Prognostic Impact of Bone Metastasis on Survival Outcomes in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated by First Line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Propensity-Score Matching Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Purpose: To investigate the effect of bone metastasis (BM) on survival outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) by performing propensity-score matching (PSM) analysis. Materials & Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1,151 patients with mRCC who were treated with first-line TKI from December 2006 to September 2016. After excluding 135 patients, 1,016 patients with mRCC were finally analyzed. The primary and secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. After 1:1 PSM analysis, survival outcomes were compared between patients with BM (n=237) and without BM (n=237). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine predictors of survival. Results: Among 1,016 total patients, 27.5% (n=279) had BM. Before PSM, patients with BM had worse OS outcomes than those without BM. Even after PSM, OS was significantly poorer in patients with BM compared to those without BM. Of note, the presence of BM was identified as an independent predictor of OS (HR=1.36), in addition to prior nephrectomy, sarcomatoid differentiation, and IMDC risk group. However, there were no differences in PFS according to the presence of BM after PSM. In the subgroup analysis, only intermediate IMDC risk group showed significant differences in OS according to the presence of BM. Conclusion: Based on PSM analysis, the presence of BM negatively affected OS outcomes in patients with mRCC treated with first-line TKI, particularly in the IMDC intermediate risk group.
Project description:The objective response rate (ORR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy in metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) patients was not satisfactory. Effective indicator of mRCC patient selection for TKI therapy is urgently needed. The function of tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes (TIBs) in tumor immune elimination is still unclear. We aim to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of TIBs for TKI therapy in mRCC patients in this study. 108 eligible patients treated with TKI were enrolled in this study. TIBs was estimated by immunohistochemical staining of CD19 in the resected tumor, and its relationship with clinicopathological features, clinical outcomes and CD8+ tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (CD8+ TILs) were evaluated. Associations between the expression level of CD19 and CD8+ TILs associated cytotoxic effectors were also assessed in public databases. Results showed TIBs positive infiltration predicted better therapeutic response to sunitinib (p = 0.006), longer overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.028) in mRCC patients. Combining TIBs and International Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model showed a better predict value of OS in TKI-treated mRCC patients than IMDC model alone. We also found a positive correlation between TIBs and CD8+ TILs (p < 0.001). Patients with both cells high infiltration showed markedly better OS compared with those infiltrated by CD8+ T cells alone (p = 0.015). To conclude, TIBs density was not only an independent prognostic factor for mRCC patients, but also a predictive marker for TKI therapy response. It may potently enhance the antitumor effect by recruiting and activating CD8+ TILs in mRCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several biomarkers of treatment efficacy have been associated with a better prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic significance of biomarkers in the early treatment phase is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In a complete national cohort of mRCC patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or interleukin-2 based immunotherapy (IT) from 2006 to 2010, overall survival (OS) was analysed for baseline International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification factors and on-treatment time-dependent biomarkers obtained day 1 each cycle week 4-12 after treatment initiation with multivariate analysis and bootstrap validation. RESULTS:A total of 735 patients received first-line TKI (59%) or IT (41%). Median OS was overall 14.0 months and 33.4, 18.5, and 5.8 months for baseline IMDC favourable, intermediate, and poor risk groups, respectively (p?<?0.0001). Systolic blood pressure??140?mmHg, neutrophils?<?lower level of normal (LLN), platelets?<?LLN, sodium???LLN, and LDH??1.5 times upper level of normal after treatment initiation were significantly associated with favourable OS independent of baseline IMDC risk group in multivariate analyses stratified for TKI and IT (p???0.04). Concordance (C)-index for IMDC classification alone was 0.625 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and combined with the five-factor biomarker profile 0.683 (95% CI 0.64-0.72). For patients with good (3-5 factors) and poor (0-2 factors) biomarker profile median OS were 23.5 and 9.6 months, respectively (p?