Characterization of somatic mutation-associated microenvironment signatures in acute myeloid leukemia patients based on TCGA analysis.
ABSTRACT: Recurrent genetic mutations occur in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have been incorporated into risk stratification to predict the prognoses of AML patients. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of AML. However, the characteristics of the genetic mutation-associated microenvironment have not been comprehensively identified to date. In this study, we obtained the gene expression profiles of 173 AML patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and calculated their immune and stromal scores by applying the ESTIMATE algorithm. Immune scores were significantly associated with OS and cytogenetic risk. Next, we categorized the intermediate and poor cytogenetic risk patients into individual-mutation and wild-type groups according to RUNX1, ASXL1, TP53, FLT3-ITD, NPM1 and biallelic CEBPA mutation status. The relationships between the immune microenvironment and each genetic mutation were investigated by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and conducting functional enrichment analyses of them. Significant immune- and stromal-relevant DEGs associated with each mutation were identified, and most of the DEGs (from the FLT3-ITD, NPM1 and biallelic CEBPA mutation groups) were validated in the GSE14468 cohort downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. In summary, we identified key immune- and stromal-relevant gene signatures associated with genetic mutations in AML, which may provide new biomarkers for risk stratification and personalized immunotherapy.
Project description:To analyze the prognostic impact of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene mutations in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied 196 adults younger than 60 years with newly diagnosed primary CN-AML, who were treated similarly on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) protocols 9621 and 19808, for WT1 mutations in exons 7 and 9. The patients also were assessed for the presence of FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD), FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations (FLT3-TKD), MLL partial tandem duplications (MLL-PTD), NPM1 and CEBPA mutations, and for the expression levels of ERG and BAALC.Twenty-one patients (10.7%) harbored WT1 mutations. Complete remission rates were not significantly different between patients with WT1 mutations and those with unmutated WT1 (P = .36; 76% v 84%). Patients with WT1 mutations had worse disease-free survival (DFS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 13% v 50%) and overall survival (OS; P < .001; 3-year rates, 10% v 56%) than patients with unmutated WT1. In multivariable analyses, WT1 mutations independently predicted worse DFS (P = .009; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, ERG expression level, and FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group (ie, FLT3-ITD(negative)/NPM1(mutated) as low risk v FLT3-ITD(positive) and/or NPM1(wild-type) as high risk). WT1 mutations also independently predicted worse OS (P < .001; HR = 3.2) when controlling for CEBPA mutational status, FLT3-ITD/NPM1 molecular-risk group, and white blood cell count.We report the first evidence that WT1 mutations independently predict extremely poor outcome in intensively treated, younger patients with CN-AML. Future trials should include testing for WT1 mutations as part of molecularly based risk assessment and risk-adapted treatment stratification of patients with CN-AML.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by clonal expansion of myeloid precursors with diminished capacity for differentiation. It develops as the consequence of a series of genetic changes in a hematopoietic precursor cell. Purpose This study aimed to investigate the correlation between GM-CSF gene expression and different molecular prognostic markers such as FLT3-ITD, NPM1 mutation A and CEBPA gene expression in 100 Egyptian AML patients. As well as, correlation with the response to induction therapy, DFS andOS in these patients. METHODOLOGY:Quantitative assessment of GM-CSF gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR. Additional prognostic molecular markers were determined as FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation A together with quantitative assessment of CEBPA gene expression by qRT-PCR. RESULTS:Patients with high GM-CSF expression levels had better OS and DFS with p value 0.004 and 0.02, respectively. However, no statistically significant difference between low andhigh GM-CSF gene expression was found regarding the response to therapy (p value= 0.08). Most patients with low CEBPA expression had resistant disease together with poor OS and DFS (P value =.
