In Vitro and In Vivo Antiviral Activity of Gingerenone A on Influenza A Virus Is Mediated by Targeting Janus Kinase 2.
ABSTRACT: Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been developed as novel immunomodulatory drugs and primarily used for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that this category of anti-inflammatory drugs could be potentially useful for the control of inflammation "storms" in respiratory virus infections. In addition to their role in regulating immune cell functions, JAK1 and JAK2 have been recently identified as crucial cellular factors involved in influenza A virus (IAV) replication and could be potentially targeted for antiviral therapy. Gingerenone A (Gin A) is a compound derived from ginger roots and a dual inhibitor of JAK2 and p70 S6 kinase (S6K1). Our present study aimed to determine the antiviral activity of Gin A on influenza A virus (IAV) and to understand its mechanisms of action. Here, we reported that Gin A suppressed the replication of three IAV subtypes (H1N1, H5N1, H9N2) in four cell lines. IAV replication was also inhibited by Ruxolitinib (Rux), a JAK inhibitor, but not by PF-4708671, an S6K1 inhibitor. JAK2 overexpression enhanced H5N1 virus replication and attenuated Gin A-mediated antiviral activity. In vivo experiments revealed that Gin A treatment suppressed IAV replication in the lungs of H5N1 virus-infected mice, alleviated their body weight loss, and prolonged their survival. Our study suggests that Gin A restricts IAV replication by inhibiting JAK2 activity; Gin A could be potentially useful for the control of influenza virus infections.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are viral pathogens that cause epidemics and occasional pandemics of significant mortality. The generation of efficacious vaccines and antiviral drugs remains a challenge due to the rapid appearance of new influenza virus types and antigenic variants. Consequently, novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of IAV infections are needed, given the limitations of the presently available antivirals. Here, we used enzymatically produced IAV-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules and Giardia intestinalis Dicer for the generation of a swarm of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. The siRNAs target multiple conserved genomic regions of the IAVs. In mammalian cells, the produced 25- to 27-nucleotide-long siRNA molecules are processed by endogenous Dicer into 21-nucleotide siRNAs and are thus designated Dicer-substrate siRNAs (DsiRNAs). We evaluated the efficacy of the above DsiRNA swarm at preventing IAV infections in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. The replication of different IAV strains, including avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses, was significantly inhibited by pretransfection of the cells with the IAV-specific DsiRNA swarm. Up to 7 orders of magnitude inhibition of viral RNA expression was observed, which led to a dramatic inhibition of IAV protein synthesis and virus production. The IAV-specific DsiRNA swarm inhibited virus replication directly through the RNA interference pathway although a weak induction of innate interferon responses was detected. Our results provide direct evidence for the feasibility of the siRNA strategy and the potency of DsiRNA swarms in the prevention and treatment of influenza, including the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE In spite of the enormous amount of research, influenza virus is still one of the major challenges for medical virology due to its capacity to generate new variants, which potentially lead to severe epidemics and pandemics. We demonstrated here that a swarm of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, including more than 100 different antiviral RNA molecules targeting the most conserved regions of the influenza A virus genome, could efficiently inhibit the replication of all tested avian and seasonal influenza A variants in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. The wide antiviral spectrum makes the virus-specific siRNA swarm a potentially efficient treatment modality against both avian and seasonal influenza viruses.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAV) have been a major public health threat worldwide, and options for antiviral therapy become increasingly limited with the emergence of drug-resisting virus strains. New and effective anti-IAV drugs, especially for highly pathogenic influenza, with different modes of action, are urgently needed. The influenza virus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) plays critical roles in the early stage of virus infection, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, making it a potential target for the development of anti-influenza drugs. In this study, we show that OA-10, a newly synthesized triterpene out of 11 oleanane-type derivatives, exhibited significant antiviral activity against four different subtypes of IAV (H1N1, H5N1, H9N2 and H3N2) replications in A549 cell cultures with EC50 ranging from 6.7 to 19.6 ?M and a negligible cytotoxicity (CC50 > 640 ?M). It inhibited acid-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 26 µM, and had a weak inhibition on the adsorption of H5 HA to chicken erythrocytes at higher concentrations (?40 µM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that OA-10 interacted with HA in a dose-dependent manner with the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) of the interaction of 2.98 × 10-12 M. Computer-aided molecular docking analysis suggested that OA-10 might bind to the cavity in HA stem region which is known to undergo significant rearrangement during membrane fusion. Our results demonstrate that OA-10 inhibits H5N1 IAV replication mainly by blocking the conformational changes of HA2 subunit required for virus fusion with endosomal membrane. These findings suggest that OA-10 could serve as a lead for further development of novel virus entry inhibitors to prevent and treat IAV infections.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes yearly global epidemics, and sporadic pandemics due to human adaptation of pathogenic strains. Efficient replication of IAV in different species is, in part, dictated by its ability to exploit the genetic environment of the host cell. To investigate IAV tropism in human cells, we evaluated the replication of IAV strains in a diverse subset of epithelial cell lines. HeLa cells were refractory to growth of human H1N1 and H3N2, and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAIs) viruses. Interestingly, a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 successfully propagated in HeLa cells to levels comparable to a human lung cell line. Heterokaryon cells generated by fusion of HeLa and permissive cells supported H1N1 growth, suggesting the absence of a host factor(s) required for replication of H1N1, but not H5N1, in HeLa cells. The absence of this factor(s) was mapped to reduced nuclear import, replication, and translation, and deficient viral budding. Using reassortant H1N1:H5N1 viruses, we found that the combined introduction of nucleoprotein (NP) and hemagglutinin (HA) from H5N1 was necessary and sufficient to enable H1N1 growth. Overall, this study suggests the absence of one or more cellular factors in HeLa cells that results in abortive replication of H1N1, H3N2, and LPAI viruses, but can be circumvented upon introduction of H5N1 NP and HA. Further understanding of the molecular basis of this restriction will provide important insights into virus-host interactions that underlie IAV pathogenesis and tropism. Overall design: Comparison of gene expression in uninfected and influenza-infected A549 and HeLa cells.
