Schlafen 12 Is Prognostically Favorable and Reduces C-Myc and Proliferation in Lung Adenocarcinoma but Not in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Schlafen 12 (SLFN12) is an intermediate human Schlafen that induces differentiation in enterocytes, prostate, and breast cancer. We hypothesized that SLFN12 influences lung cancer biology. We investigated survival differences in high versus low SLFN12-expressing tumors in two databases. We then adenovirally overexpressed SLFN12 (AdSLFN12) in HCC827, H23, and H1975 cells to model lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and in H2170 and HTB-182 cells representing lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). We analyzed proliferation using a colorimetric assay, mRNA expression by RT-qPCR, and protein by Western blot. To further explore the functional relevance of SLFN12, we correlated SLFN12 with seventeen functional oncogenic gene signatures in human tumors. Low tumoral SLFN12 expression predicted worse survival in LUAD patients, but not in LUSC. AdSLFN12 modulated expression of SCGB1A1, SFTPC, HOPX, CK-5, CDH1, and P63 in a complex fashion in these cells. AdSLFN12 reduced proliferation in all LUAD cell lines, but not in LUSC cells. SLFN12 expression inversely correlated with expression of a myc-associated gene signature in LUAD, but not LUSC tumors. SLFN12 overexpression reduced c-myc protein in LUAD cell lines but not in LUSC, by inhibiting c-myc translation. Our results suggest SLFN12 improves prognosis in LUAD in part via a c-myc-dependent slowing of proliferation.
Project description:Lung malignancies comprise lethal and aggressive tumours that remain the leading cancer-related death cause worldwide. Regarding histological classification, lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and adenocarcinoma (LUAD) account for the majority of cases. Surgical resection and various combinations of chemo- and radiation therapies are the golden standards in the treatment of lung cancers, although the five-year survival rate remains very poor. Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt and Erbb signalling are evolutionarily conserved pathways regulating pivotal cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and angiogenesis during embryogenesis and post-natal life. However, to date, there is no study comprehensively revealing signalling networks of these four pathways in LUSC and LUAD. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the investigation profiles of downstream target genes of pathways that differ between LUSC and LUAD biology. Our results showed a few co-expression modules, identified through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), which significantly differentiated downstream signaling of Notch, ErbB, Hedgehog, and Wnt in LUSC and LUAD. Among co-expressed genes essential regulators of the cell cycle, DNA damage response, apoptosis, and proliferation have been found. Most of them were upregulated in LUSC compared to LUAD. In conclusion, identified downstream networks revealed distinct biological mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression in LUSC and LUAD that may diversify the clinical outcome of the disease.
Project description:Emerging evidences demonstrate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abnormally expressed in tumors and could serve as prognostic markers for cancers. However, the expression patterns and clinical implications of circRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain obscure. In this study, we profiled circRNA expressions in 10 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) after ribosomal RNA-depletion and RNase R digestion to enrich circRNAs. Combining five circRNA computational programs, we found that LUAD and LUSC not only share common expression patterns, but also exhibit distinct circRNA expression signatures. Moreover, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that hsa_circ_0077837 and hsa_circ_0001821 could serve as potential biomarkers for both LUAD and LUSC, while hsa_circ_0001073 and hsa_circ_0001495 could be diagnostic/subtyping marker for LUAD and LUSC, respectively. Therefore, our findings highlight the important diagnostic potential of circRNAs in NSCLC.
Project description:Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are the two major subtypes of lung cancer, with LUSC exhibits faster progression rate than LUAD. To investigate the roles of immune-response related genes (IRGs) in lung cancer progression, we used LUAD and LUSC samples at different cancer progression stages, and identified that the expression profiles of IRGs could serve as a better classification marker for cancerous tissues of both LUAD and LUSC. We found that the expression changes of IRGs were different between LUAD and LUSC. Cell cycle promoting genes, including KIFs and proteasomes, showed faster up-regulation in LUSC, whereas immune response promoting genes, including MHC molecules and chemokines, were more rapidly repressed in LUSC. Comparative pathway analysis revealed that members of the Toll-like receptor and T cell receptor signaling pathways exhibited diverged expression changes between LUAD and LUSC, especially at the early cancer stages. Our results revealed the difference of LUAD and LUSC from the immune response point of view, and provided new clues for the differential treatment of LUAD and LUSC.
