Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms in Saudi population with cardiovascular diseases.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Toll-like receptors play a substantial role in innate immunity and the effects of TLR4 genetic variants on cardiovascular diseases are still largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of TLR4 polymorphisms on cardiovascular diseases risk in the Saudi population. METHODS:Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2770150, rs10759931, and rs4986790) in TLR4 were studied on 222 unrelated patients with cardiovascular diseases and 190 healthy volunteers. RESULTS:We found that, in patients over 60 years old, the frequency of the TT genotype in rs2770150 and the variant allele G in rs10759931 were higher compared to the control group. Based on gender, the genotype frequency of rs2770150 increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases in female patients by 3.6-fold. The allele frequency for the G allele of rs10759931 increased the risk for CVDs in male patients by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the genotype frequency of rs2770150 had a significant association with cardiovascular diseases in patients without hypertension and G allele of rs10759931 significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients that smoked. After Bonferroni correction only patients without hypertension showed significant risk of CVD with rs2770150. CONCLUSION:A deeper understanding of the genetic variability of TLR4 will enable us to better identification of biomarkers for early detection and prognosis, and also enhance the decision-making process of treatments for cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Defects in the innate immune system, particularly in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), have been reported in several cigarette smoke-promoted diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of tobacco smoke on allelic frequencies of TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to compare the genotypic distribution of these SNPs in a Saudi Arabian population with that in previously studied populations. DNA was extracted from 303 saliva samples collected from smokers and nonsmokers. Two transitional SNPs in the promoter region of TLR4 were selected, rs2770150 (T/C) and rs10759931 (G/A). Genotype frequencies were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed a slight effect of smoking on the distribution of rs2770150 and rs10759931. However, the differences were not significant. Thus, we conclude that the SNPs selected for this study were independent of smoking and may not be related to smoking-induced diseases.
Project description:Our aim was to evaluate the association between the expression and the polymorphism of TLR4/NF-?B pathways and colon cancer. TLR4 (rs4986790, rs10759932, rs10759931 and rs2770150) were genotyped in blood samples from Colorectal patients and healthy controls. TLR4 and cytokines inflammatory expression were evaluated by real time PCR on 40 matching normal and colon tissues and the protein level by Immunohistochemistry. The high level of TLR4 expression in colon cancer tissues is mainly due to infections by bacteria in the human colon and leads to induction of an acute secretion of inflammatory cytokines mediated by NF-?B. Also, we report here a clear evidence for an association between TLR4 rs10759931 polymorphism (OR = 0.086, CI: 0.04-0.18, P = <0.00001). This polymorphism affects the entire population without being specific to either gender or to any age group. In contrast, the rs2770150 is associated with colon cancer in women aged over 50 years and is closely linked with the decreased levels of female sex hormones during the post-menopausal period (OR = 0.188, CI: 0.074-0.48, P = <0.00084). rs10759932 and rs4986790 appear to have any association with colon cancer. Our data suggest that TLR4 SNPs could possibly serve as biomarkers for decision making in colon cancer treatment.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the common polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) with breast cancer development in the Saudi Arabian population. Four TLR-4 polymorphisms (rs2770150, rs10759931, rs10759932, and rs4986790) were studied using 127 breast cancer patients and 117 controls. Relative expression of TLR-4 protein in the breast tumor and the matched normal breast tissues was determined in a large cohort of 70 clinical breast samples in a tissue micro-array format by immunohistochemistry using a specific anti-TLR-4 antibody. Our results demonstrated an increase in TLR-4 expression in estrogen receptor (ER)-, postmenopausal breast cancer patients compared to normal. We also demonstrated that the G allele of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10759931 was found to be significantly higher in frequency among patients (36.3%) compared to the control group (26.7%), suggesting that this polymorphism is strongly associated with the development of breast cancer in this ethnic population. In addition, the TLR-4 polymorphism rs2770150 was shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer in patients over 48 years of age. The TLR-4 polymorphism rs4986790 was also found to be associated with this malignancy in the ER- patient groups. Our results suggested firstly that the variation in TLR-4 gene expression may influence breast cancer development and secondly a closely linked association between TLR-4 gene polymorphism and ER status. Our study provides support for a better understanding of the implication of TLR-4 polymorphism in breast tumorigenesis and for its eventual use as a cancer biomarker.