Structural insights into the effect of active-site mutation on the catalytic mechanism of carbonic anhydrase
ABSTRACT: X-ray crystallography was used to elucidate the effect of a single-site mutation on the activity of a native metalloenzyme. The subtle structural modifications around the active site of the enzyme were correlated with the retarded catalytic efficiency in terms of the mechanistic steps and their kinetics. Enzymes are catalysts of biological processes. Significant insight into their catalytic mechanisms has been obtained by relating site-directed mutagenesis studies to kinetic activity assays. However, revealing the detailed relationship between structural modifications and functional changes remains challenging owing to the lack of information on reaction intermediates and of a systematic way of connecting them to the measured kinetic parameters. Here, a systematic approach to investigate the effect of an active-site-residue mutation on a model enzyme, human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), is described. Firstly, structural analysis is performed on the crystallographic intermediate states of native CA II and its V143I variant. The structural comparison shows that the binding affinities and configurations of the substrate (CO2) and product (HCO3?) are altered in the V143I variant and the water network in the water-replenishment pathway is restructured, while the proton-transfer pathway remains mostly unaffected. This structural information is then used to estimate the modifications of the reaction rate constants and the corresponding free-energy profiles of CA II catalysis. Finally, the obtained results are used to reveal the effect of the V143I mutation on the measured kinetic parameters (kcat and kcat/Km) at the atomic level. It is believed that the systematic approach outlined in this study may be used as a template to unravel the structure–function relationships of many other biologically important enzymes.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes that catalyze removal of acetyl-lysine post-translational modifications are frequently post-translationally modified. HDAC8 is phosphorylated within the deacetylase domain at conserved residue serine 39, which leads to decreased catalytic activity. HDAC8 phosphorylation at S39 is unique in its location and function and may represent a novel mode of deacetylation regulation. To better understand the impact of phosphorylation of HDAC8 on enzyme structure and function, we performed crystallographic, kinetic, and molecular dynamics studies of the S39E HDAC8 phosphomimetic mutant. This mutation decreases the level of deacetylation of peptides derived from acetylated nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. However, the magnitude of the effect depends on the peptide sequence and the identity of the active site metal ion [Zn(II) vs Fe(II)], with the value of kcat/KM for the mutant decreasing 9- to >200-fold compared to that of wild-type HDAC8. Furthermore, the dissociation rate constant of the active site metal ion increases by ?10-fold. S39E HDAC8 was crystallized in complex with the inhibitor Droxinostat, revealing that phosphorylation of S39, as mimicked by the glutamate side chain, perturbs local structure through distortion of the L1 loop. Molecular dynamics simulations of both S39E and phosphorylated S39 HDAC8 demonstrate that the perturbation of the L1 loop likely occurs because of the lost hydrogen bond between D29 and S39. Furthermore, the S39 perturbation causes structural changes that propagate through the protein scaffolding to influence function in the active site. These data demonstrate that phosphorylation plays an important regulatory role for HDAC8 by affecting ligand binding, catalytic efficiency, and substrate selectivity.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3(-) with rates approaching diffusion-controlled limits (kcat/KM ? 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)). This family of enzymes has evolved disparate protein folds that all perform the same reaction at near catalytic perfection. Presented here is a structural study of a ?-CA (psCA3) expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in complex with CO2, using pressurized cryo-cooled crystallography. The structure has been refined to 1.6 Å resolution with R(cryst) and R(free) values of 17.3 and 19.9%, respectively, and is compared with the ?-CA, human CA isoform II (hCA II), the only other CA to have CO2 captured in its active site. Despite the lack of structural similarity between psCA3 and hCA II, the CO2 binding orientation relative to the zinc-bound solvent is identical. In addition, a second CO2 binding site was located at the dimer interface of psCA3. Interestingly, all ?-CAs function as dimers or higher-order oligomeric states, and the CO2 bound at the interface may contribute to the allosteric nature of this family of enzymes or may be a convenient alternative binding site as this pocket has been previously shown to be a promiscuous site for a variety of ligands, including bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate ions.
Project description:Secretory human carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) has emerged as a potential drug target due to its role in pathological states, such as excess acidity-caused dental caries and injuries of gastric epithelium. Currently, there are no available CA VI-selective inhibitors or crystallographic structures of inhibitors bound to CA VI. The present study focuses on the site-directed CA II mutant mimicking the active site of CA VI for inhibitor screening. The interactions between CA VI-mimic and a series of benzenesulfonamides were evaluated by fluorescent thermal shift assay, stopped-flow CO2 hydration assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, and X-ray crystallography. Kinetic parameters showed that A65T, N67Q, F130Y, V134Q, L203T mutations did not influence catalytic properties of CA II, but inhibitor affinities resembled CA VI, exhibiting up to 0.16?nM intrinsic affinity for CA VI-mimic. Structurally, binding site of CA VI-mimic was found to be similar to CA VI. The ligand interactions with mutated side chains observed in three crystallographic structures allowed to rationalize observed variation of binding modes and experimental binding affinities to CA VI. This integrative set of kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural data revealed CA VI-mimic as a useful model to design CA VI-specific inhibitors which could be beneficial for novel therapeutic applications.
