Good practices for the translation, cultural adaptation, and linguistic validation of clinician-reported outcome, observer-reported outcome, and performance outcome measures.
ABSTRACT: Within current literature and practice, the category of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures has been expanded into the broader category of clinical outcome assessments (COAs), which includes the subcategory of PRO, as well as clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO), observer-reported outcome (ObsRO), and performance outcome (PerfO) measure subcategories. However, despite this conceptual expansion, recommendations associated with translation, cultural adaptation, and linguistic validation of COAs remain focused on PRO measures, which has created a gap in specific process recommendations for the remaining types. This lack of recommendations has led to inconsistent approaches being implemented, leading to uncertainty in the scientific community regarding suitable methods. To address this gap, the ISOQOL Translation and Cultural Adaptation Special Interest Group (TCA-SIG) has developed recommendations specific to each of the three COA types currently lacking such documentation to support a standardized approach to their translation, cultural adaptation, and linguistic validation. The recommended process utilized to translate ObsRO, ClinRO and PerfO measures from one language to another aligns closely with the industry standard process for PRO measures. The substantial differences between respondent categories across COA types require targeted approaches to the cognitive interviewing procedures utilized within the linguistic validation process, including the use of patients for patient-facing text in ClinRO measures, and the need to interview the targeted observers for ObsROs measures.
Project description:This paper presents emerging Good Practices for Translatability Assessment (TA) of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures. The ISOQOL Translation and Cultural Adaptation Special Interest Group (TCA-SIG) undertook the review of several TA approaches, with the collaboration of organizations who are involved in conducting TA, and members of the TCA-SIG. The effort led to agreement by the writing group on Good Practices for 1) the terminology to be used in referring to translatability process, 2) the best definition of TA, 3) the methodology that is recommended at each step of the process, 4) the persons involved in TA, 5) the timing of assessment, 6) the review criteria for TA, and 7) the recommendations to be made at the end of the TA process. With input from the TCA-SIG membership and in consultation with experts in the field, these emerging good practices can guide the future use of TA in the development of PROs.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a seasonal infection affecting most children by 2 years of age and the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection requiring hospitalization in infants. Novel antiviral medications are in development to improve the clinical outcomes of RSV; however, no clinical outcome assessments (COAs) for RSV have been developed in alignment with the United States Food and Drug Administration patient-reported outcome guidance to assist in the evaluation of new therapies. To address this need, an observer-reported outcome (ObsRO) measure designed to assess observable RSV symptoms was created.The literature was reviewed to evaluate existing COAs and identify constructs of interest. Individual caregiver interviews elicited concepts that informed item development, and candidate items were subsequently evaluated in two rounds of cognitive testing. Separate cohorts of caregivers of RSV-infected nonhospitalized and hospitalized infants participated. Therapeutic-area experts provided input throughout the instrument development process.Caregivers of 39 children <?24 months old with RSV (31 nonhospitalized, 8 hospitalized) participated in in-depth, individual interviews during concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing, resulting in 21 concepts identified as potentially observable and relevant to young children with RSV. The item pool was reduced to 12 cardinal symptoms and behavior impacts reported to be directly observable by caregivers, with 10 daytime and 9 nighttime symptoms to capture diurnal variation in severity.The RSV Caregiver Diary assesses RSV symptom severity and change from the parent or caregiver perspective in a standardized manner to measure treatment benefit. Following psychometric evaluation and refinement, this tool is expected to be suitable for assisting in the clinical development of RSV therapeutics.
Project description:Several preference based measures are validated for adults in cost utility analysis, but less are available for children and many researchers have criticized the quality of pediatric economic studies. The objective of this study was to perform a Canadian French translation and linguistic validation of the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) that was conceptually equivalent to the original English version for use in Canada.The translation and linguistic validation were realized by ICON Clinical Research (UK) Limited in association with the developer of the CHU9D and Canadian collaborators. This was done in accordance with industry standards and the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. Five steps were considered: concept elaboration; forward translation; back translation; linguistic validation; proofreading and final verification.The CHU9D Canadian French translation and linguistic validation were realized without any major difficulties. Only 3 changes were made after the forward translation and 5 after the back translation. The result of back translation was very similar to the original English version. Six additional changes suggested by the developer team were accepted and the linguistic validation with five children led to 2 additional changes. Most changes were generally to change one word to better sounding Canadian French.We produced a Canadian French translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D). Before being used in clinical settings and research projects, the final Canadian French translation needs to be validated for metrological qualities of reliability and validity.
