Steering magnonic dynamics and permeability at exceptional points in a parity-time symmetric waveguide.
ABSTRACT: Tuning the magneto optical response and magnetic dynamics are key elements in designing magnetic metamaterials and devices. This theoretical study uncovers a highly effective way of controlling the magnetic permeability via shaping the magnonic properties of coupled magnetic waveguides separated by a nonmagnetic spacer with strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI). We demonstrate how a spacer charge current leads to enhancement of magnetic damping in one waveguide and a decrease in the other, constituting a bias-controlled magnetic parity-time (PT) symmetric system at the verge of the exceptional point where magnetic gains/losses are balanced. We find phenomena inherent to PT-symmetric systems and SOI-driven interfacial structures, including field-controlled magnon power oscillations, nonreciprocal propagation, magnon trapping and enhancement as well as an increased sensitivity to perturbations and abrupt spin reversal. The results point to a new route for designing magnonic waveguides and microstructures with enhanced magnetic response.
Project description:Low-energy eigenmode excitations of ferromagnets are spin waves or magnons that can be triggered and guided in magnonic circuits without Ohmic losses and hence are attractive for communicating and processing information. Here we present new types of spin waves that carry a definite and electrically controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) constituting twisted magnon beams. We show how twisted beams emerge in magnonic waveguides and how to topologically quantify and steer them. A key finding is that the topological charge associated with OAM of a particular beam is tunable externally and protected against magnetic damping. Coupling to an applied electric field via the Aharanov-Casher effect allows for varying the topological charge. This renders possible OAM-based robust, low-energy consuming multiplex magnonic computing, analogously to using photonic OAM in optical communications, and high OAM-based entanglement studies, but here at shorter wavelengths, lower energy consumption, and ready integration in magnonic circuits.
Project description:Spin-wave nonreciprocity arising from dipole-dipole interaction is insignificant for magnon wavelengths in the sub-100 nm range. Our micromagnetic simulations reveal that for the nanoscale magnonic crystals studied, such nonreciprocity can be greatly enhanced via synthetic antiferromagnetic coupling. The nonreciprocity is manifested as highly asymmetric magnon dispersion curves of the magnonic crystals. Furthermore, based on the study of the dependence of the nonreciprocity on an applied magnetic field, the antiparallel alignment of the magnetizations is shown to be responsible for the enhancement. Our findings would be useful for magnonic and spintronics applications.
Project description:Seven decades after the discovery of collective spin excitations in microwave-irradiated ferromagnets, there has been a rebirth of magnonics. However, magnetic nanodevices will enable smart GHz-to-THz devices at low power consumption only, if such spin waves (magnons) are generated and manipulated on the sub-100?nm scale. Here we show how magnons with a wavelength of a few 10?nm are exploited by combining the functionality of insulating yttrium iron garnet and nanodisks from different ferromagnets. We demonstrate magnonic devices at wavelengths of 88?nm written/read by conventional coplanar waveguides. Our microwave-to-magnon transducers are reconfigurable and thereby provide additional functionalities. The results pave the way for a multi-functional GHz technology with unprecedented miniaturization exploiting nanoscale wavelengths that are otherwise relevant for soft X-rays. Nanomagnonics integrated with broadband microwave circuitry offer applications that are wide ranging, from nanoscale microwave components to nonlinear data processing, image reconstruction and wave-based logic.
Project description:Control of spin waves in magnonic crystals is essential for magnon-based computing. Crystals made of ferromagnetic metals offer versatility in band structure design, but strong magnetic damping restricts their transmission efficiency. Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with ultralow damping is the palpable alternative, yet its small saturation magnetization limits dipolar coupling between discrete units. Here, we experimentally demonstrate low-loss spin-wave manipulation in magnonic crystals of physically separated nanometer-thick YIG stripes. We enhance the transmission of spin waves in allowed minibands by filling the gaps between YIG stripes with CoFeB. Thus-formed magnonic crystals exhibit tunable bandgaps of 50-200 MHz with nearly complete suppression of the spin-wave signal. We also show that Bragg scattering on only two units produces clear frequency gaps in spin-wave transmission spectra. The integration of strong ferromagnets in nanometer-thick YIG-based magnonic crystals provides effective spin-wave manipulation and low-loss propagation, a vital parameter combination for magnonic technologies.
Project description:Topological magnon insulators are the bosonic analogs of electronic topological insulators. They are manifested in magnetic materials with topologically nontrivial magnon bands as realized experimentally in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) kagomé ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc), and they also possess protected magnon edge modes. These topological magnetic materials can transport heat as well as spin currents, hence they can be useful for spintronic applications. Moreover, as magnons are charge-neutral spin-1 bosonic quasiparticles with a magnetic dipole moment, topological magnon materials can also interact with electromagnetic fields through the Aharonov-Casher effect. In this report, we study photoinduced topological phase transitions in intrinsic topological magnon insulators in the kagomé ferromagnets. Using magnonic Floquet-Bloch theory, we show that by varying the light intensity, periodically driven intrinsic topological magnetic materials can be manipulated into different topological phases with different sign of the Berry curvatures and the thermal Hall conductivity. We further show that, under certain conditions, periodically driven gapped topological magnon insulators can also be tuned to synthetic gapless topological magnon semimetals with Dirac-Weyl magnon cones. We envision that this work will pave the way for interesting new potential practical applications in topological magnetic materials.
