Suicide Risk Assessment Using Machine Learning and Social Networks: a Scoping Review.
ABSTRACT: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report in 2016, around 800,000 of individuals have committed suicide. Moreover, suicide is the second cause of unnatural death in people between 15 and 29 years. This paper reviews state of the art on the literature concerning the use of machine learning methods for suicide detection on social networks. Consequently, the objectives, data collection techniques, development process and the validation metrics used for suicide detection on social networks are analyzed. The authors conducted a scoping review using the methodology proposed by Arksey and O'Malley et al. and the PRISMA protocol was adopted to select the relevant studies. This scoping review aims to identify the machine learning techniques used to predict suicide risk based on information posted on social networks. The databases used are PubMed, Science Direct, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science. In total, 50% of the included studies (8/16) report explicitly the use of data mining techniques for feature extraction, feature detection or entity identification. The most commonly reported method was the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (4/8, 50%), followed by Latent Dirichlet Analysis, Latent Semantic Analysis, and Word2vec (2/8, 25%). Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Principal Component Analysis were used only in one of the included studies (12.5%). In total, 3 out of 8 research papers (37.5%) combined more than one of those techniques. Supported Vector Machine was implemented in 10 out of the 16 included studies (62.5%). Finally, 75% of the analyzed studies implement machine learning-based models using Python.
Project description:Detection of suicide risk is a highly prioritized, yet complicated task. Five decades of research have produced predictions slightly better than chance (AUCs?=?0.56-0.58). In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were constructed to predict suicide risk from everyday language of social media users. The dataset included 83,292 postings authored by 1002 authenticated Facebook users, alongside valid psychosocial information about the users. Using Deep Contextualized Word Embeddings for text representation, two models were constructed: A Single Task Model (STM), to predict suicide risk from Facebook postings directly (Facebook texts???suicide) and a Multi-Task Model (MTM), which included hierarchical, multilayered sets of theory-driven risk factors (Facebook texts???personality traits???psychosocial risks???psychiatric disorders???suicide). Compared with the STM predictions (0.621???AUC???0.629), the MTM produced significantly improved prediction accuracy (0.697???AUC???0.746), with substantially larger effect sizes (0.729???d???0.936). Subsequent content analyses suggested that predictions did not rely on explicit suicide-related themes, but on a range of text features. The findings suggest that machine learning based analyses of everyday social media activity can improve suicide risk predictions and contribute to the development of practical detection tools.
Project description:Artificial intelligence has been advancing in fields including anesthesiology. This scoping review of the intersection of artificial intelligence and anesthesia research identified and summarized six themes of applications of artificial intelligence in anesthesiology: (1) depth of anesthesia monitoring, (2) control of anesthesia, (3) event and risk prediction, (4) ultrasound guidance, (5) pain management, and (6) operating room logistics. Based on papers identified in the review, several topics within artificial intelligence were described and summarized: (1) machine learning (including supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning), (2) techniques in artificial intelligence (e.g., classical machine learning, neural networks and deep learning, Bayesian methods), and (3) major applied fields in artificial intelligence.The implications of artificial intelligence for the practicing anesthesiologist are discussed as are its limitations and the role of clinicians in further developing artificial intelligence for use in clinical care. Artificial intelligence has the potential to impact the practice of anesthesiology in aspects ranging from perioperative support to critical care delivery to outpatient pain management.
Project description:In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.
Project description:With widespread usage of online social networks and its popularity, social networking platforms have given us incalculable opportunities than ever before, and its benefits are undeniable. Despite benefits, people may be humiliated, insulted, bullied, and harassed by anonymous users, strangers, or peers. In this study, we have proposed a cyberbullying detection framework to generate features from Twitter content by leveraging a pointwise mutual information technique. Based on these features, we developed a supervised machine learning solution for cyberbullying detection and multi-class categorization of its severity in Twitter. In the study we applied Embedding, Sentiment, and Lexicon features along with PMI-semantic orientation. Extracted features were applied with Naïve Bayes, KNN, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Support Vector Machine algorithms. Results from experiments with our proposed framework in a multi-class setting are promising both with respect to Kappa, classifier accuracy and f-measure metrics, as well as in a binary setting. These results indicate that our proposed framework provides a feasible solution to detect cyberbullying behavior and its severity in online social networks. Finally, we compared the results of proposed and baseline features with other machine learning algorithms. Findings of the comparison indicate the significance of the proposed features in cyberbullying detection.
Project description:A plausible representation of the relational information among entities in dynamic systems such as a living cell or a social community is a stochastic network that is topologically rewiring and semantically evolving over time. Although there is a rich literature in modeling static or temporally invariant networks, little has been done toward recovering the network structure when the networks are not observable in a dynamic context. In this article, we present a machine learning method called TESLA, which builds on a temporally smoothed l(1)-regularized logistic regression formalism that can be cast as a standard convex-optimization problem and solved efficiently by using generic solvers scalable to large networks. We report promising results on recovering simulated time-varying networks and on reverse engineering the latent sequence of temporally rewiring political and academic social networks from longitudinal data, and the evolving gene networks over >4,000 genes during the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster from a microarray time course at a resolution limited only by sample frequency.