Project description:Different subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have distinct sites of origin, histologies, genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of ECT2 dysregulation and compared its prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). In addition, we also investigated the enrichment of ECT2 co-expressed genes in KEGG pathways in LUAD and LUSC. Bioinformatic analysis was performed based on data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-LUAD and TCGA-LUSC. Results showed that ECT2 expression was significantly upregulated in both LUAD and LUSC compared with normal lung tissues. ECT2 expression was considerably higher in LUSC than in LUAD. The level of ECT2 DNA methylation was significantly lower in LUSC than in LUAD. ECT2 mutation was observed in 5% of LUAD and in 51% of LUSC cases. Amplification was the predominant alteration. LUAD patients with ECT2 amplification had significantly worse disease-free survival (p = 0.022). High ECT2 expression was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS) (p<0.0001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.001) in LUAD patients. Nevertheless, these associations were not observed in patients with LUSC. The following univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the high ECT2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS (HR: 2.039, 95%CI: 1.457-2.852, p<0.001) and RFS (HR: 1.715, 95%CI: 1.210-2.432, p = 0.002) in LUAD patients, but not in LUSC patients. Among 518 genes co-expressed with ECT2 in LUAD and 386 genes co-expressed with ECT2 in LUSC, there were only 98 genes in the overlapping cluster. Some of the genes related KEGG pathways in LUAD were not observed in LUSC. These differences might help to explain the different prognostic value of ECT2 in LUAD and LUSC, which are also worthy of further studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) with bioinformatics analysis and search for potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:The gene expression profiling datasets of LUAD and LUSC were acquired. The transcriptome differences between LUAD and LUSC were identified using R language processing and t-test analysis. The differential expressions of the genes were shown by Venn diagram. The DEGs identified by GEO2R were analyzed with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify the signaling pathways and biomarkers that could be used for differential diagnosis of LUAD and LUSC. The TCGA data and the biomarker expression data from clinical lung cancer samples were used to verify the differential expressions of the Osteoarthritis pathway and LXR/RXR between LUAD and LUSC. We further examined the differential expressions of miR-181 and its two target genes, WNT5A and MBD2, in 23 clinical specimens of lung squamous cell carcinoma and the paired adjacent tissues. RESULTS:GEO data analysis identified 851 DEGs (including 276 up-regulated and 575 down-regulated genes) in LUAD and 885 DEGs (including 406 up-regulated and 479 down-regulated genes) in LUSC. DAVID and IPA analysis revealed that leukocyte migration and inflammatory responses were more abundant in LUAD than in LUSC. Osteoarthritis pathway was inhibited in LUAD and activated in LUSC. IPA analysis showed that transcription factors (GATA4, RELA, YBX1, TP63 and MBD2), cytokines (WNT5A and IL1A) and microRNAs (miR-34a, miR-181b and miR-15a) differed significantly between LUAD and LUSC. miR-34a with IL-1A, miR-15a with YBX1, and miR-181b with WNT5A and MBD2 could serve as the paired microRNA and mRNA targets for differential diagnosis of NSCLC subtypes. Analysis of the clinical samples showed an increased expression of miR-181b-5p and the down-regulation of WNT5A, which could be used as molecular markers for the diagnosis of LUSC. CONCLUSIONS:Through transcriptome analysis, we identified candidate genes, paired microRNAs and pathways for differentiating LUAD and LUSC, and they can provide novel differential diagnosis and therapeutic strategies for LUAD and LUSC.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that the interleukin (IL)-6/ IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) signaling pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) are the two major pathological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to elucidate the potential clinical prognosis and biological function of IL-6R mRNA expression in LUAD and LUSC. The search term 'lung cancer' was used to search through the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Including LUAD and LUSC datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas database, a total of 8 LUAD and 6 LUSC datasets were included in the present analysis. It was observed that a higher expression level of IL-6R mRNA in tumor tissues was a significant positive prognostic factor for overall survival in LUAD [pooled hazard ratio (HR), 0.48 and P<0.001 for univariate analysis; pooled HR, 0.50 and P<0.001 for multivariate analysis] while there was no similar association in LUSC (pooled HR, 1.59 and P=0.062 for univariate analysis; pooled HR, 1.58 and P=0.079 for multivariate analysis). Correlation analysis revealed that IL-6 and IL-6R were negatively correlated in LUAD and positively correlated in LUSC. IL-6R and its most correlated genes were primarily involved in cell cycle progression in LUAD and primarily involved in tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis in LUSC. These results suggest a possible role of tumoral expression for IL-6R in LUAD, which means it may have potential as a prognostic marker for this type of cancer.