Project description:The antiviral activities of synthesized Kα2-helix peptide, which was derived from the viral FLICE-like inhibitor protein (vFLIP) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), against influenza A virus (IAV) were investigated in vitro and in vivo, and mechanisms of action were suggested. In addition to the robust autophagy activity of the Kα2-helix peptide, the present study showed that treatment with the Kα2 peptide fused with the TAT peptide significantly inhibited IAV replication and transmission. Moreover, TAT-Kα2 peptide protected the mice, that were challenged with lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 or H1N1 viruses. Mechanistically, we found that TAT-Kα2 peptide destabilized the viral membranes, depending on their lipid composition of the viral envelop. In addition to IAV, the Kα2 peptide inhibited infections with enveloped viruses, such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that TAT-Kα2 peptide is a potential antiviral agent for controlling emerging or re-emerging enveloped viruses, particularly diverse subtypes of IAVs.
Project description:The worldwide outbreak of the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) and an increasing number of influenza cases caused by a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 have accelerated the need to develop vaccines and antiviral agents against IAVs. Among various antivirals, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are considered important passive therapeutics having an immediate effect against viral pathogens. Here we report a pseudovirus neutralization assay for rapid screening of neutralizing mAbs targeting hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 and H1N1 IAV. In this study, we generated six pseudoviruses with an HIV-1 backbone, respectively, expressing HA of four clades of H5N1 IAV and the 2009 epidemic H1N1 IAV. The resulting pseudoviruses were able to infect a variety of human and non-human cells, with 293T cells from human kidney as the most susceptible target cells. Using the established pseudovirus neutralization assay, we showed that three of ten selected mAbs specific to HA could potently neutralize infection of a pseudovirus bearing HA from the homologous IAV A/VietNam/1194/2004(H5N1) strain. This was highly consistent with the result of a microneutralization assay testing the same strain of a live IAV. Since the pseudovirus neutralization assay does not involve an infectious virus and can be performed without the requirement of a biosafety-3 laboratory, it may be applied for safe and rapid screening of neutralizing mAbs and antiviral agents targeting HA of IAVs.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is still a major global threat for humans, especially for the risk groups: young children and the elderly. The currently licensed antiviral drugs target viral factors and are prone to viral resistance. In recent years, a few endogenous small molecules from host, such as estradiol and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediator protection D1 (PD1), were demonstrated to be capable of inhibiting IAV infection. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), one of the main primary bile acids, is synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and classically functions in emulsification and absorption of dietary fats. Clinically, CDCA has been used in the treatment of patients with cholesterol gallstones for more than five decades. In this study, we showed that CDCA attenuated the replication of three subtypes of influenza A virus, including a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, in A549 and MDCK cell cultures with IC50 ranging from 5.5 to 11.5 ?M. Mechanistically, CDCA effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. In conclusion, as an endogenous physiological small molecule, CDCA can inhibit IAV replication in vitro, at least in part, by blocking vRNP nuclear export, and affords further studies for development as a potential antiviral agent against IAV infections.