Project description:We developed an Observer-Reported Outcome (ObsRO) survey instrument to be applied in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, crossover randomized controlled trial of dichloroacetate in children with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. The instrument quantifies a subject's at-home level of functionality, as reported by a parent/caregiver, who were instrumental in providing the clinical descriptors and domains that formed the instrument's content. Feasibility testing of the ObsRO tool showed it to be easy to use and comprehensive in capturing the major clinical functional limitations of affected children and requires less than 5min for a parent/caregiver to complete daily.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mental health conditions affect aspects of people's lives that are often not captured in common health-related outcome measures. The OxCAP-MH self-reported, quality of life questionnaire based on Sen's capability approach was developed in the UK to overcome these limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a linguistically and culturally valid German version of the questionnaire.<h4>Methods</h4>Following forward and back translations, the wording underwent cultural and linguistic validation with input from a sample of 12 native German speaking mental health patients in Austria in 2015. Qualitative feedback from patients and carers was obtained via interviews and focus group meetings. Feedback from mental health researchers from Germany was incorporated to account for cross-country differences.<h4>Results</h4>No significant item modifications were necessary. However, changes due to ambiguous wordings, possibilities for differential interpretations, politically unacceptable expressions, cross-country language differences and differences in political and social systems, were needed. The study confirmed that all questions are relevant and understandable for people with mental health conditions in a German speaking setting and transferability of the questionnaire from English to German speaking countries is feasible.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Professional translation is necessary for the linguistic accuracy of different language versions of patient-reported outcome measures but does not guarantee linguistic and cultural validity and cross-country transferability. Additional context-specific piloting is essential. The time and resources needed to achieve valid multi-lingual versions should not be underestimated. Further research is ongoing to confirm the psychometric properties of the German version.
Project description:Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) specific for genital psoriasis (GenPs) have not been described.In this cross-sectional, qualitative study in patients with moderate-to-severe GenPs, we sought to develop a PRO useful for GenPs symptom assessment. A literature review was performed to identify relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms and existing PROs that may be useful in the evaluation of symptom severity in GenPs patients. The literature review findings were discussed with clinicians, and then patients with GenPs.Relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms from the literature review included itch, pain, scaling, redness/erythema, and stinging/burning. The validity of these symptoms for GenPs and potentially relevant PROs was corroborated by clinical experts. After gap analysis, a draft symptom scale consisting of Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) items was constructed. We then conducted interviews with GenPs patients (n = 20) to support content validity and use of the draft symptom NRS items in routine practice and in clinical trials. Participants identified and confirmed relevant symptoms and evaluated the utility of the draft PRO. A new PRO was developed: the Genital Psoriasis Symptoms Scale (GPSS). Cognitive debriefing and cultural adaptation/translation interviews with a second group of patients confirmed cultural appropriateness of the GPSS.The GPSS may be useful for assessing symptoms before, during, and after treatment in routine clinical practice and in clinical trials involving patients with GenPs.Eli Lilly & Company. Plain language summary available for this article.
