Optimization and evaluation of propolis liposomes as a promising therapeutic approach for COVID-19.
ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to develop an optimized liposomal formulation for enhancing the anti-viral activity of propolis against COVID-19. Docking studies were performed for certain components of Egyptian Propolis using Avigan, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir as standard antivirals against both COVID-19 3CL-protease and S1 spike protein. Response surface methodology and modified injection method were implemented to maximize the entrapment efficiency and release of the liposomal formulation. The optimized formulation parameters were as follow: LMC of 60 mM, CH% of 20% and DL of 5 mg/ml. At those values the E.E% and released % were 70.112% and 81.801%, respectively with nanosized particles (117 ± 11 nm). Docking studies revealed that Rutin and Caffeic acid phenethyl ester showed the highest affinity to both targets. Results showed a significant inhibitory effect of the optimized liposomal formula of Propolis against COVID-3CL protease (IC50 = 1.183 ± 0.06) compared with the Egyptian propolis extract (IC50 = 2.452 ± 0.11), P < 0.001. Interestingly, the inhibition of viral replication of COVID-19 determined by RT_PCR has been significantly enhanced via encapsulation of propolis extract within the liposomal formulation (P < 0.0001) and was comparable to the viral inhibitory effect of the potent antiviral (remdesivir). These findings identified the potential of propolis liposomes as a promising treatment approach against COVID-19.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 has now been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. There is an emergent need to search for possible medications. METHOD:Utilization of the available sequence information, homology modeling, and in slico docking a number of available medications might prove to be effective in inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 two main drug targets, the spike glycoprotein, and the 3CL protease. RESULTS:Several compounds were determined from the in silico docking models that might prove to be effective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2. Several antiviral medications: Zanamivir, Indinavir, Saquinavir, and Remdesivir show potential as and 3CLPRO main proteinase inhibitors and as a treatment for COVID-19. CONCLUSION:Zanamivir, Indinavir, Saquinavir, and Remdesivir are among the exciting hits on the 3CLPRO main proteinase. It is also exciting to uncover that Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) Adeflavin, B2 deficiency medicine, and Coenzyme A, a coenzyme, may also be potentially used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The use of these off-label medications may be beneficial in the treatment of the COVID-19.
Project description:This work aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effect of ten natural bioactive compounds (1-10) as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2-3CL main protease (PDB ID: 6LU7) and SARS-CoV main proteases (PDB IDs: 2GTB and 3TNT) by molecular docking analysis. The inhibitory effect of all studied compounds was studied with compared to some proposed antiviral drugs which currently used in COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, baloxvir, lopinavir, and favipiravir. Homology modeling and sequence alignment was computed to evaluate the similarity between the SARS-CoV-2-3CL main protease and other SARS-CoV receptors. ADMET properties of all studied compounds were computed and reported. Also, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the compound which has the highest binding affinity inside 6LU7 obtained from molecular docking analysis to study it is stability inside receptor in explicit water solvent. Based on molecular docking analysis, we found that caulerpin has the highest binding affinity inside all studied receptors compared to other bioactive compounds and studied drugs. Our homology modeling and sequence alignment showed that SARS-CoV main protease (PDB ID: 3TNT) shares high similarity with 3CLpro (96.00%). Also, ADMET properties confirmed that caulerpin obeys Lipinski's rule and passes ADMET property, which make it a promising compound to act as a new safe natural drug against SARS-CoV-2-3CL main protease. Finally, MD simulation confirmed that the complex formed between caulerpin and 3CLpro is stable in water explicit and had no major effect on the flexibility of the protein throughout the simulations and provided a suitable basis for our study. Also, binding free energy between caulerpin and 6LU7 confirmed the efficacy of the caulerpin molecule against SARS-CoV-2 main protease. So, this study suggested that caulerpin could be used as a potential candidate in COVID-19 treatment.
Project description:The antiviral agent remdesivir (Veklury®; Gilead Sciences), nucleotide analogue prodrug, has broad-spectrum activity against viruses from several families. Having demonstrated potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses in preclinical studies, remdesivir emerged as a candidate drug for the treatment of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, during the current global pandemic. Phase III evaluation of remdesivir in the treatment of COVID-19 commenced in early 2020 and has thus far yielded promising results. In late May 2020, Taiwan conditionally approved the use of remdesivir in patients with severe COVID-19. This was followed by a rapid succession of conditional approvals in various countries/regions including the EU and Canada. Preceding these conditional approvals, an emergency use authorization for remdesivir had been granted in the USA (on 1 May 2020) and a special approval for emergency use was granted in Japan (on 7 May 2020). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of remdesivir leading to its first conditional approval for the treatment of COVID-19.
Project description:The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV), formally named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a novel human infectious coronavirus. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is named COVID-19. Development and manufacturing of specific therapeutics and vaccines to treat COVID-19 are time-consuming processes. At this time, using available conventional therapeutics along with other treatment options may be useful to fight COVID-19. In different clinical trials, efficacy of remdesivir (GS-5734) against Ebola virus has been demonstrated. Moreover, remdesivir may be an effective therapy in vitro and in animal models infected by SARS and MERS coronaviruses. Hence, the drug may be theoretically effective against SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine C-nucleoside. By entrance into respiratory epithelial cells in human, the prodrug is metabolized to a nucleoside triphosphate as the active form. The nucleoside analog inhibits the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by competing with the usual counterpart adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The nucleoside analog is incorporated into the generating RNA strand and causes a delayed stop in the viral replication process. Knowledge about the potential efficacy of remdesivir against coronaviruses has been restricted to in vitro studies and animal models. However, information related to COVID-19 is rapidly growing. Several clinical trials are ongoing for the management of COVID-19 using remdesivir. In this study, characteristics of remdesivir and its usage for treatment of COVID-19 are reviewed based on an electronic search using PubMed and Google Scholar.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic that has claimed over 700,000 human lives. The only SARS-CoV-2 antiviral, for emergency use, is remdesivir, targeting the viral polymerase complex. PF-00835231 is a pre-clinical lead compound with an alternate target, the main SARS-CoV-2 protease 3CL pro (M pro ). Here, we perform a comparative analysis of PF-00835231 and remdesivir in A549 +ACE2 cells, using isolates of two major SARS-CoV-2 clades. PF-00835231 is antiviral for both clades, and, in this assay, statistically more potent than remdesivir. A time-of-drug-addition approach delineates the timing of early SARS-CoV-2 life cycle steps and validates PF-00835231's time of action. Both PF-00835231 and remdesivir potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in human polarized airway epithelial cultures. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence for the potential of PF-00835231 as an effective antiviral for SARS-CoV-2, addresses concerns from non-human in vitro models, and supports further studies with this compound.