Project description:Secreted frizzled related protein 3 (SFRP3) contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that shares homology with Frizzled CRD and regulates WNT signaling. Independent studies showed epigenetic silencing of SFRP3 in melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, a tumor suppressive function of SFRP3 was shown in androgen-independent prostate and gastric cancer cells. The current study is the first to investigate SFRP3 expression and its potential clinical impact on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). WNT signaling components present on NSCLC subtypes were preliminary elucidated by expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified a distinct expression signature of relevant WNT signaling components that differ between adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Of interest, canonical WNT signaling is predominant in LUAD samples and non-canonical WNT signaling is predominant in LUSC. In line, high SFRP3 expression resulted in beneficial clinical outcome for LUAD but not for LUSC patients. Furthermore, SFRP3 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in NSCLC tissue compared to normal lung samples. TCGA data verified the reduction of SFRP3 in LUAD and LUSC patients. Moreover, DNA hypermethylation of SFRP3 was evaluated in the TCGA methylation dataset resulting in epigenetic inactivation of SFRP3 expression in LUAD, but not in LUSC, and was validated by pyrosequencing of our NSCLC tissue cohort and in vitro demethylation experiments. Immunohistochemistry confirmed SFRP3 protein downregulation in primary NSCLC and indicated abundant expression in normal lung tissue. Two adenocarcinoma gain-of-function models were used to analyze the functional impact of SFRP3 on cell proliferation and regulation of CyclinD1 expression in vitro. Our results indicate that SFRP3 acts as a novel putative tumor suppressor gene in adenocarcinoma of the lung possibly regulating canonical WNT signaling.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the value of CEP55 as a diagnostic marker and independent prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and to analyze its co-expression genes and related signaling pathways. METHODS:TCGA database and GEO database were used to analyze the expression of CEP55 in LUAD and LUSC compared with normal tissues. The co-expression genes of CEP55 in LUAD and LUSC were excavated by cBioPortal and enriched by KEGG and GO. Establishing Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the value of CEP55 as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. The association between CEP55 expression and the clinicopathological features was evaluated using ?2 tests. ROC curves for diagnosis and prognosis detection were constructed. Prognostic values were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. RESULTS:Compared with normal lung tissues, CEP55 expression was significantly upregulated in both LUAD and LUSC. ROC curve analysis showed that CEP55 could be used as an effective diagnostic target for LUAD (AUC = 0.969) and LUSC (AUC = 0.994). When CEP55 gene was selected as an independent prognostic factor, high expression of CEP55 was more disadvantageous to OS and RFS of LUAD patients (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found in LUSC patients (P>0.05). The number of co-expression genes of CEP55 in LUAD is more than that in LUSC, and is related to cell cycle, DNA replication and P53 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:CEP55 can be used as a diagnostic marker for LUAD and LUSC, but only as an independent prognostic factor for LUAD rather than LUSC.
Project description:Background:Lung cancer is the most malignant tumor with the highest morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the role of the expression and the significance of the p42.3 gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) were analyzed based on the biological information data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Furthermore, 142 postoperative tumor tissue and normal tissue samples (70 cases of LUAD and 72 cases of LUSC) from NSCLC patients admitted to our hospital from 2005 to 2009 were retrospectively collected. Paraffin-embedded tissues were used to make the tissue microarrays (TMA), and the expression of the p42.3 protein was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results:The expression of p42.3 in both LUAD and LUSC was significantly upregulated (P<0.01) compared with the normal lung tissues. The p42.3 expression was significantly higher than that of LUAD (P<0.01) in the LUSC group. LUSC had a lower level of p42.3 DNA methylation and a higher level of p42.3 DNA amplification than LUAD. The expression rate of p42.3 protein decreased in patients 70 years or older (P=0.029). High expression of the p42.3 protein was an independent factor for worse pathological differentiation (P=0.043). Conclusions:Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contributed to dysregulated p42.3 in NSCLC. Despite the temporary absence of TCGA-LUSC (TCGA data on LUSC) survival information, we observed that the up-regulated expression of p42.3 in LUSC was significantly higher than that in LUAD by analyzing the public database and reviewing the real-world data. Furthermore, a high expression of p42.3 protein was significantly correlated with poor differentiation of tumor tissues. Therefore, the prognostic value of p42.3 in LUSC deserves further study.
Project description:Background:Integrins play a crucial role in the regulation process of cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, tumor invasion and metastasis. ITGA11, ITGB4 and ITGB8 are three encoding genes of integrins family. Accumulative evidences have proved that abnormal expression of ITGA11, ITGB4 and ITGB8 are a common phenomenon in different malignances. However, their expression patterns and prognostic roles for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been completely illustrated. Methods:We investigated the expression patterns and prognostic values of ITGA11, ITGB4 and ITGB8 in patients with NSCLC through using a series of databases and various datasets, including ONCOMINE, GEPIA, HPA, TCGA and GEO datasets. Results:We found that the expression levels of ITGA11 and ITGB4 were significantly upregulated in both LUAD and LUSC, while ITGB8 was obviously upregulated in LUSC. Additionally, higher expression level of ITGB4 revealed a worse OS in LUAD. Conclusion:Our findings suggested that ITGA11 and ITGB4 might have the potential ability to act as diagnostic biomarkers for both LUAD and LUSC, while ITGB8 might serve as diagnostic biomarker for LUSC. Furthermore, ITGB4 could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for LUAD.