Project description:Background: Clinical decision support (CDS) systems have emerged as tools providing intelligent decision making to address challenges of critical care. CDS systems can be based on existing guidelines or best practices; and can also utilize machine learning to provide a diagnosis, recommendation, or therapy course. Methods: This research aimed to identify evidence-based study designs and outcome measures to determine the clinical effectiveness of clinical decision support systems in the detection and prediction of hemodynamic instability, respiratory distress, and infection within critical care settings. PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched to identify primary research published in English between 2013 and 2018. Studies conducted in the USA, Canada, UK, Germany and France with more than 10 participants per arm were included. Results: In studies on hemodynamic instability, the prediction and management of septic shock were the most researched topics followed by the early prediction of heart failure. For respiratory distress, the most popular topics were pneumonia detection and prediction followed by pulmonary embolisms. Given the importance of imaging and clinical notes, this area combined Machine Learning with image analysis and natural language processing. In studies on infection, the most researched areas were the detection, prediction, and management of sepsis, surgical site infections, as well as acute kidney injury. Overall, a variety of Machine Learning algorithms were utilized frequently, particularly support vector machines, boosting techniques, random forest classifiers and neural networks. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC AUC were the most frequently reported performance measures. Conclusion: This review showed an increasing use of Machine Learning for CDS in all three areas. Large datasets are required for training these algorithms; making it imperative to appropriately address, challenges such as class imbalance, correct labelling of data and missing data. Recommendations are formulated for the development and successful adoption of CDS systems.
Project description:The identification and understanding of metabolic pathways is a key aspect in crop improvement and drug design. The common approach for their detection is based on gene annotation and ontology. Correlation-based network analysis, where metabolites are arranged into network formation, is used as a complentary tool. Here, we demonstrate the detection of metabolic pathways based on correlation-based network analysis combined with machine-learning techniques. Metabolites of known tomato pathways, non-tomato pathways, and random sets of metabolites were mapped as subgraphs onto metabolite correlation networks of the tomato pericarp. Network features were computed for each subgraph, generating a machine-learning model. The model predicted the presence of the ?-alanine-degradation-I, tryptophan-degradation-VII-via-indole-3-pyruvate (yet unknown to plants), the ?-alanine-biosynthesis-III, and the melibiose-degradation pathway, although melibiose was not part of the networks. In vivo assays validated the presence of the melibiose-degradation pathway. For the remaining pathways only some of the genes encoding regulatory enzymes were detected.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Social workers are among the largest group of professionals in the mental health workforce and play a key role in the assessment of mental health, addictions and suicide. Most social workers provide services to individuals with mental health concerns, yet there are gaps in research on social work education and training programmes. The objective of this scoping review is to examine literature on social work education and training in mental health, addictions and suicide. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Using a scoping review framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley, we will search for literature through seven academic databases: PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, CINAHL Plus, Social Sciences Abstracts, Education Source, ERIC and Social Work Abstracts. Two independent reviewers will screen articles utilising a two-stage process. Titles and abstracts will be reviewed in the first stage and full texts will be reviewed in the second stage. Selected articles that meet inclusion criteria will be charted to extract key themes and they will be analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This review will fill a knowledge gap in social work education and training in mental health, addictions and suicide. Ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. Through dissemination in publications and relevant conferences, the results may guide future research and education in social work.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emerging machine learning technologies are beginning to transform medicine and healthcare and could also improve the diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that investigate, from a general perspective, how machine learning is used in a rare disease context. This scoping review aims to address this gap and explores the use of machine learning in rare diseases, investigating, for example, in which rare diseases machine learning is applied, which types of algorithms and input data are used or which medical applications (e.g., diagnosis, prognosis or treatment) are studied. METHODS:Using a complex search string including generic search terms and 381 individual disease names, studies from the past 10 years (2010-2019) that applied machine learning in a rare disease context were identified on PubMed. To systematically map the research activity, eligible studies were categorized along different dimensions (e.g., rare disease group, type of algorithm, input data), and the number of studies within these categories was analyzed. RESULTS:Two hundred eleven studies from 32 countries investigating 74 different rare diseases were identified. Diseases with a higher prevalence appeared more often in the studies than diseases with a lower prevalence. Moreover, some rare disease groups were investigated more frequently than to be expected (e.g., rare neurologic diseases and rare systemic or rheumatologic diseases), others less frequently (e.g., rare inborn errors of metabolism and rare skin diseases). Ensemble methods (36.0%), support vector machines (32.2%) and artificial neural networks (31.8%) were the algorithms most commonly applied in the studies. Only a small proportion of studies evaluated their algorithms on an external data set (11.8%) or against a human expert (2.4%). As input data, images (32.2%), demographic data (27.0%) and "omics" data (26.5%) were used most frequently. Most studies used machine learning for diagnosis (40.8%) or prognosis (38.4%) whereas studies aiming to improve treatment were relatively scarce (4.7%). Patient numbers in the studies were small, typically ranging from 20 to 99 (35.5%). CONCLUSION:Our review provides an overview of the use of machine learning in rare diseases. Mapping the current research activity, it can guide future work and help to facilitate the successful application of machine learning in rare diseases.
Project description:Suicide is a leading cause of death that defies prediction and challenges prevention efforts worldwide. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have emerged as a means of investigating large datasets to enhance risk detection. A systematic review of ML investigations evaluating suicidal behaviors was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Web-of-Science, and EMBASE, employing search strings and MeSH terms relevant to suicide and AI. Databases were supplemented by hand-search techniques and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria: (1) journal article, available in English, (2) original investigation, (3) employment of AI/ML, (4) evaluation of a suicide risk outcome. N = 594 records were identified based on abstract search, and 25 hand-searched reports. N = 461 reports remained after duplicates were removed, n = 316 were excluded after abstract screening. Of n = 149 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, n = 87 were included for quantitative synthesis, grouped according to suicide behavior outcome. Reports varied widely in methodology and outcomes. Results suggest high levels of risk classification accuracy (>90%) and Area Under the Curve (AUC) in the prediction of suicidal behaviors. We report key findings and central limitations in the use of AI/ML frameworks to guide additional research, which hold the potential to impact suicide on broad scale.