Project description:In a previous randomized trial, AML HD98B, we showed that administration of all-trans retinoic acid in addition to intensive chemotherapy improved the outcome of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prognostic impact of gene mutations and to identify predictive genetic factors for the all-trans retinoic acid treatment effect.Data from mutation analyses of the NPM1, CEBPA, FLT3, and MLL genes were correlated with outcome in patients 61 years and older treated within the AML HD98B trial.The frequencies of mutations were: NPM1, 23%; CEBPA, 8.5% (analysis restricted to patients with a normal karyotype); FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITD), 17%; FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations, 5%; and MLL partial tandem duplications, 4.5%. The genotype mutant NPM1 was positively and adverse cytogenetics as well as higher white blood cell count negatively correlated with achievement of complete remission. In Cox regression analysis, a significant interaction between the genotype mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD and treatment with all-trans retinoic acid was identified, in that the beneficial effect of all-trans retinoic acid on relapse-free and overall survival was restricted to this subgroup of patients. Other significant factors for survival were age, adverse cytogenetics, and logarithm of white cell count.In elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia, NPM1 mutations are associated with achievement of complete remission, and the genotype 'mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD' appears to be a predictive marker for response to all-trans retinoic acid given as an adjunct to intensive chemotherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00151242).
Project description:Intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (IR-AML), which accounts for a substantial number of AML cases, is highly heterogeneous. Although several mutations have been identified, the heterogeneity of AML is uncertain because novel mutations have yet to be discovered. Here we applied next generation sequencing (NGS) platform to screen mutational hotspots in 410 genes relevant to hematological malignancy. IR-AML samples (N=95) were sequenced by Illumina Hiseq and mutations in 101 genes were identified. Only seven genes (CEBPA, NPM1, DNMT3A, FLT3-ITD, NRAS, IDH2 and WT1) were mutated in more than 10% of patients. Genetic interaction analysis identified several cooperative and exclusive patterns of overlapping mutations. Mutational analysis indicated some correlation between genotype and phenotype. FLT3-ITD mutations were identified as independent factors of poor prognosis, while CEBPA mutations were independent favorable factors. Co-occurrence of FLT3-ITD, NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations was identified with associated with specific clinical AML features and poor outcomes. Furthermore, by integrating multiple mutations in the survival analysis, 95 IR-AML patients could be stratified into three distinct risk groups allowing reductions in IR-AML by one-third. Our study offers deep insights into the molecular pathogenesis and biology of AML and indicated that the prognosis of IR-AML could be further stratified by different mutation combinations which may direct future treatment intervention.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the frequency of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD) and nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations in Iranian patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). The clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between wild-type and mutant cases.Seventy newly diagnosed de novo AML patients were recruited at the time of diagnosis prior to chemotherapy; among them, 54 had CN-AML. For detecting mutations, the FLT3 and NPM1 genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method, followed by direct sequencing.Our results showed that the frequencies of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, and NPM1 mutations in CN-AML patients were 25.9%, 5.9%, and 20.8%, respectively. The most frequent NPM1 mutation type was the type A mutation. The FLT3-ITD mutation was seen more frequently in non-M3 patients compared with M3 patients. No mutation was observed in either the FLT3-TKD or the NPM1 gene in patients in the M3 French-American-British group. There was no significant association between the presence of FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations in CN-AML patients (p>0.05). The frequency of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, and NPM1 mutation was higher in CN-AML patients in comparison with AML patients with cytogenetic aberrations, although the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in mean white blood cell and platelet counts, serum hemoglobin levels, and bone marrow blast percentages between patients with wild-type and mutant FLT3-ITD and NPM1 genes (p>0.05). No difference was observed in the frequency of FLT3-ITD or NPM1 mutation regarding age or sex (p>0.05).Given the high stability of NPM1 during the disease course, it can be used in combination with FLT3 as well as other known genetic markers to monitor patients, especially for minimal residual disease detection.