Project description:3CL proteases (3CL<sup>pro</sup>) are only found in RNA viruses and have a central role in polyprotein processing during replication. Therefore, 3CL<sup>pro</sup> has emerged as promising drug target for therapeutic treatment of infections caused by Coronaviruses. In the light of the recent major outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the continuously rising numbers of infections and casualties, there is an urgent need for quickly available drugs or vaccines to stop the current COVID-19 pandemic. Repurposing of approved drugs as 3CL<sup>pro</sup> inhibitors could dramatically shorten the period up to approval as therapeutic against SARS-CoV-2, since pharmacokinetics and toxicity is already known. Several known drugs, e.g. oxytetracycline, doxorubicin, kanamycin, cefpiramide, teniposide, proanthocyanidin and salvianolic acid B, but also not-approved active compounds from the ZINC15 library were identified as new potential inhibitors of 3CL<sup>pro</sup> by using different complementary virtual screening and docking approaches. These compounds have the potential to be further optimized using structure based drug design as demonstrated for oxytetracycline.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>COVID-19, the presently prevailing global public health emergency has culminated in international instability in economy. This unprecedented pandemic outbreak pressingly necessitated the trans-disciplinary approach in developing novel/new anti-COVID-19 drugs especially, small molecule inhibitors targeting the seminal proteins of viral etiological agent, SARS-CoV-2.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on the traditional medicinal knowledge, we made an attempt through molecular docking analysis to explore the phytochemical constituents of three most commonly used Indian herbs in 'steam inhalation therapy' against well recognized viral receptor proteins.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 57 phytochemicals were scrutinized virtually against four structural protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 viz. 3CL<sup>pro</sup>, ACE-2, spike glycoprotein and RdRp. Providentially, two bioactives from each of the three plants i.e. apigenin-o-7-glucuronide and ellagic acid from Eucalyptus globulus; eudesmol and viridiflorene from Vitex negundo and; vasicolinone and anisotine from Justicia adhatoda were identified to be the best hit lead molecules based on interaction energies, conventional hydrogen bonding numbers and other non-covalent interactions. On comparison with the known SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitor -lopinavir and RdRp inhibitor -remdesivir, apigenin-o-7-glucuronide was found to be a phenomenal inhibitor of both protease and polymerase, as it strongly interacts with their active sites and exhibited remarkably high binding affinity. Furthermore, in silico drug-likeness and ADMET prediction analyses clearly evidenced the usability of the identified bioactives to develop as drug against COVID-19.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overall, the data of the present study exemplifies that the phytochemicals from selected traditional herbs having significance in steam inhalation therapy would be promising in combating COVID-19.
Project description:Countries around the world are currently fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus, belonging to the same genus as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Currently, there are no proven antiviral therapies for COVID-19. Numerous clinical trials have been initiated to identify an effective treatment. One leading candidate is remdesivir (GS-5734), a broad-spectrum antiviral that was initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV). Although remdesivir performed well in preclinical studies, it did not meet efficacy endpoints in a randomized trial conducted during an Ebola outbreak. Remdesivir holds promise for treating COVID-19 based on in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, uncontrolled clinical reports, and limited data from randomized trials. Overall, current data are insufficient to judge the efficacy of remdesivir for COVID-19, and the results of additional randomized studies are eagerly anticipated. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of Ebola and coronavirus outbreaks. We then summarize preclinical and clinical studies of remdesivir for Ebola and COVID-19.
Project description:The emergence of the novel beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing COVID-19 pandemic has generated a rapidly evolving research landscape in the search for new therapeutic agents. The intravenous antiviral drug remdesivir has <i>in vitro</i> activity against SARS-CoV-2 and now studies have reported its clinical efficacy, demonstrating shorter time to recovery in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. Adverse event rates were low and remdesivir has now received conditional marketing authorisation from the European Medicines Agency. An interim clinical commissioning policy is in place in the UK. These studies make remdesivir the first antiviral drug able to alter the natural history of severe COVID-19, and a benchmark for the comparison of new therapies in the future. Ongoing studies are investigating its use in early mild/moderate COVID-19, alternative formulations, and the combination of remdesivir with immunomodulatory agents.
Project description:Background:The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Methods:Available publications were systematically explored on some databases and gray literature was examined. Publications were discussed narratively. Results:Remdesivir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication, reduces viral load, and exerts protective effects in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. Remdesivir also reduces the pathological process, alleviates mild symptoms, and improves pulmonary lesions in SARS-CoV-2-infecetd animals. Remdesivir has been used as a compassionate drug for treating COVID-19 patients. Conclusion:Although remdesivir has shown potent antiviral activities, more efficacy assessments are urgently warranted in clinical trials.