Project description:Infertility has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and well-being of affected individuals and couples. A variety of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to assess infertility-related QoL are available; however, there is a concern regarding potential issues with their development methodology, validation and use. This review aimed to i) identify PRO measures used in infertility interventional studies ii) assess validation evidence to identify a reliable, valid PRO measure to assess changes in QoL or treatment satisfaction in clinical studies with female patients following treatment with novel therapies iii) identify potential gaps in evidence for validity.A structured literature search of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (accessed in September 2015) was conducted using pre-defined search terms. The identified publications were reviewed applying eligibility criteria to select interventional female infertility studies using PROs. Infertility-specific PRO measures assessing QoL, treatment satisfaction or psychiatric health, and included in studies by ?2 research groups were selected and critically reviewed in light of scientific and regulatory guidance (e.g. FDA PRO Guidance for Industry) for evidence of content validity, psychometric strength, and patient acceptability.The literature search and hand-searching yielded 122 publications; 78 unique PRO measures assessing QoL, treatment satisfaction or psychiatric health were identified. Five PRO measures met the selection criteria for detailed review: Fertility Quality of Life (FertiQoL); Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI); Fertility Problem Stress (FPS); Infertility Questionnaire (IFQ); Illness Cognitions Questionnaire adapted for Infertility (ICQ-I). None of the PRO measures met all validation criteria. The FertiQoL was the most widely used infertility-specific PRO measure to assess QoL in interventional studies, with reasonable evidence for adequate content validity, psychometric strength, and linguistic validation. However, gaps in evidence remain including test-retest reliability and thresholds for interpreting clinically important changes. While the FPI demonstrated reasonable evidence for content and psychometric validity, its utility as an outcome measure is limited by a lack of recall period.The FertiQoL and the FPI are potentially useful measures of infertility-related QoL in interventional studies. Further research is recommended to address gaps in evidence and confirm both PRO measures as reliable assessments of patient outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Symptom scales for aging women have clinically been used for years and the interest in measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has increased in recent years. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) is a formally validated scale according to the requirements for quality of life instruments. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the instrument particularly concerning versions of the scale in different languages. MRS VERSIONS AVAILABLE: The translations were performed following international methodological recommendations for the linguistic & cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments. The first translation was done from the German original scale into English (UK & USA). The English version was used as the source language for the translations into French, Spanish, Swedish, Mexican/Argentine, Brazilian, Turkish, and Indonesian languages (attached as additional PDF files). CONCLUSION: The MRS scale is obviously a valuable tool for assessing health related quality of life of women in the menopausal transition and is used worldwide. The currently available 9 language versions have been translated following international standards for the linguistic and cultural translation of quality of life scales. Assistance is offered to help interested parties in the translation process.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with multiple myeloma report more problems with quality of life (QoL) than other haematological malignancies over the course of their incurable illness. The patient-centred Myeloma Patient Outcome Scale (MyPOS) was developed to assess and monitor symptoms and supportive care factors in routine care. Our aim was to translate and culturally adapt the outcome measure to the German context, and to explore its face and content validity. METHODS:Translation and cultural adaptation following established guidelines used an exploratory, sequential mixed method study design. Steps included: (1) forward translation to German; (2) backward translation to English; (3) expert review; (4) focus groups with the target population (patients, family members, healthcare professionals) to achieve conceptual equivalence; (5) cognitive interviews using Tourangeau's model with think-aloud technique to evaluate comprehension and acceptability; (6) final review. Results were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS:Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the German and English original version. The focus groups (n?=?11) and cognitive interviews (n?=?9) both highlighted the need for adapting individual items and their answer options to the German healthcare context. Greater individuality regarding need for information with the right to not be informed was elaborated by patients. While the comprehensive nature of the tool was appreciated, item wording regarding satisfaction with healthcare was deemed not appropriate in the German context. Before implementation into routine care, patients' concerns about keeping their MyPOS data confidential need to be addressed as a barrier, whereas the MyPOS itself was perceived as a facilitator/prompt for a patient-centred discussion of QoL issues. CONCLUSION:With adaptations to answer options and certain items, the German version of the MyPOS can help monitor symptoms and problems afflicting myeloma patients over the course of the disease trajectory. It can help promote a model of comprehensive supportive and patient-centred care for these patients.
Project description:Daghestan, with its exceptional combination of linguistic, geographic, and cultural diversity, presents an excellent natural laboratory for tracking the influence of demographic processes on patterns of genetic variation. This study was designed to investigate the co-evolution of genes and languages, comparing and contrasting patterns of linguistic, genetic and geographic variation among Daghestani populations. Overall design: 62 samples from 4 populations have been genotyped using the Illumina platform GPL19699