Project description:Higher and prolonged viral replication is critical for the increased pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype of H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) over the lowly pathogenic H1N1 IAV strain. Recent studies highlighted the considerable roles of cellular miRNAs in host defence against viral infection. In this report, using a 3'UTR reporter system, we identified several putative miRNA target sites buried in the H5N1 virus genome. We found two miRNAs, miR-584-5p and miR-1249, that matched with the PB2 binding sequence. Moreover, we showed that these miRNAs dramatically down-regulated PB2 expression, and inhibited replication of H5N1 and H1N1 IAVs in A549 cells. Intriguingly, these miRNAs expression was differently regulated in A549 cells infected with the H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Furthermore, transfection of miR-1249 inhibitor enhanced the PB2 expression and promoted the replication of H5N1 and H1N1 IAVs. These results suggest that H5N1 virus may have evolved a mechanism to escape host-mediated inhibition of viral replication through down-regulation of cellular miRNAs, which target its viral genome.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) depends on cellular factors to complete its replication cycle; thus, investigation of the factors utilized by IAV may facilitate antiviral drug development. To this end, a cellular transcriptional repressor, DR1, was identified from a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. Knockdown (KD) of DR1 resulted in reductions of viral RNA and protein production, demonstrating that DR1 acts as a positive host factor in IAV replication. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis showed that there was a strong induction of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression after prolonged DR1 KD. We found that beta interferon (IFN-?) was induced by DR1 KD, thereby activating the JAK-STAT pathway to turn on ISG expression, which led to a strong inhibition of IAV replication. This result suggests that DR1 in normal cells suppresses IFN induction, probably to prevent undesired cytokine production, but that this suppression may create a milieu that favors IAV replication once cells are infected. Furthermore, biochemical assays of viral RNA replication showed that DR1 KD suppressed viral RNA replication. We also showed that DR1 associated with all three subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex, indicating that DR1 may interact with individual components of the viral RdRp complex to enhance viral RNA replication. Thus, DR1 may be considered a novel host susceptibility gene for IAV replication via a dual mechanism, not only suppressing the host defense to indirectly favor IAV replication but also directly facilitating viral RNA replication.Investigations of virus-host interactions involved in influenza A virus (IAV) replication are important for understanding viral pathogenesis and host defenses, which may manipulate influenza virus infection or prevent the emergence of drug resistance caused by a high error rate during viral RNA replication. For this purpose, a cellular transcriptional repressor, DR1, was identified from a genome-wide RNAi screen as a positive regulator in IAV replication. In the current studies, we showed that DR1 suppressed the gene expression of a large set of host innate immunity genes, which indirectly facilitated IAV replication in the event of IAV infection. Besides this scenario, DR1 also directly enhanced the viral RdRp activity, likely through associating with individual components of the viral RdRp complex. Thus, DR1 represents a novel host susceptibility gene for IAV replication via multiple functions, not only suppressing the host defense but also enhancing viral RNA replication. DR1 may be a potential target for drug development against influenza virus infection.
Project description:The inflammatory response and apoptosis have been proved to have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the influenza A virus (IAV). Previous studies indicated that while IAV commonly causes pancreatitis and pancreatic damage in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of IAV infection are less reported. In the present study, we showed for the first time that both avian-like (?-2,3-linked) and human-like (?-2,6-linked) sialic acid (SA) receptors were expressed by the mouse pancreatic cancer cell line PAN02 and the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Using growth kinetics experiments, we also showed that PAN02 and PANC-1 cells supported the productive replication of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza while exhibited the limited replication of IAV subtypes H1N1 and H7N2 in vitro. The in vivo infection of H5N1 in pancreatic cells was confirmed by the histopathological and immunohistochemical staining of pancreas tissue from mice. Other than H1N1 and H7N2, severe damage and extensive positive signals were observed in pancreas of H5N1 infected mice. All three virus subtypes induced apoptosis but also triggered the infected PAN02 and PANC-1 cells to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-6. Notably, the subtypes of H5N1 could significantly upregulate these cytokines and chemokines in both two cells when compared with H1N1 and H7N2. The present data provide further understanding of the pathogenesis of H5N1 IAV in pancreatic cells derived from humans and mammals and may also benefit the development of new treatment against H5N1 influenza virus infection.
Project description:Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV) from avian hosts were first reported to directly infect humans 20 years ago. However, such infections are rare events, and our understanding of factors promoting or restricting zoonotic transmission is still limited. One accessory protein of IAV, PB1-F2, was associated with pathogenicity of pandemic and zoonotic IAV. This short (90-amino-acid) peptide does not harbor an enzymatic function. We thus identified host factors interacting with H5N1 PB1-F2, which could explain its importance for virulence. PB1-F2 binds to HCLS1-associated protein X1 (HAX-1), a recently identified host restriction factor of the PA subunit of IAV polymerase complexes. We demonstrate that the PA of a mammal-adapted H1N1 IAV is resistant to HAX-1 imposed restriction, while the PA of an avian-origin H5N1 IAV remains sensitive. We also showed HAX-1 sensitivity for PAs of A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 (H1N1) and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9), two avian-origin zoonotic IAV. Inhibition of H5N1 polymerase by HAX-1 can be alleviated by its PB1-F2 through direct competition. Accordingly, replication of PB1-F2-deficient H5N1 IAV is attenuated in the presence of large amounts of HAX-1. Mammal-adapted H1N1 and H3N2 viruses do not display this dependence on PB1-F2 for efficient replication in the presence of HAX-1. We propose that PB1-F2 plays a key role in zoonotic transmission of avian H5N1 IAV into humans.IMPORTANCE Aquatic and shore birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses from which the virus can jump into a variety of bird and mammal host species, including humans. H5N1 influenza viruses are a good model for this process. They pose an ongoing threat to human and animal health due to their high mortality rates. However, it is currently unclear what restricts these interspecies jumps on the host side or what promotes them on the virus side. Here we show that a short viral peptide, PB1-F2, helps H5N1 bird influenza viruses to overcome a human restriction factor of the viral polymerase complex HAX-1. Interestingly, we found that human influenza A virus polymerase complexes are already adapted to HAX-1 and do not require this function of PB1-F2. We thus propose that a functional full-length PB1-F2 supports direct transmission of bird viruses into humans.