The Utility of Neutrophil CD64 and Presepsin as Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Monitoring Biomarkers in Neonatal Sepsis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Neonatal septicemia is a critical medical situation; current conventional laboratory methods still have many limitations and diagnostic obstacles. For this purpose, last decades have witnessed a challenge between the battery of sepsis biomarkers including many leukocyte surface antigens, not only for early diagnostic purposes but also for better follow-up and good management of sepsis patients. Aim:To evaluate the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring performance of both neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) and presepsin as sepsis biomarkers compared to each other and to the conventional laboratory sepsis parameters aiming to decide which is the best fitting for routine daily use in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods:235 neonates were enrolled from three Egyptian neonatal ICUs, during the period from November 2015 till March 2018; they were classified into two main groups: the control group (n?=?102) and the sepsis group (n?=?133). Laboratory sepsis evaluation included highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), CBC, in addition to nCD64 (flow cytometry technique), and presepsin measurement (CLEIA technique combined with Magtration® technology); the diagnosis was confirmed thereafter by positive blood culture results (BacT/Alert system). Sixty-two of the enrolled sepsis neonates were subjected to follow-up assessment; they were reclassified according to their clinical improvement at the second time assessment into (group 1: sepsis group without improvement) (n?=?20) and (group 2: improved sepsis group) (n?=?42). Results:Significant increase in nCD64 and presepsin values was found in sepsis groups compared to the controls. At cutoff 41.6%, nCD64% could discriminate the presence of septicemia with sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 93.6 %, and AUC 0.925, while presepsin at cutoff 686?pg/ml achieves sensitivity 82.7%, specificity 95.5%, and AUC 0.887, respectively. Significant increase in nCD64 (P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (P=0.018) values was observed in severe sepsis/septic shock patients compared to nonsevere sepsis patients. Delta change percentage (dC%) between initial and follow-up evaluations for both improved and nonimproved sepsis patients was dC Z value -5.904 for nCD64% followed by dC Z value -4.494 for presepsin. Conclusion:nCD64 and presepsin are valuable early diagnostic and monitoring sepsis biomarkers; the highest sensitivity could be achieved by a univariant sepsis marker in this study was recorded by the nCD64% biomarker, while the highest specificity was documented by presepsin. Combined measurement of both achieves the highest diagnostic performance in sepsis neonates. Either of CD64 or presepsin combined with hs-CRP associated with better performance than any of them alone. nCD64 carries an additional promising role in reflecting sepsis prognosis.
Project description:Background Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a very critical medical situation associated with high morbidities and mortalities. There is an utmost need for a new tool helping in early diagnosis and proper management of sepsis neonates. Neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) shows a very promising value in this concerning issue. Aim Evaluate the diagnostic, monitoring, and prognostic performances of nCD64 and highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) in NS as well as the possible best panel of biomarkers that can achieve the most desirable results. Methods Patients were enrolled from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (n = 121 patients) and classified according to their initial sepsis evaluation into three groups: disease control group (n = 30), proven sepsis group (n = 17), and clinical sepsis group (n = 74). Laboratory evaluation included hs-CRP, complete blood count (CBC), and blood culture in addition to nCD64 (done by flow cytometry technique). Besides the diagnostic evaluations, follow-up evaluations were done for 40 patients after five days from the first time; patients were reclassified according to their outcome into the improved sepsis neonates' group (n = 26) and sepsis neonates without improvement (n = 14). Results Significant increase in nCD64 and hs-CRP results were present in sepsis groups compared to the disease controls (P < 0.001); nCD64 at 43% cutoff value could detect the presence of sepsis with 85.6% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Additionally, delta change percentage (dC%) between improved sepsis neonates and sepsis neonates without improvement showed a significant difference in the levels of both nCD64 (P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (P = 0.001). Conclusion Besides the promising diagnostic performance documented by nCD64 which is higher than the other laboratory sepsis biomarkers used routinely in NICUs, nCD64 has a valuable role in sepsis patients' monitoring and prognostic evaluation. hs-CRP was moderate in its diagnostic and monitoring results being less than that achieved by nCD64. Combined measurement of nCD64% and hs-CRP gives better diagnostic and monitoring performance than that achieved by any of them alone.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early diagnosis of sepsis in pediatric patients is vital but remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that presepsin is potentially a reliable diagnostic biomarker for sepsis in adult and neonates. However, there is no pooled analysis of its efficacy as a diagnostic biomarker for sepsis in children. The aims of the present meta-analysis were to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in pediatric sepsis and compare it to those for C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT).<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic literature search was performed in Medline/Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Science to identify relevant studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in patients with pediatric sepsis. Sensitivities and specificities were pooled by bivariate meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated by ?<sup>2</sup> test.