<?0.0001). Adding the five-factor biomarker profile significantly improved prognostication in IMDC intermediate (25.7 vs. 12.0 months, p?<?0.0001) and poor (12.8 vs. 6.4 months, p?<?0.0001) risk groups. A trend was seen in IMDC favourable risk group (38.9 vs. 28.7 months, p?=?0.112). CONCLUSION:On-treatment hypertension, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, LDH below 1.5 times upper level of normal, and normal sodium, obtained week 4-12 of treatment, are independent biomarkers of favourable outcome in mRCC, independent of treatment type.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Brain metastases (BM) pose a significant problem in patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC). Local and systemic therapies including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are rapidly evolving, necessitating reassessments of outcomes for modern patient management. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The mRCC patients with BM treated with SRS were reviewed. Patient demographics, clinical history, and SRS treatment parameters were identified. RESULTS:Among 268 patients with mRCC treated between 2006 and 2015, 38 patients were identified with BM. A total of 243 BM were treated with SRS with 1 to 26 BMs treated per SRS session (median, 2 BMs). The median (range) BM size was 0.6 (0.2-3.1) cm and median (range) SRS treatment dose was 18 (12-24) Gy. Treated BM local control rates at 1 and 2 years were 91.8% (95% confidence interval, 85.7-95.4) and 86.1% (95% confidence interval, 77.1-91.7), respectively. BM control declined for larger tumors. Survival after 1-year was 57.5% (95% CI 40.2-71.4) for all patients. Survival was not statistically different between patients with < 5 BM versus ? 5 BM. Survival was prognostic based on International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database (IMDC) risk groups in patients with < 5 BM. Two patients experienced grade 3 radiation necrosis requiring surgical intervention. CONCLUSION:SRS is effective in controlling BM in patients with mRCC. Over half of treated patients survive past a year, and no differences in survival were noted in patients with > 5 metastases. Prognostic risk categories based on systemic disease (IMDC) are predictive of survival in this BM population, with limited rates of symptomatic radiation necrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preliminary data showed prognostic impact of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) identified Blood Volume (BV) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). BV as an independent prognostic factor remains to be assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS:DCE-CT identified BV was prospectively quantified in patients with mRCC receiving first line therapies, adjusted for International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) individual features and treatments, and associated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response (ORR), using Cox and logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS:105 patients with mRCC were included. Median baseline BV was 32.87?mL?×?100?g-1 (range 9.52 to 92.87?mL?×?100?g-1). BV above median was associated with IMDC favorable risk category (P?=?0.004), metastasis free interval???1?year (P?=?0.007), male gender (P?=?0.032), normal hemoglobin (P?=?0.040) and normal neutrophils (P?=?0.007), whereas low BV was associated with poor risk IMDC features (P?<?0.05). Patients with high vs. low baseline BV had longer PFS (12.5 vs. 5.6?months, P?=?0.015) and longer OS (42.2 vs. 22.4?months, P?=?0.001), respectively. In multivariate analysis high baseline BV remained independent favorable for OS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30-0.78, P?=?0.003) and PFS (HR 0.64; 95% CI 0.42-0.97, P?=?0.036). BV as a continuous variable was also associated with OS in the multivariate analysis (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00, P?=?0.017). The estimated concordance index (c-index) was 0.688 using IMDC score and 0.701 when BV was added. CONCLUSIONS:DCE-CT identified Blood Volume is a new, independent prognostic factor in mRCC, which may improve the prognostic accuracy of IMDC.
Project description:Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were compared between clear cell (ccRCC; n = 5008) and papillary patients (n = 466), and recorded type I and type II papillary patients (n = 30 and n = 165, respectively). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) favored ccRCC over pRCC. OS was 8 months longer in ccRCC patients and the hazard ratio of death was 0.71 for ccRCC patients. No differences in PFS or ORR were detected between type I and II PRCC in this limited dataset. The median OS for type I pRCC was 20.0 months while the median OS for type II was 12.6 months (P = 0.096). The IMDC prognostic model was able to stratify pRCC patients into favorable risk (OS = 34.1 months), intermediate risk (OS = 17.0 months), and poor-risk groups (OS = 6.0 months). pRCC patient outcomes were inferior to ccRCC, even after controlling for IMDC prognostic factors. The IMDC prognostic model was able to effectively stratify pRCC patients.