Project description:Recently, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that the overexpression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) in some cancers contributes to the acidification of the extracellular matrix, which in turn promotes the growth and metastasis of the tumor. These observations have made CA IX an attractive drug target for the selective treatment of certain cancers. Currently, there is no available X-ray crystal structure of CA IX, and this lack of availability has hampered the rational design of selective CA IX inhibitors. In light of these observations and on the basis of structural alignment homology, using the crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and the sequence of CA IX, a double mutant of CA II with Ala65 replaced by Ser and Asn67 replaced by Gln has been constructed to resemble the active site of CA IX. This CA IX mimic has been characterized kinetically using (18)O-exchange and structurally using X-ray crystallography, alone and in complex with five CA sulfonamide-based inhibitors (acetazolamide, benzolamide, chlorzolamide, ethoxzolamide, and methazolamide), and compared to CA II. This structural information has been evaluated by both inhibition studies and in vitro cytotoxicity assays and shows a correlated structure-activity relationship. Kinetic and structural studies of CA II and CA IX mimic reveal chlorzolamide to be a more potent inhibitor of CA IX, inducing an active-site conformational change upon binding. Additionally, chlorzolamide appears to be cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells. This preliminary study demonstrates that the CA IX mimic may provide a useful model to design more isozyme-specific CA IX inhibitors, which may lead to development of new therapeutic treatments of some cancers.
Project description:Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to form d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The effects of two structural mutations in TIM on the kinetic parameters for catalysis of the reaction of the truncated substrate glycolaldehyde (GA) and the activation of this reaction by phosphite dianion are reported. The P168A mutation results in similar 50- and 80-fold decreases in (kcat/Km)E and (kcat/Km)E·HPi, respectively, for deprotonation of GA catalyzed by free TIM and by the TIM·HPO(3)(2-) complex. The mutation has little effect on the observed and intrinsic phosphite dianion binding energy or the magnitude of phosphite dianion activation of TIM for catalysis of deprotonation of GA. A loop 7 replacement mutant (L7RM) of TIM from chicken muscle was prepared by substitution of the archaeal sequence 208-TGAG with 208-YGGS. L7RM exhibits a 25-fold decrease in (kcat/Km)E and a larger 170-fold decrease in (kcat/Km)E·HPi for reactions of GA. The mutation has little effect on the observed and intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy and only a modest effect on phosphite dianion activation of TIM. The observation that both the P168A and loop 7 replacement mutations affect mainly the kinetic parameters for TIM-catalyzed deprotonation but result in much smaller changes in the parameters for enzyme activation by phosphite dianion provides support for the conclusion that catalysis of proton transfer and dianion activation of TIM take place at separate, weakly interacting, sites in the protein catalyst.
Project description:The flavoprotein d-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase catalyzes an early step in the oxidation of ( R)-nicotine, the oxidation of a carbon-nitrogen bond in the pyrrolidine ring of ( R)-6-hydroxynicotine. The enzyme is a member of the vanillyl alcohol oxidase/ p-cresol methylhydroxylase family of flavoproteins. The effects of substrate modifications on the steady-state and rapid-reaction kinetic parameters are not consistent with the quinone-methide mechanism of p-cresol methylhydroxylase. There is no solvent isotope effect on the kcat/ Kamine value with either ( R)-6-hydroxynicotine or the slower substrate ( R)-6-hydroxynornicotine. The effect of pH on the rapid-reaction kinetic parameters establishes that only the neutral form of the substrate and the correctly protonated form of the enzyme bind. The active-site residues Lys348, Glu350, and Glu352 are all properly positioned for substrate binding. The K348M substitution has only a small effect on the kinetic parameters; the E350A and E350Q substitutions decrease the kcat/ Kamine value by ?20- and ?220-fold, respectively, and the E352Q substitution decreases this parameter ?3800-fold. The kcat/ Kamine-pH profile is bell-shaped. The p Ka values in that profile are altered by replacement of ( R)-6-hydroxynicotine with ( R)-6-hydroxynornicotine as the substrate and by the substitutions for Glu350 and Glu352, although the profiles remain bell-shaped. The results are consistent with a network of hydrogen-bonded residues in the active site being involved in binding the neutral form of the amine substrate, followed by the transfer of a hydride from the amine to the flavin.
