Comprehensive comparison of patient-derived xenograft models in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and metastatic Liver Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are effective preclinical cancer models that reproduce the tumor microenvironment of the human body. The methods have been widely used for drug screening, biomarker development, co-clinical trials, and personalized medicine. However, the low success rate and the long tumorigenesis period have largely limited their usage. In the present studies, we compared the PDX establishment between hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and metastatic liver cancer (MLC), and identified the key factors affecting the transplantation rate of PDXs. Surgically resected tumor specimens obtained from patients were subcutaneously inoculated into immunodeficient mice to construct PDX models. The overall transplantation rate was 38.5% (20/52), with the HCC group (28.1%, 9/32) being lower than MLC group (56.2%, 9/16). In addition, HCC group took significantly longer latency period than MLC group to construct PDX models. Hematoxylin and eosin staining results showed that the histopathology of all generations in PDX models was similar to the original tumor in all three types of cancer. The transplantation rate of PDX models in HCC patients was significantly associated with blood type (P=0.001), TNM stage (P=0.023), lymph node metastasis (P=0.042) and peripheral blood CA19-9 level (P=0.049), while the transplantation rate of PDX models in MLC patients was significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.034). This study demonstrates that PDX models can effectively reproduce the histological patterns of human tumors. The transplantation rate depends on the type of original tumor. Furthermore, it shows that the invasiveness of the original liver cancer affects the possibility of its growth in immunodeficient mice.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Treatment options for patients with advanced-stage disease are limited. A major obstacle in drug development is the lack of an in vivo model that accurately reflects the broad spectrum of human HCC. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor mouse models could overcome the limitations of cancer cell lines. PDX tumors maintain the genetic and histologic heterogeneity of the originating tumors and are used for preclinical drug development in various cancers. Controversy exists about their genetic and molecular stability through serial passaging in mice. We aimed to establish PDX models from human HCC biopsies and to characterize their histologic and molecular stability during serial passaging. A total of 54 human HCC needle biopsies that were derived from patients with various underlying liver diseases and tumor stages were transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient, nonobese, diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency gamma-c mice; 11 successfully engrafted. All successfully transplanted HCCs were Edmondson grade III or IV. HCC PDX tumors retained the histopathologic, transcriptomic, and genomic characteristics of the original HCC biopsies over 6 generations of retransplantation. These characteristics included Edmondson grade, expression of tumor markers, tumor gene signature, tumor-associated mutations, and copy number alterations. Conclusion: PDX mouse models can be established from undifferentiated HCCs, with an overall success rate of approximately 20%. The transplanted tumors represent the entire spectrum of the molecular landscape of HCCs and preserve the characteristics of the originating tumors through serial passaging. HCC PDX models are a promising tool for preclinical personalized drug development.
Project description:We have created the immunodeficient SRG rat, a Sprague-Dawley Rag2/Il2rg double knockout that lacks mature B cells, T cells, and circulating NK cells. This model has been tested and validated for use in oncology (SRG OncoRat®). The SRG rat demonstrates efficient tumor take rates and growth kinetics with different human cancer cell lines and PDXs. Although multiple immunodeficient rodent strains are available, some important human cancer cell lines exhibit poor tumor growth and high variability in those models. The VCaP prostate cancer model is one such cell line that engrafts unreliably and grows irregularly in existing models but displays over 90% engraftment rate in the SRG rat with uniform growth kinetics. Since rats can support much larger tumors than mice, the SRG rat is an attractive host for PDX establishment. Surgically resected NSCLC tissue from nine patients were implanted in SRG rats, seven of which engrafted and grew for an overall success rate of 78%. These developed into a large tumor volume, over 20,000 mm3 in the first passage, which would provide an ample source of tissue for characterization and/or subsequent passage into NSG mice for drug efficacy studies. Molecular characterization and histological analyses were performed for three PDX lines and showed high concordance between passages 1, 2 and 3 (P1, P2, P3), and the original patient sample. Our data suggest the SRG OncoRat is a valuable tool for establishing PDX banks and thus serves as an alternative to current PDX mouse models hindered by low engraftment rates, slow tumor growth kinetics, and multiple passages to develop adequate tissue banks.