Project description:We conducted this study to determine whether immunoscore system (IS) predicts survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). A total of 218 mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University were recruited during 2007-2017, retrospectively. CD8, CD4, Treg, PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded slide. Kaplan-Meier method and COX regression model were used in survival analyses. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that expressions of CD8, Treg, PD-1 and stromal PD-L1 (sPD-L1) expressions were independent predictive factors for OS, thus IS was established containing these four immunological factors. Subsequent analysis revealed that performance of IS provided good differentiation of OS and PFS. Besides, multivariate analysis identified IS as an independent prognostic factor for OS (p<0.001) and PFS (p=0.002). IS, compared with International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk model, and provided better prediction ability for OS. Results suggested that IS was a powerful prognostic factor for OS and PFS in patients with mRCC treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. And IS can be used as essential supplement to IMDC for outcome prediction in mRCC patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate whether black race is an independent predictor of overall survival (OS) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS:We performed a retrospective 2-cohort (International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium [IMDC] and trial-database) study of patients with mRCC treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Unmatched (UM) and matched (M) analyses accounting for imbalances in region, year of treatment, age, and sex between races were performed. Cox models adjusting for histology, number of metastatic sites, nephrectomy, and IMDC risk compared time to treatment failure (TTF; IMDC cohort), progression-free survival (PFS; trial-database cohort), and OS. RESULTS:The IMDC cohort included 73 black versus 3,381 (UM) and 1,236 (M) white patients. The trial-database cohort included 21 black versus 1,040 (UM) and 431 (M) white patients. Median OS for black versus white patients was 18.5 versus 25.8 months in the IMDC group and 21.0 versus 25.6 months in the trial-database group. Differences in OS were not significant in multivariable analysis in the IMDC group (hazard ratio [HR]M, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5; HRUM, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.4) and trial-database (HRM, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8 to 2.7; HRUM, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.8 to 2.6) cohorts. TTF for black patients was shorter in the UM IMDC cohort (HRUM, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8; P = .003), but not in the M analysis. PFS was shorter for black patients in both analyses in the trial-database cohort (HRM, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9; P = .002; HRUM, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9; P = .002). CONCLUSION:Black patients had more IMDC risk factors and worse outcomes with TKIs versus white patients. Race was not an independent predictor of OS. Strategies to understand biologic determinants of outcomes for minority patients are needed to optimize care.
Project description:Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) prognostic models may be improved by incorporating treatment-induced toxicities.In sunitinib-treated mRCC patients (N=770), baseline prognostic factors and treatment-induced toxicities (hypertension (systolic blood pressure ?140?mm?Hg), neutropenia (grade ?2), thrombocytopenia (grade ?2), hand-foot syndrome (grade >0), and asthenia/fatigue (grade >0)) were analysed in multivariate analyses of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) end points.On-treatment neutropenia and hypertension were associated with longer PFS (P=0.0276 and P<0.0001, respectively) and OS (P=0.0014 and P<0.0001, respectively), independent of baseline prognostic factors, including International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. By 12-week landmark analysis, neutropenia was significantly associated with longer PFS and OS (P=0.013 and P=0.0122, respectively) and hypertension or hand-foot syndrome with longer OS (P=0.0036 and P=0.0218, respectively). The concordance index was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.63-0.67) for IMDC classification alone and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.70-0.74) when combined with hypertension and neutropenia. Considering hypertension and neutropenia (developing both vs neither) changed IMDC-predicted median OS in each IMDC risk group (favourable: 45.3 vs 19.5 months; intermediate: 32.5 vs 8.0 months; poor: 21.1 vs 4.8 months).On-treatment neutropenia and hypertension are independent biomarkers of sunitinib efficacy and may add prognostic accuracy to the IMDC model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) Database Consortium (IMDC) risk groups are important when considering therapeutic options for first-line treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Adult patients with clear cell mRCC initiating first-line sunitinib between 2010 and 2018 were included in this retrospective database study. Median time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Outcomes were stratified by IMDC risk groups and evaluated for those in the combined intermediate and poor risk group and separately for those in the intermediate