Simulator-based ultrasound training for identification of endotracheal tube placement in a neonatal intensive care unit using point of care ultrasound.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Simulators are an extensively utilized teaching tool in clinical settings. Simulation enables learners to practice and improve their skills in a safe and controlled environment before using these skills on patients. We evaluated the effect of a training session utilizing a novel intubation ultrasound simulator on the accuracy of provider detection of tracheal versus esophageal neonatal endotracheal tube (ETT) placement using point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). We also investigated whether the time to POCUS image interpretation decreased with repeated simulator attempts. METHODS:Sixty neonatal health care providers participated in a three-hour simulator-based training session in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. Participants included neonatologists, neonatal fellows, pediatric residents and senior nursing staff. The training utilized a novel low-cost simulator made with gelatin, water and psyllium fiber. Training consisted of a didactic session, practice with the simulator, and practice with intubated NICU patients. At the end of training, participants underwent an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and ten rounds of simulator-based testing of their ability to use POCUS to differentiate between simulated tracheal and esophageal intubations. RESULTS:The majority of the participants in the training had an average of 7.0?years (SD 4.9) of clinical experience. After controlling for gender, profession, years of practice and POCUS knowledge, linear mixed model and mixed effects logistic regression demonstrated marginal improvement in POCUS interpretation over repeated simulator testing. The mean time-to-interpretation decreased from 24.7 (SD 20.3) seconds for test 1 to 10.1 (SD 4.5) seconds for Test 10, p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endotracheal tube (ETT) placement is a critical procedure for newborns that are unable to breathe. Inadvertent esophageal intubation can lead to oxygen deprivation and consequent permanent neurological impairment. Current standard-of-care methods to confirm ETT placement in neonates (auscultation, colorimetric capnography, and chest x-ray) are time consuming or unreliable, especially in the stressful resuscitation environment. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the neck has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting esophageal ETTs. It is accurate and fast, and is also easy to learn and perform, especially on children. METHODS:This will be an observational diagnostic accuracy study consisting of two phases and conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. In phase 1, neonatal health care providers that currently perform standard-of-care methods for ETT localization, regardless of experience in portable ultrasound, will undergo a two-hour training session. During this session, providers will learn to detect tracheal vs. esophageal ETTs using POCUS. The session will consist of a didactic component, hands-on training with a novel intubation ultrasound simulator, and practice with stable, ventilated newborns. At the end of the session, the providers will undergo an objective structured assessment of technical skills, as well as an evaluation of their ability to differentiate between tracheal and esophageal endotracheal tubes. In phase 2, newborns requiring intubation will be assessed for ETT location via POCUS, at the same time as standard-of-care methods. The initial 2 months of phase 2 will include a quality assurance component to ensure the POCUS accuracy of trained providers. The primary outcome of the study is to determine the accuracy of neck POCUS for ETT location when performed by neonatal providers with focused POCUS training, and the secondary outcome is to determine whether neck POCUS is faster than standard-of-care methods. DISCUSSION:This study represents the first large investigation of the benefits of POCUS for ETT confirmation in the sickest newborns undergoing intubations for respiratory support. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03533218. Registered May 2018.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Despite increased evidence that point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has the potential to improve patient care in many clinical areas, the extent of use and training in POCUS in Canadian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has not been described in the literature. In this study, we aimed to explore the extent to which POCUS is being used and the need for a formal curriculum with defined POCUS competencies in the field of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (NPM). METHODS:We sent a cross-sectional electronic survey to all NPM program directors and fellows in Canada. All 13 Canadian NPM programs were invited to participate. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS:The response rate was 69% (n?=?9) from program directors (PDs) and 29% (n?=?25) from NPM fellows. Most respondents indicated regular use of POCUS in clinical practice and ready access to a portable ultrasound machine. The most common use for POCUS was targeted assessment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). Only six PDs reported that POCUS skills are taught to trainees in their centers and only two PDs reported that a structured program existed. Barriers to POCUS structured training include a lack of trained personnel as well as insufficient time in the busy NPM curriculum. CONCLUSION:POCUS is widely used in Canadian NICUs. However, a formal curriculum and assessment of competencies in this area of neonatal clinical care are lacking.