Project description:Cell line-derived xenograft (CDX) models created by implanting cancer cell lines into immunodeficient mice have contributed largely to the development of cancer drug therapies. However, cell lines often lose their original biological characteristics through many passages and cancer tissues in CDX models have many cancer cells and few cancer stromal cells, therefore CDX models are currently considered not suitable for predicting the results of clinical studies. Conversely, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are gaining importance, as human cancer biological characteristics and microenvironments are recreated by implanting tumor tissue into immunodeficient mice. These highly expected, evidently beneficial PDX models have been used in some basic research and are becoming more generalized. However, quality control and quality assurance criteria have not been established for them, and challenges and problems in the utilization of valuable PDX models in drug development have yet to be clarified. In this report, we conducted a questionnaire survey among researchers in Japanese academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies to understand the current status of PDX models in Japan. Based on the questionnaire results, we summarized the situations surrounding respondent's utilization and quality control in the development of anticancer drugs and proposed several measures to facilitate the utilization of PDX models in the development of anticancer drugs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Engraftment of primary pancreas ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) in mice to generate patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models is a promising platform for biological and therapeutic studies in this disease. However, these models are still incompletely characterized. Here, we measured the impact of the murine tumor environment on the gene expression of the engrafted human tumoral cells. METHODS: We have analyzed gene expression profiles from 35 new PDX models and compared them with previously published microarray data of 18 PDX models, 53 primary tumors and 41 cell lines from PDAC. The results obtained in the PDAC system were further compared with public available microarray data from 42 PDX models, 108 primary tumors and 32 cell lines from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We developed a robust analysis protocol to explore the gene expression space. In addition, we completed the analysis with a functional characterization of PDX models, including if changes were caused by murine environment or by serial passing. RESULTS: Our results showed that PDX models derived from PDAC, or HCC, were clearly different to the cell lines derived from the same cancer tissues. Indeed, PDAC- and HCC-derived cell lines are indistinguishable from each other based on their gene expression profiles. In contrast, the transcriptomes of PDAC and HCC PDX models can be separated into two different groups that share some partial similarity with their corresponding original primary tumors. Our results point to the lack of human stromal involvement in PDXs as a major factor contributing to their differences from the original primary tumors. The main functional differences between pancreatic PDX models and human PDAC are the lower expression of genes involved in pathways related to extracellular matrix and hemostasis and the up- regulation of cell cycle genes. Importantly, most of these differences are detected in the first passages after the tumor engraftment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PDX models of PDAC and HCC retain, to some extent, a gene expression memory of the original primary tumors, while this pattern is not detected in conventional cancer cell lines. Expression changes in PDXs are mainly related to pathways reflecting the lack of human infiltrating cells and the adaptation to a new environment. We also provide evidence of the stability of gene expression patterns over subsequent passages, indicating early phases of the adaptation process.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models increasingly are used in translational research. However, the engraftment rates of patient tumor samples in immunodeficient mice to PDX models vary greatly. METHODS:Tumor tissue samples from 308 patients with non-small cell lung cancer were implanted in immunodeficient mice. The patients were followed for 1.5 to approximately 6 years. The authors performed histological analysis of PDXs and some residual tumor tissues in mice with failed PDX growth at 1 year after implantation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay were performed to measure the levels of Epstein-Barr virus genes and human immunoglobulin G in PDX samples. Patient characteristics were compared for PDX growth and overall survival as outcomes using Cox regression analyses. Disease staging was based on the 7th TNM staging system. RESULTS:The overall engraftment rate for PDXs from patients with non-small cell lung cancer was 34%. Squamous cell carcinomas had a higher engraftment rate (53%) compared with adenocarcinomas. Tumor samples from patients with stage II and stage III disease and from larger tumors were found to have relatively high engraftment rates. Patients whose tumors successfully engrafted had worse overall survival, particularly those individuals with adenocarcinoma, stage III or stage IV disease, and moderately differentiated tumors. Lymphoma formation was one of the factors associated with engraftment failure. Human CD8-positive and CD20-positive cells were detected in residual samples of tumor tissue that failed to generate a PDX at 1 year after implantation. Human immunoglobulin G was detected in the plasma of mice that did not have PDX growth at 14 months after implantation. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the current study indicate that the characteristics of cancer cells and the tumor immune microenvironment in primary tumors both can affect engraftment of a primary tumor sample.
Project description:Lack of clinically relevant tumor models dramatically hampers development of effective therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Establishment of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models that faithfully recapitulate the genetic and phenotypic features of HCC becomes important. In this study, we first established a cohort of 65 stable PDX models of HCC from corresponding Chinese patients. Then we showed that the histology and gene expression patterns of PDX models were highly consistent between xenografts and case-matched original tumors. Genetic alterations, including mutations and DNA copy number alterations (CNAs), of the xenografts correlated well with the published data of HCC patient specimens. Furthermore, differential responses to sorafenib, the standard-of-care agent, in randomly chosen xenografts were unveiled. Finally, in the models expressing high levels of FGFR1 gene according to the genomic data, FGFR1 inhibitor lenvatinib showed greater efficacy than sorafenib. Taken together, our data indicate that PDX models resemble histopathological and genomic characteristics of clinical HCC tumors, as well as recapitulate the differential responses of HCC patients to the standard-of-care treatment. Overall, this large collection of PDX models becomes a clinically relevant platform for drug screening, biomarker discovery and translational research in preclinical setting.