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We investigated whether polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor genes or gene-gene interactions are associated with susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or subsequent pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Chinese population. METHODS: Two matched case-control studies were undertaken. Previously reported polymorphisms in the toll-like receptors (TLRs) were compared between 422 healthy controls (HC) and 205 LTBI patients and between 205 LTBI patients and 109 PTB patients, to assess whether these polymorphisms and their interactions are associated with LTBI or PTB. A PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to detect genetic polymorphisms in the TLR genes. Nonparametric multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to analyze the effects of interactions between complex disease genes and other genes or environmental factors. RESULTS: Sixteen markers in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR8, TLR9, and TIRAP were detected. In TLR2, the frequencies of the CC genotype (OR = 2.262; 95% CI: 1.433-3.570) and C allele (OR = 1.566; 95% CI: 1.223-1.900) in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3804100 were significantly higher in the LTBI group than in the HC group, whereas the GA genotype of SNP rs5743708 was associated with PTB (OR = 6.087; 95% CI: 1.687-21.968). The frequencies of the GG genotype of SNP rs7873784 in TLR4 (OR = 2.136; 95% CI: 1.312-3.478) and the CC genotype of rs3764879 in TLR8 (OR = 1.982; 95% CI: 1.292-3.042) were also significantly higher in the PTB group than in the HC group. The TC genotype frequency of SNP rs5743836 in TLR9 was significantly higher in the LTBI group than in the HC group (OR = 1.664; 95% CI: 1.201-2.306). An MDR analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions identified three SNPs (rs10759932, rs7873784, and rs10759931) that predicted LTBI with 84% accuracy (p = 0.0004) and three SNPs (rs3804100, rs1898830, and rs10759931) that predicted PTB with 80% accuracy (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variation in TLR2, 4, 8 and 9, implicating TLR-related pathways affecting the innate immunity response, modulate LTBI and PTB susceptibility in Chinese.
Project description:PURPOSE: Persistent inflammation and impaired neovascularization in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients may lead to development of macro- and microvascular complications. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the secondary microvascular complications of T2DM. Improper activation of the innate immune system may be an important contributor in the pathophysiology of DR. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of innate immunity, and genetic alterations in TLR4 support inflammation in the hyperglycemic condition. The present work was designed to investigate whether the TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4986790, rs4986791, rs10759931, rs1927911, and rs1927914 are associated with DR in a north Indian population. METHODS: The study group of 698 individuals (128 DR, 250 T2DM, 320 controls) was genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Haplotype and linkage disequilibrium between SNPs were determined using Haploview software. RESULTS: Combined risk genotypes of TLR4 SNPs rs10759931 (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, p = 0.05) and rs1927914 (OR 1.48, p = 0.05) were found to be significantly associated with pathogenesis of DR. A total of 14 haplotypes with frequency >1% were obtained using Haploview software. Haplotypes ACATC (37.5%) and ACATT (14.8%) were the two most common haplotypes obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present case-control study that included 698 north Indian subjects suggested that TLR4 SNPs rs10759931 and rs1927914 modulate the risk of DR in T2DM cases. Association analysis using haplotypes showed none of the haplotypes were associated with either susceptibility or resistance to DR in a north Indian population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to be associated with the development of AITD. METHODS:Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 TLR genes were analyzed in 104 Korean children (girls?=?86, boys?=?18) with AITD (Hashimoto disease (HD)?=?44, Graves' disease (GD)?=?60, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO)?=?29, and non-TAO?=?31) with 183 controls. RESULTS:GD showed higher frequencies of the TLR4 rs1927911 C allele than control. TAO showed a lower frequency of the TLR4 rs1927911 CT genotype and non-TAO showed a higher frequency of the TLR4 rs1927911 CC genotype than control. The frequency of the TLR9 rs187084 CC genotype in TAO was higher than that in non-TAO. GD females showed a higher frequency of the TLR4 rs10759932 T allele, rs1927911 CC genotype, and the rs1927911 C allele than controls. GD males showed a higher frequency of the TLR4 rs10759932 CC genotype and rs1927911 TT genotype and lower frequency of the rs1927911 CT genotype than control. The frequency of the TLR4 rs10759932 CC genotype, C allele and rs1927911 TT genotype, and T allele in a GD female were lower than in a GD male. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that TLR4 and 9 polymorphisms might contribute to the pathogenesis of GD and TAO.