Project description:This study is aimed to investigate the pattern of CEBPA mutations and its clinical significance in Chinese non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The entire coding region of CEBPA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced in samples from 233 non-M3 AML patients. Fifty mutations were identified in 37 (15.8%) patients with eleven (4.7%) double mutated CEBPA (dmCEBPA) and twenty-six (11.1%) single mutated CEBPA (smCEBPA). dmCEBPA was exclusively observed in M1 and M2 subtypes of FAB classification (P = 0.008), whereas smCEBPA occurred in almost all subtypes (P = 0.401). Patients with dmCEBPA had significantly younger age and higher WBC counts than those with wtCEBPA (P = 0.016 and 0.043, respectively). Both dmCEBPA and smCEBPA were mainly present in cytogenetically normal patients. Patients with dmCEBPA achieved higher rate of complete (CR) than wtCEBPA patients (88% vs. 51%, P = 0.037), whereas smCEBPA and wtCEBPA groups are similar (47% vs. 51%, P = 0.810). Patients with dmCEBPA had a superior overall survival (OS) compared with patients with wtCEBPA (P = 0.033), whereas patients with smCEBPA had a similar OS as patients with wtCEBPA (P = 0.976). dmCEBPA but not smCEBPA was also associated with favorable outcome in patients with wild-type NPM1 and FLT3-ITD (NPM1(wt)FLT3-ITD(wt) ). Our data confirm that dmCEBPA but not smCEBPA is prognostically favorable in NPM1(wt)FLT3-ITD(wt) AML, and suggest that the entity AML with mutated CEBPA should be definitely designated as AML with dmCEBPA in WHO classification and smCEBPA should be excluded from the favorable risk of molecular abnormalities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mutations in NPM1 and FLT3 genes represent the most frequent genetic alterations and important diagnostic and prognostic indicators in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).<h4>Objective</h4>We investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of NPM1 and FLT3 mutations in 161 patients of de novo AML including adults and children.<h4>Results</h4>NPM1 mutation was found in 21% and FLT3 mutation in 25% of the AML patients. Thirteen (8%) samples were positive for both NPM1 and FLT3/ITD mutations. Adult patients had significantly higher frequency of NPM1 mutation than children (25.8% versus 8.8%; P = 0.02). Further, NPM1 mutation was found to be more frequent in patients above 45 years of age (P = 0.02). NPM1 mutation was significantly associated with higher platelet count (P = 0.05) and absence of hepatosplenomegaly (P = 0.01), while FLT3/ITD mutation was associated with higher white blood count (P = 0.01). Immunophenotypically, NPM1 mutation was associated with the lack of CD34 (P < 0.001) and HLD-DR expression (P < 0.001), while FLT3/ITD mutation was positively associated with the expression of CD7 (P = 0.04). No correlation was found between NPM1 mutation and fusion gene. Interestingly, FLT3/ITD mutation was found to be inversely associated with AML/ETO fusion gene (P = 0.04).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results suggest that distinct clinical and immunophenotypic characteristics of NPM1 and FLT3/ITD mutations present further insight into the molecular mechanism of leukemogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Molecular characterisation of normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (NK-AML) allows prognostic stratification and potentially can alter treatment choices and pathways. Approximately 45-60% of patients with NK-AML carry NPM1 gene mutations and are associated with a favourable clinical outcome when FLT3-internal tandem duplications (ITD) are absent. High resolution melting (HRM) is a novel screening method that enables rapid identification of mutation positive DNA samples. RESULTS: We developed HRM assays to detect NPM1 mutations and FLT3-ITD and tested diagnostic samples from 44 NK-AML patients. Eight were NPM1 mutation positive only, 4 were both NPM1 mutation and FLT3-ITD positive and 4 were FLT3-ITD positive only. A novel point mutation Y572C (c.1715A>G) in exon 14 of FLT3 was also detected. In the group with de novo NK-AML, 40% (12/29) were NPM1 mutation positive whereas NPM1 mutations were observed in 20% (3/15) of secondary NK-AML cases. Sequencing was performed and demonstrated 100% concordance with the HRM results. CONCLUSION: HRM is a rapid and efficient method of screening NK-AML samples for both novel and known NPM1 and FLT3 mutations. NPM1 mutations can be observed in both primary and secondary NK-AML cases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 with internal tandem duplications within the juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD) is a poor prognostic factor; however, the prognostic significance of missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD) is controversial. Furthermore, the accompanying mutations and fusion genes with FLT3 mutations are unclear in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated FLT3 mutations and their correlation with other gene mutations and gene fusions through two RNA-seq based next-generation sequencing (NGS) method and prognostic impact in 207 de novo AML patients.