Project description:Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models generated from surgical specimens are gaining popularity as preclinical models of cancer. However, establishment of PDX lines from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients is difficult due to very limited amount of available biopsy material. We asked whether SCLC cells obtained from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) could generate PDX lines that maintained the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the primary tumor. Following successful EBUS-TBNA sampling for diagnostic purposes, we obtained an extra sample for cytologic analysis and implantation into the flanks of immunodeficient mice. Animals were monitored for engraftment for up to 6 months. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis, and targeted next-generation re-sequencing, were then performed in both the primary sample and the derivative PDX line. A total of 12 patients were enrolled in the study. EBUS-TBNA aspirates yielded large numbers of viable tumor cells sufficient to inject between 18,750 and 1,487,000 cells per flank, and to yield microgram quantities of high-quality DNA. Of these, samples from 10 patients generated xenografts (engraftment rate 83%) with a mean latency of 104 days (range 63-188). All but one maintained a typical SCLC phenotype that closely matched the original sample. Identical mutations that are characteristic of SCLC were identified in both the primary sample and xenograft line. EBUS-TBNA has the potential to be a powerful tool in the development of new targeting strategies for SCLC patients by providing large numbers of viable tumor cells suitable for both xenografting and complex genomic analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most prominent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and virus-mediated cases represents more than 80% of HCC in East Asia, where it is endemic. Currently, the HBV status of pathological HCC is not fully clarified, especially by comparison to nontumorous tissues. Lack of clinicopathological animal models of HCC impedes clinical application of antiviral treatment in the field. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A cohort sample of 14 HCC and corresponding stroma tissues were analyzed for pathological patterns of HBV antigens using immunohistochemistry; 10 fresh primary tumor tissues were inoculated into NOD/SCID mice and risk factors for patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model were identified by the univariate F test. Consistency of HBV features and cellular biomarkers between patient tissues and tumor grafts were examined. RESULTS:In HCC, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was mainly absent. Only 9.9% of samples showed HBsAg positivity in the tumor tissue that was limited to benign hepatocytes. In contrast, HBV core antigen (HBcAg) exhibited positive staining in all HCC tissues, located mainly in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Of 14 HCC cases, three were diagnosed as occult infection of HBV based on HBcAg expression. The successful rate for the PDX model was 20% (2/10). Tumor lesions on hepatic lobes of V and VI, severe liver dysfunction and higher CA125 showed p-values of 0.01, 0.035, and 0.01, respectively. HBsAg absence in original tumors of #6 and 8 patients were faithfully reproduced by engraftments. Mixed distribution of HBcAg in cellular compartments of original tumor cells was also observed in mice. ki67 was dramatically increased in tumor grafts. CONCLUSION:We delineated pathological HBV profiles of HCC specimens and perilesional areas, which provided evidence for virus-based therapy in the future. PDX mice may phenocopy virological and cellular features of patient tissues, which is novel in the virus-related hepatocarcinogenesis field.
Project description:Engraftment of primary pancreas ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) in mice to generate patient derived xenograft (PDX) models is a promising platform to for biological and therapeutic studies in this disease. However, these models are still incompletely characterized. Here, we measured the impact of the murine environment on the gene expression of the engrafted human tumoral cells. We have analyzed gene expression profiles from 35 new PDX models and compared them with previously published microarray data from PDAC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our results showed that PDX models derived from PDAC, or HCC, were clearly different to the cell lines derived from the same cancer tissues. Indeed, PDAC- and HCC-derived cell lines are indistinguishable one from the other based in their gene expression profiles. In contrast, the transcriptomes of PDAC and HCC PDX models are clearly different and more similar to their original tumor than to PDX models from the other tumor type. Interestingly, the main differences between pancreatic PDX models and human PDAC is the expression of genes involved in pathways related with extracellular matrix interactions and cell cycle regulation likely reflecting the adaptations of the tumors to the new environment. Furthermore, most of these differences are detected in the first passages after the tumor engraftment, indicating early phases of the adaptation process. In conclusion, different from conventional cancer cell lines, PDX models of PDAC retain similar gene expression profiles of PDAC. Expression changes are mainly related to genes involved in stromal pathways likely reflecting the adaptation to new environments. We also provide evidence of the stability of gene expression patterns over subsequent passages. We have analyzed gene expression profiles from 35 new PDX models and compared them with previously published in GEO microarray data. We used PDX models, primary tumors and cell lines from PDAC and hepatocellular carcinoma. All these public data were re-process in order to compare with our 35 samples
Project description:The engraftment of human tumor tissues into immunodeficient host mice to generate patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models has become increasingly utilized for many types of cancers. By capturing the unique genomic and molecular properties of the parental tumor, PDX models enable analysis of patient-specific clinical responses. PDX models are an important platform to address the contribution of inter-tumoral heterogeneity to therapeutic sensitivity, tumor evolution, and the mechanisms of treatment resistance. With the increasingly important role played by targeted therapies in urological malignancies, the establishment of representative PDX models can contribute to improved facilitation and adoption of precision medicine. In this review of the evolving role of the PDX in urothelial cancer and kidney cancer, we discuss the essential elements of successful graft development, effective translational application, and future directions for clinical models.