Project description:We examined the association between haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR4 and the pertussis toxin-specific immunoglobulin G response after whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccination in 515 1-year-old children from the KOALA study. A lower titer was associated with the minor allele of rs2770150, supporting a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in the antibody response to wP vaccination.
Project description:The pathogenesis of periodontitis involves a complex interaction between the microbial challenge and the host immune response. The individual immunoinflammatory response has a great contribution in the pathogenesis of the disease and becomes a trigger in the process of bone remodeling which is a characteristic of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the TLR4 A896G (rs4986790), TLR4 C1196T (rs4986791), CD14 C-260T (rs2569190), RANKL (TNFSF11, rs2277438), and OPG (TNFSF11B C163T, rs3102735) polymorphisms in periodontitis. A case-control study was conducted on patients with periodontitis (N = 203) and controls (N = 213) over 30 years of age, without diabetes mellitus, acute infections, and osteoarthritis, and patients without aggressive periodontitis, i.e., stage IV and C degree of periodontitis, and any periodontal treatment performed in the last 6 months. Genotypes were determined by the PCR-RFLP and sequencing method. The frequency comparisons between case and controls were performed using the chi-square test and logistic regression (OpenEpi and SNPStats software). The risk (OR) was evaluated for values of P < 0.05. Differences in TLR4, CD14, RANKL, and OPG genotype and allele frequency distributions were not observed between patients and controls. However, some variants were a risk factor for the development of periodontitis when considering gender and smoking habits. The TLR4 896 A/G genotype was a risk factor for periodontitis in males (OR = 2.86), and the TLR4 1196C/C genotype was a risk factor for nonsmoking males (OR = 1.85) when compared to women. The RANKL A/A and the OPG T/C genotype was associated with the risk of the disease in nonsmoking men compared to nonsmoking women with the same genotype (OR = 1.96 and OR = 2.9, respectively). In conclusion, TLR4, CD14, RANKL, and OPG variants were not associated with periodontitis. However, TLR4, RANKL, and OPG polymorphisms could be a risk for periodontitis in males regardless of smoking habits.
Project description:Toll-like receptor (TLR4) 4 is present in numerous cell types and serves as the first point of defense in the innate immune system. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present in a number TLR genes and have been associated with various infection and inflammation disorders. Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, TLR4 SNPs, are associated with tumor progression. In the present study, cases of ovarian cancer were analyzed with regards to Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile of the TLR4 gene. Genotype analysis was performed using DNA from tissue samples from stage I-IV patients with ovarian cancer. DNA from tissue samples was extracted and analyzed by a pyrosequencing method following multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genotypes of these SNPs were analyzed in the present study in a population of 105 patients, with different types of ovarian cancer, between 2004 and 2012. The allele frequencies for TLR4 Asp299Gly identified in this population were 1.00 (A) and 0.00 (G); for TLR4 Thr399Ile the allele frequencies were; 1.00 (C) and 0.00 (T). For TLR4 Asp299Gly the observed genotype frequency was 1.00 (AA), 0.00 (AG) and 0.0 (GG). In TLR4 Thr399Ile the observed genotype frequencies were 1.00 (CC), 0.00 (CT) and 0.00 (TT). TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles were not detected in the patients. These results indicated that the TLR4 299Gly and 399Ile alleles were exhibited at a lower frequency in the ovarian cancer patients that were examined.
Project description:The Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in immunity, tissue repair, and regeneration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the association of TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4986790, rs4986791, rs11536858 (merged into rs10759931), rs1927911, and rs1927914 with increased diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping TLR4 SNPs in 125 T2DM patients with DFU and 130 controls. The haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs were determined using Haploview software. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was done to observe their predictability for the risk of DFU in T2DM patients. Risk genotypes of all SNPs except rs1927914 were significantly associated with DFU. Haplotype ACATC (P value = 9.3E - 5) showed strong association with DFU risk. Two haplotypes ATATC (P value = 0.0119) and ATGTT (P value = 0.0087) were found to be protective against DFU. In conclusion TLR4 SNPs and their haplotypes may increase the risk of impairment of wound healing in T2DM patients. ANN model (83%) is found to be better than the MLR model (76%) and can be used as a tool for the DFU risk assessment in T2DM patients.