Project description:The flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of tryptophan to yield indole-3-acetamide. This is the initial step in the biosynthesis of the plant growth hormone indole-acetic acid by bacterial pathogens that cause crown gall and related diseases. The structure of the enzyme from Pseudomonas savastanoi has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods to a resolution of 1.95 Å. The overall structure of the protein shows that it has the same fold as members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins, with the greatest similarities to the l-amino acid oxidases. The location of bound indole-3-acetamide in the active site allows identification of residues responsible for substrate binding and specificity. Two residues in the enzyme are conserved in all members of the monoamine oxidase family, Lys365 and Trp466. The K365M mutation decreases the kcat and kcat/KTrp values by 60000- and 2 million-fold, respectively. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect increases to 3.2, consistent with carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage becoming rate-limiting in the mutant enzyme. The W466F mutation decreases the kcat value <2-fold and the kcat/KTrp value only 5-fold, while the W466M mutation results in an enzyme lacking flavin and detectable activity. This is consistent with a role for Trp466 in maintaining the structure of the flavin-binding site in the more conserved FAD domain.
Project description:We cloned, expressed, purified, and determined the kinetic constants of the recombinant α-carbonic anhydrase (rec-MgaCA) identified in the mantle tissue of the bivalve Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. In metazoans, the α-CA family is largely represented and plays a pivotal role in the deposition of calcium carbonate biominerals. Our results demonstrated that rec-MgaCA was a monomer with an apparent molecular weight of about 32 kDa. Moreover, the determined kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction were kcat = 4.2 × 105 s-1 and kcat/Km of 3.5 × 107 M-1 ×s-1. Curiously, the rec-MgaCA showed a very similar kinetic and acetazolamide inhibition features when compared to those of the native enzyme (MgaCA), which has a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Analysing the SDS-PAGE, the protonography, and the kinetic analysis performed on the native and recombinant enzyme, we hypothesised that probably the native MgaCA is a multidomain protein with a single CA domain at the N-terminus of the protein. This hypothesis is corroborated by the existence in mollusks of multidomain proteins with a hydratase activity. Among these proteins, nacrein is an example of α-CA multidomain proteins characterised by a single CA domain at the N-terminus part of the entire protein.
Project description:The ?-glucosidase from sugar beet (SBG) is an exo-type glycosidase. The enzyme has a pocket-shaped active site, but efficiently hydrolyzes longer maltooligosaccharides and soluble starch due to lower Km and higher kcat/Km for such substrates. To obtain structural insights into the mechanism governing its unique substrate specificity, a series of acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides was employed for steady-state kinetic and structural analyses. The acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides have a longer maltooligosaccharide moiety compared with the maltose moiety of acarbose, which is known to be the transition state analog of ?-glycosidases. The clear correlation obtained between log Ki of the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides and log(Km/kcat) for hydrolysis of maltooligosaccharides suggests that the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides are transition state mimics. The crystal structure of the enzyme bound with acarviosyl-maltohexaose reveals that substrate binding at a distance from the active site is maintained largely by van der Waals interactions, with the four glucose residues at the reducing terminus of acarviosyl-maltohexaose retaining a left-handed single-helical conformation, as also observed in cycloamyloses and single helical V-amyloses. The kinetic behavior and structural features suggest that the subsite structure suitable for the stable conformation of amylose lowers the Km for long-chain substrates, which in turn is responsible for higher specificity of the longer substrates.
Project description:The caged complex between orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP) undergoes decarboxylation ?300 times faster than the caged complex between ScOMPDC and the physiological substrate, orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP). Consequently, the enzyme conformational changes required to lock FOMP at a protein cage and release product 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) are kinetically significant steps. The caged form of ScOMPDC is stabilized by interactions between the side chains from Gln215, Tyr217, and Arg235 and the substrate phosphodianion. The control of these interactions over the barrier to the binding of FOMP and the release of FUMP was probed by determining the effect of all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on kcat/Km and kcat for turnover of FOMP by wild-type ScOMPDC; its values are limited by the rates of substrate binding and product release, respectively. The Q215A and Y217F mutations each result in an increase in kcat and a decrease in kcat/Km, due to a weakening of the protein-phosphodianion interactions that favor fast product release and slow substrate binding. The Q215A/R235A mutation causes a large decrease in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, which are limited by the rate of the decarboxylation step, but much smaller decreases in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FOMP, which are limited by the rate of enzyme conformational changes. By contrast, the Y217A mutation results in large decreases in kcat/Km for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of both OMP and FOMP, because of the comparable effects of this mutation on rate-determining decarboxylation of enzyme-bound OMP and on the rate-determining enzyme conformational change for decarboxylation of FOMP. We propose that kcat = 8.2 s(-1) for decarboxylation of FOMP by the Y217A mutant is equal to the rate constant for cage formation from the complex between FOMP and the open enzyme, that the tyrosyl phenol group stabilizes the closed form of ScOMPDC by hydrogen bonding to the substrate phosphodianion, and that the phenyl group of Y217 and F217 facilitates formation of the transition state for the rate-limiting conformational change. An analysis of kinetic data for mutant enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP and FOMP provides estimates for the rate and equilibrium constants for the conformational change that traps FOMP at the enzyme active site.