Project description:An attractive direction in next-generation information processing is the development of systems employing particles or quasiparticles other than electrons--ideally with low dissipation--as information carriers. One such candidate is the magnon: the quasiparticle associated with the eigen-excitations of magnetic materials known as spin waves. The realization of single-chip all-magnon information systems demands the development of circuits in which magnon currents can be manipulated by magnons themselves. Using a magnonic crystal--an artificial magnetic material--to enhance nonlinear magnon-magnon interactions, we have succeeded in the realization of magnon-by-magnon control, and the development of a magnon transistor. We present a proof of concept three-terminal device fabricated from an electrically insulating magnetic material. We demonstrate that the density of magnons flowing from the transistor's source to its drain can be decreased three orders of magnitude by the injection of magnons into the transistor's gate.
Project description:Magnonic spin currents in the form of spin waves and their quanta, magnons, are a promising candidate for a new generation of wave-based logic devices beyond CMOS, where information is encoded in the phase of travelling spin-wave packets. The direct readout of this phase on a chip is of vital importance to couple magnonic circuits to conventional CMOS electronics. Here, we present the conversion of the spin-wave phase into a spin-wave intensity by local non-adiabatic parallel pumping in a microstructure. This conversion takes place within the spin-wave system itself and the resulting spin-wave intensity can be conveniently transformed into a DC voltage. We also demonstrate how the phase-to-intensity conversion can be used to extract the majority information from an all-magnonic majority gate. This conversion method promises a convenient readout of the magnon phase in future magnon-based devices.
Project description:As a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, spin wave, or magnon when quantized, can propagate in both conducting and insulating materials. Like the manipulation of its optical counterpart, the ability to manipulate spin wave polarization is not only important but also fundamental for magnonics. With only one type of magnetic lattice, ferromagnets can only accommodate the right-handed circularly polarized spin wave modes, which leaves no freedom for polarization manipulation. In contrast, antiferromagnets, with two opposite magnetic sublattices, have both left and right-circular polarizations, and all linear and elliptical polarizations. Here we demonstrate theoretically and confirm by micromagnetic simulations that, in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, an antiferromagnetic domain wall acts naturally as a spin wave polarizer or a spin wave retarder (waveplate). Our findings provide extremely simple yet flexible routes toward magnonic information processing by harnessing the polarization degree of freedom of spin wave.Spin waves are promising candidates as carriers for energy-efficient information processing, but they have not yet been fully explored application wise. Here the authors theoretically demonstrate that antiferromagnetic domain walls are naturally spin wave polarizers and retarders, two key components of magnonic devices.
Project description:In the emerging field of magnon-spintronics, spin waves are exploited to encode, carry and process information in materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, named magnonic crystals. These enable the redesign of the spin wave dispersion, thanks to its dependence on the geometric and magnetic parameters, resulting in the appearance of allowed and forbidden band gaps for specific propagation directions. In this work, we analyze the spin waves band structure of two-dimensional magnonic crystals consisting of permalloy square antidot lattices with different geometrical parameters. We show that the frequency of the most intense spin-wave modes, measured by Brillouin light scattering, exhibits a universal dependence on the aspect ratio (thickness over width) of the effective nanowire enclosed between adjacent rows of holes. A similar dependence also applies to both the frequency position and the width of the main band gap of the fundamental (dispersive) mode at the edge of the first Brillouin zone. These experimental findings are successfully explained by calculations based on the plane-wave method. Therefore, a unified vision of the spin-waves characteristics in two-dimensional antidot lattices is provided, paving the way to the design of tailored nanoscale devices, such as tunable magnonic filters and phase-shifters, with predicted functionalities.
Project description:We theoretically study the spin-wave spectra in magnonic waveguides periodically patterned with nanoscale square antidots. We show that structural changes breaking the mirror symmetry of the waveguide can close the magnonic bandgap. The effect of these intrinsic symmetry breaking can be compensated by adjusted asymmetric external bias magnetic field, i.e., by an extrinsic factor. This allows for the recovery of the magnonic bandgaps. The described methods can be used for developing parallel models for recovering bandgaps closed due to a fabrication defect. The model developed here is particular to magnonics, an emerging field combining spin dynamics and spintronics. However, the underlying principle of this development is squarely based upon the translational and mirror symmetries, thus, we believe that this idea of correcting an intrinsic defect by extrinsic means, should be applicable to spin-waves in both exchange and dipolar interaction regimes, as well as to other waves in general.