risk group with one versus two risk factors. RESULTS:Among 1,769 patients treated with first-line sunitinib, 318 (18%) had favorable, 1,031 (58%) had intermediate, and 420 (24%) had poor IMDC risk. Across the three risk groups, patients had similar age, gender, and sunitinib initiation year. Median TTD was 15.0, 8.5, and 4.2 months in the favorable, intermediate, and poor risk groups, respectively, and 7.1 months in the combined intermediate and poor risk group. Median OS was 52.1, 31.5, and 9.8 months in the favorable, intermediate, and poor risk groups, respectively, and 23.2 months in the combined intermediate and poor risk group. Median OS (35.1 vs. 21.9 months) and TTD (10.3 vs. 6.6 months) were significantly different between intermediate risk patients with one versus two risk factors. CONCLUSION:This real-world study found a median OS of 52 months for patients with favorable IMDC risk treated with first-line sunitinib, setting a new benchmark on clinical outcomes of clear cell mRCC. Analysis of intermediate risk group by one or two risk factors demonstrated distinct clinical outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:This analysis offers a contemporary benchmark for overall survival (median, 52.1 months; 95% confidence interval, 43.4-61.2) among patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma who were treated with sunitinib as first-line therapy in a real-world setting and classified as favorable risk according to International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) risk group classification. This study demonstrates that clinical outcomes differ between IMDC risk groups as well as within the intermediate risk group based on the number of risk factors, thus warranting further consideration of risk group when counseling patients about therapeutic options and designing clinical trials.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Gene-expression signatures for prognosis have been reported in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of two different signatures, ClearCode34, a 34-gene signature model [Eur Urol 2014;66:77-84], and an 8-gene signature model [Eur Urol 2015;67:17-20], in the setting of systemic therapy for metastatic disease.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients from five institutions who were part of TCGA were identified and clinical data were retrieved. We trained and implemented each gene model as described by the original study. The latter was demonstrated by faithful regeneration of a figure and results from the original study. mRCC patients were dichotomized to good or poor prognostic risk groups using each gene model. Cox proportional hazard regression and concordance index (C-Index) analysis were used to investigate an association between each prognostic risk model and overall survival (OS) from first-line therapy.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 54 patients were included in the final analysis. The primary endpoint was OS. Applying the ClearCode34 model, median survival for the low-risk-ccA (<i>n</i>?=?17)-and the high-risk-ccB (<i>n</i>?=?37)-subtypes were 27.6 and 22.3 months (hazard ratio (HR): 2.33; <i>p</i>?=?.039), respectively. ClearCode34 ccA/ccB and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) classifications appear to represent distinct risk criteria in mRCC, and we observed no significant overlap in classification (<i>p</i>?>?.05, chi-square test). On multivariable analyses and adjusting for IMDC groups, ccB remained independently associated with a worse OS (<i>p</i>?=?.044); the joint model of ccA/ccB and IMDC was significantly more accurate in predicting OS than a model with IMDC alone (<i>p</i>?=?.045, F-test). This was also observed in C-Index analysis; a model with both ccA and ccB subtypes had higher accuracy (C-Index 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.51-0.75) and 95% CIs of the C-Index that did not include the null value of 0.5 in contrast to a model with IMDC alone (0.60, CI?=?0.47-0.72). The 8-gene signature molecular subtype model was a weak but insignificant predictor of survival in this cohort (<i>p</i>?=?.13). A model that included both the 8-gene signature and IMDC (C-Index 0.62, CI?=?0.49-0.76) was more prognostic than IMDC alone but did not reach significance, as the 95% CI included the null value of 0.5. These two genomic signatures share no genes in common and are enriched in different biological pathways. The ClearCode34 included genes <i>ARNT</i> and <i>EPAS1</i> (also known as HIF2a), which are involved in regulation of gene expression by hypoxia-inducible factor.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The ClearCode34 but not the 8-gene molecular model improved the prognostic predictive power of the IMDC model in this cohort of 54 patients with metastatic clear cell RCC. <b><i>The Oncologist</i></b> 2017;22:286-292 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The clinical and laboratory factors included in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium model provide prognostic information in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The present study shows that genomic signatures, originally validated in localized RCC, may add further complementary prognostic information in the metastatic setting. This study may provide new insights into the molecular basis of certain mRCC subgroups. The integration of clinical and molecular data has the potential to redefine mRCC classification, enhance the understanding of mRCC biology, and potentially predict response to treatment in the future.