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia are leading causes of maternal and neonatal mortality, respectively, that occur relatively rarely in low-volume health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Rare occurrence of cases may limit the readiness and skills that individual birth attendants have to address complications. Evidence suggests that simulator-based training and practice sessions can help birth attendants maintain these life-saving skills; one approach is called "low-dose, high-frequency" (LDHF). The objective of this evaluation is to determine the facilitating factors and barriers to participation in LDHF practice, using qualitative and quantitative information. METHODS:A trial in 125 facilities in Uganda compared three strategies of support for LDHF practice to improve retention of skills in prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia. Birth attendants kept written logs of their simulator-based practice sessions, which were entered into a database, then analyzed using Stata to compare frequency of practice by the study arm. The evaluation also included 29 in-depth interviews and 19 focus group discussions with birth attendants and district trainers. Transcripts were entered in Atlas.ti software for coding, then analyzed using content analysis to identify factors that motivated or discouraged simulator-based practice. RESULTS:Practice log data indicated that simulator-based practice sessions occurred more frequently in facilities where one or two practice coordinators helped schedule and lead the practice sessions and in health centers compared to hospitals. The qualitative data suggest that birth attendants who practiced more were motivated by a desire to maintain skills and be prepared for emergencies, external recognition, and establishing a set schedule. Barriers to consistent practice included low staffing levels, heavy workloads, and a sense that competency can be maintained through routine clinical care alone. Some facilities described norms around continuing education and some did not. CONCLUSIONS:Designating practice coordinators to lead their peers in simulator-based practice led to more consistent skills practice within frontline health facilities. Ongoing support, scheduling of practice sessions, and assessment and communication of motivation factors may help sustain LDHF practice and similar forms of continuing professional development. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered with clinicaltrials.gov #NCT03254628 on August 18, 2018 (registered retrospectively).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The point-of-care ultrasound of the airway (POCUS-A) is a useful examination method but there are currently no educational programs for medical students regarding it. We designed a POCUS-A training curriculum for medical students to improve three cognitive and psychomotor learning domains: knowledge of POCUS-A, image acquisition, and image interpretation. METHODS:Two hours of training were provided to 52 medical students in their emergency medicine (EM) rotation. Students were evaluated for cognitive and psychomotor skills before and immediately after the training. The validity measures were established with the help of six specialists and eight EM residents. A survey was administered following the curriculum. RESULTS:Cognitive skill significantly improved after the training (38.7±12.4 vs. 91.2±7.7) and there was no significant difference between medical students and EM residents in posttest scores (91.2±7.7 vs. 90.8±4.6). The success rate of overall POCUS-A performance was 95.8%. The students were confident to perform POCUS-A on an actual patient and strongly agreed to incorporate POCUS-A training in their medical school curriculum. CONCLUSION:Cognitive and psychomotor skills of POCUS-A among medical students can be improved via a limited curriculum on EM rotation.
Project description:Few studies have compared the effectiveness of brief training courses on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) skill acquisition of novice attending physicians vs. trainees. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in POCUS image interpretation skills and confidence of novice attending physicians vs. trainees after a 1-day POCUS training course.A 1-day POCUS training course was held in March 2017 in Japan. A standardized training curriculum was developed that included online education, live lectures, and hands-on training. The pre-course assessment tools included a written examination to evaluate baseline knowledge and image interpretation skills, and a physician survey to assess confidence in performing specific ultrasound applications. The same assessment tools were administered post-course, along with a course evaluation. All learners were novices and were categorized as trainees or attending physicians. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance.In total, 60 learners attended the course, and 51 learners (85%) completed all tests and surveys. The 51 novice learners included 29 trainees (4 medical students, 9 PGY 1-2 residents, 16 PGY 3-5 residents) and 22 attending physicians (6 PGY 6-10 physicians, and 16 physicians PGY 11 and higher). The mean pre- and post-course test scores of novice trainees improved from 65.5 to 83.9% while novice attending physicians improved from 66.7 to 81.5% (p?<?0.001). The post-course physician confidence scores in using ultrasound significantly increased in all skill categories for both groups. Both trainees and attending physicians demonstrated similar improvement in their post-course test scores and confidence with no statistically significant differences between the groups. The course evaluation scores for overall satisfaction and satisfaction with faculty members' teaching skills were 4.5 and 4.6 on a 5-point scale, respectively.Both novice trainees and attending physicians showed similar improvement in point-of-care ultrasound image interpretation skills and confidence after a brief training course. Although separate training courses have traditionally been developed for attending physicians and trainees, novice learners of point-of-care ultrasound may acquire skills at similar rates, regardless of their ranking as an attending physician or trainee. Future studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of short training courses on image acquisition skills and determine the ideal course design.