<h4>Results</h4>FLT3-ITD mutations were positive in 58 patients (28%), and FLT3-TKD mutations were positive in 20 patients (9.7%). FLT3-ITD was associated with a higher white blood cell count (WBC, mean 72.9 × 10<sup>9</sup>/L vs. 24.2 × 10<sup>9</sup>/L, P = 0.000), higher bone marrow blasts (mean 65.9% vs. 56.0%, P = 0.024), and NK-AML (normal karyotype) (64.8% vs. 48.4%, P = 0.043). NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations were enriched in FLT3-ITD (53.5% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.000; 34.6% vs. 13%, P = 0.003). However, the mutations of CEBPA were excluded in FLT3-AML (3.8% vs. 0% vs. 19.8%, P = 0.005). Mutations of Ras and TP53 were unlikely associated with FLT3-ITD (1.9% vs. 20.6%, P = 0.006; 0% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.04). The common fusion genes (> 10%) in FLT3-ITD had MLL-rearrangement and NUP98-rearrangement, while the common fusion genes in FLT3-TKD had AML1-ETO and MLL-rearrangement. Two novel fusion genes PRDM16-SKI and EFAN2-ZNF238 were identified in FLT3-ITD patients. Gene fusions and NPM1 mutation were mutually excluded in FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD patients. Their patterns of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggest that additional driver genetic alterations are required and reveal two evolutionary patterns of FLT3 pathogenesis. Patients with FLT3-ITD had a lower CR (complete remission) rate, lower 3-year OS (overall survival), DFS (disease-free survival), and EFS (event-free survival) compared to FLT3<sub>wt</sub>AML. NK-AML with FLT3-ITD had a lower 3-year OS, DFS, and EFS than those without, while FLT3-TKD did not influence the survival in whole cohort and NK-AML. Besides, we found that FLT3-ITD/TET2 bimutation defined a poor prognostic subgroup.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study offers deep insights into the molecular pathogenesis and biology of AML with FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD by providing the profiles of concurrent molecular alterations and the clinical impact of FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD on AML patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the prognostic significance of CEBPA mutations in the context of established molecular markers in cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and gain biologic insights into leukemogenesis of the CN-AML molecular high-risk subset (FLT3 internal tandem duplication [ITD] positive and/or NPM1 wild type) that has a significantly higher incidence of CEBPA mutations than the molecular low-risk subset (FLT3-ITD negative and NPM1 mutated). PATIENTS AND METHODS:One hundred seventy-five adults age less than 60 years with untreated primary CN-AML were screened before treatment for CEBPA, FLT3, MLL, WT1, and NPM1 mutations and BAALC and ERG expression levels. Gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles were obtained for the CN-AML molecular high-risk patients. RESULTS:CEBPA mutations predicted better event-free (P = .007), disease-free (P = .014), and overall survival (P < .001) independently of other molecular and clinical prognosticators. Among patients with CEBPA mutations, 91% were in the CN-AML molecular high-risk group. Within this group, CEBPA mutations predicted better event-free (P < .001), disease-free (P = .004), and overall survival (P = .009) independently of other molecular and clinical characteristics and were associated with unique gene and miRNA expression profiles. The major features of these profiles were upregulation of genes (eg, GATA1, ZFPM1, EPOR, and GFI1B) and miRNAs (ie, the miR-181 family) involved in erythroid differentiation and downregulation of homeobox genes. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment testing for CEBPA mutations identifies CN-AML patients with different outcomes, particularly in the molecular high-risk group, thus improving molecular risk-based classification of this large cytogenetic subset of AML. The gene and miRNA expression profiling provided insights into leukemogenesis of the CN-AML molecular high-risk group, indicating that CEBPA mutations are associated with partial erythroid differentiation.