthy human monocytes exposed to oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (oxLDL), in vitro. Overall design: Monocytes from healthy donors were cultured in vitro for 24 hours with media or oxLDL