Project description:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation leading to high morbidity and mortality among intubated neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilm flora were considered to be responsible for the occurrence of VAP as a reservoir of pathogens. However, regarding neonates with VAP, little is known about the complex microbial signatures in ETT biofilms. In the present study, a culture-independent approach based on next generation sequencing was performed as an initial survey to investigate the microbial communities in ETT biofilms of 49 intubated neonates with and without VAP. Our results revealed a far more complex microflora in ETT biofilms from intubated neonates compared to a previous culture-based study. The abundance of Streptococci in ETT biofilms was significantly related to the onset of VAP. By isolating Streptococci in ETT biofilms, we found that Streptococci enhanced biofilm formation of the common nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and decreased IL-8 expression of airway epithelia cells exposed to the biofilm conditioned medium of PAO1. This study provides new insight into the pathogenesis of VAP among intubated neonates. More studies focusing on intubated neonates are warranted to develop strategies to address this important nosocomial disease in NICUs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:More and more family physicians (FPs) are using point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) in Europe. Still, there is no general consensus about the specific knowledge and skills that a FP should acquire in order to effectively perform POCUS. The objective of this study was to identify indications for the use of POCUS among FPs, explore the barriers of its use and provide an expert opinion of FPs on knowledge and skills required to effectively implement POCUS in family practice. METHODS:A modified two-round Delphi study was carried out among FPs using POCUS in Slovenia. RESULTS:21 FPs were invited to participate in the study. A total of 13 FPs (62%) responded the round-one questionnaire and 10 (48%) completed the round-two questionnaire. Results show a large variability of indications for the use of POCUS in family practice, the most common being acute abdominal conditions, lung ultrasonography and eyeballing echocardiography. In contrast, the results show little variability in barriers for the use of POCUS, the most common being lack of time, inaccessibility of specific training programmes and financial issues. There is a strong consensus on the knowledge and skills needed to perform POCUS. Panellists agreed on a learning medical knowledge, technical skills and expressed a need for individual consultations and tutorship options. CONCLUSION:This study proves that although POCUS is used in family practice for a wide variety of indications with a significant number of barriers, there is a strong consensus on what a FP needs to know to effectively perform POCUS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Paracentesis is a commonly performed bedside procedure that has the potential for serious complications. Therefore, simulation-based education for paracentesis is valuable for clinicians. OBJECTIVE: To assess internal medicine residents' procedural skills before and after simulation-based mastery learning on a paracentesis simulator. METHODS: A team with expertise in simulation and procedural skills developed and created a high fidelity, ultrasound-compatible paracentesis simulator. Fifty-eight first-year internal medicine residents completed a mastery learning-based intervention using the paracentesis simulator. Residents underwent baseline skill assessment (pretest) using a 25-item checklist. Residents completed a posttest after a 3-hour education session featuring a demonstration of the procedure, deliberate practice, ultrasound training, and feedback. All residents were expected to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) at posttest, the key feature of mastery learning. We compared pretest and posttest checklist scores to evaluate the effect of the educational intervention. Residents rated the training sessions. RESULTS: Residents' paracentesis skills improved from an average pretest score of 33.0% (SD = 15.2%) to 92.7% (SD = 5.4%) at posttest (P < .001). After the training intervention, all residents met or exceeded the MPS. The training sessions and realism of the simulation were rated highly by learners. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the ability of a paracentesis simulator to significantly improve procedural competence.
Project description:Point-of-care (POCUS) education is rapidly expanding within medical schools and internal medicine residency programs, but lack of trained faculty is a major barrier. While POCUS training can improve short-term outcomes, knowledge and skills rapidly decay without deliberate practice and feedback. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) by volunteer general internal medicine (GIM) faculty participating in a longitudinal POCUS curriculum.Participants: Nine GIM clinician-educators participated in a 6-month POCUS curriculum. Faculty performance was compared to three cardiology fellows. Three diagnostic cardiac sonographers (DCS) were also evaluated and served as the gold standard.the primary outcome was a FCU efficiency score, calculated by dividing image quality score by exam duration. FCU exams were conducted on three standardized patients after completion of an introductory workshop, at 3 months, and at 6 months. Two blinded cardiologists scored the exams.mean efficiency scores were compared using a linear mixed effects model, followed by pairwise comparisons using Tukey's test.GIM faculty's FCU efficiency scores were maintained over the 6-month period (2.2, SE 1.0 vs. 3.8, SE 1.0, p?=?0.076). Their scores at each session were similar to cardiology fellows (p?>?0.69), but inferior to DCSs (p?<?0.0001).GIM faculty participating in a POCUS curriculum maintained their FCU performance over 6 months with efficiency scores comparable to experienced cardiology fellows.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Point-of-care-ultrasound (POCUS) training is expanding in undergraduate and graduate medical education, but lack of trained faculty is a major barrier. Two strategies that may help mitigate this obstacle are interprofessional education (IPE) and near-peer teaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate a POCUS course in which diagnostic medical sonography (DMS) students served as near-peer teachers for internal medicine residents (IMR) learning to perform abdominal sonography. METHODS:Prior to the IPE workshop, DMS students participated in a train-the-trainer session to practice teaching and communication skills via case-based simulation. DMS students then coached first-year IMR to perform POCUS examinations of the kidney, bladder, and gallbladder on live models. A mixed-methods evaluation of the interprofessional workshop included an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE), course evaluation, and qualitative analysis of focus group interviews. RESULTS:Twenty-four of 24 (100%) IMR completed the OSCE, averaging 97.7/107 points (91.3%) (SD 5.2). Course evaluations from IMR and DMS students were globally positive. Twenty three of 24 residents (96%) and 6/6 DMS students (100%) participated in focus group interviews. Qualitative analysis identified themes related to the learning environment, scanning technique, and suggestions for improvement. IMR felt the interprofessional training fostered a positive learning environment and that the experience complimented traditional faculty-led workshops. Both groups noted the importance of establishing mutual understanding of expectations and suggested future workshops have more dedicated time for DMS student demonstration of scanning technique. CONCLUSION:An interprofessional, near-peer workshop was an effective strategy for teaching POCUS to IMR. This approach may allow broader adoption of POCUS in medical education, especially when faculty expertise is limited.