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 129 studies in total. Most were disqualified on the basis of their titles/abstracts and duplication. Four studies were included in the final analysis. They comprised 308 patients aged between 1 mo and 18 y. The pooled diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of presepsin were 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.99) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.35-0.92), respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio, positive likelihood ratio (LR), and negative LR of presepsin were 32.87 (95% CI: 2.12-510.09), 3.24 (95% CI, 1.14-12.38), and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.01-0.74), respectively. Heterogeneity was found in both sensitivity (?<sup>2</sup>?=?11.17; P?=?0.011) and specificity (?<sup>2</sup>?=?65.78; P?<?0.001). No threshold effect was identified among the studies (r?=?-?0.938). The pooled sensitivity of presepsin (0.94) was higher than that of CRP (0.51) and PCT (0.76), whereas the overall specificity of presepsin (0.71) was lower than that of CRP (0.81) and PCT (0.76). The AUC of presepsin (0.925) was higher than that of CRP (0.715) and PCT (0.820).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Currently available evidence indicates that presepsin has higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, but lower specificity, than PCT or CRP in detecting sepsis in children. However, these results must be carefully interpreted as the number of studies included was small and the studies were statistically heterogeneous.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of presepsin in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock during the first week of ICU treatment.In total, 116 patients with suspected severe sepsis or septic shock were included during the first 24 hours of ICU treatment. Blood samples for biomarker measurements of presepsin, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) were drawn at days 1, 3 and 8. All patients were followed up for six months. Biomarkers were tested for diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock and for prognosis of 30-days and 6-months all-cause mortality at days 1, 3 and 8. Diagnostic and prognostic utilities were tested by determining diagnostic cutoff levels, goodness criteria, C-statistics and multivariable Cox regression models.Presepsin increased significantly from the lowest to most severe sepsis groups at days 1, 3 and 8 (test for linear trend P <0.03). Presepsin levels revealed valuable diagnostic capacity to diagnose severe sepsis and septic shock at days 1, 3 and 8 (range of diagnostic area under the curves (AUC) 0.72 to 0.84, P?=?0.0001) compared to IL-6, PCT, CRP and WBC. Goodness criteria for diagnosis of sepsis severity were analyzed (?sepsis, cutoff?=?530 pg/ml; ?severe sepsis, cutoff?=?600 pg/ml; ?septic shock, cutoff?=?700 pg/ml; P <0.03). Presepsin levels revealed significant prognostic value for 30 days and 6 months all-cause mortality (presepsin: range of AUC 0.64 to 0.71, P <0.02). Patients with presepsin levels of the 4th quartile were 5 to 7 times more likely to die after six months than patients with lower levels. The prognostic value for all-cause mortality of presepsin was comparable to that of IL-6 and better than that of PCT, CRP or WBC.In patients with suspected severe sepsis and septic shock, presepsin reveals valuable diagnostic capacity to differentiate sepsis severity compared to PCT, IL-6, CRP, WBC. Additionally, presepsin and IL-6 reveal prognostic value with respect to 30 days and 6 months all-cause mortality throughout the first week of ICU treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov http://NCT01535534. Registered 14 February 2012.
Project description:Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) has been shown to be beneficial as a sepsis marker in adults. Nevertheless, very few data are available in neonates. The aim of the present study was to determine reference ranges of presepsin in term and preterm neonates.Healthy term neonates and preterm neonates without clinical signs of infection admitted to the Neonatal Unit were consecutively enrolled. Presepsin concentrations in whole blood were measured using a point-of-care assay system located in the Unit. Demographic data, antenatal and perinatal variables commonly affecting C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values were considered.Of the 684 neonates enrolled in the study, 484 (70.8%) were born at term and 200 (29.2%) were preterm (24-36 weeks' gestation). In term infants, presepsin median value was 603.5 pg/mL (interquartile range: 466.5-791 pg/mL; 5th and 95th centiles: 315 and 1178 pg/mL respectively). In preterm infants, presepsin median value was slightly higher, equal to 620 pg/mL (interquartile range: 503-864 pg/mL; 5th and 95th centiles: 352 and 1370 pg/mL respectively). The reference ranges of presepsin we determined were much higher than those seen in healthy adults. No correlation between presepsin levels and postnatal age was observed, as well as no significant difference was demonstrated in preterm neonates at different gestational ages. None of the variables analyzed affected presepsin levels at a clinical significant extent.For the first time, this study provides reference ranges of presepsin in term and preterm neonates. Having reliable reference values is crucial for obtaining an adequate diagnostic accuracy. Based on our results, most variables commonly affecting C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values do not affect presepsin levels, which suggests that presepsin could be an effective sepsis marker. Further investigations in large groups of neonates with sepsis are needed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of this biomarker.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sepsis is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality; therefore, the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is essential. METHOD:Our aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin combined with C-reactive protein (PCT?+?CRP) and presepsin in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. We searched seven databases to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), area under curve (AUC), and corresponding 95% credible interval (95% CI) were calculated by true positive (TP), false positive (FP), false negative (FN), and true negative (TN) classification using a bivariate regression model in STATA 14.0 software. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, AUC, and corresponding 95% CI were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included the sensitivity and specificity in multiple subgroup analyses. RESULTS:A total of 28 studies enrolling 2661 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of CRP (0.71 (0.63, 0.78)) was weaker than that of PCT (0.85 (0.79, 0.89)), PCT?+?CRP (0.91 (0.84, 0.95)) and presepsin (0.94 (0.80, 0.99)) and the pooled NLR of presepsin (0.06 (0.02, 0.23)) and PCT?+?CRP (0.10 (0.05, 0.19)) were less than CRP (0.33 (0.26, 0.42)), and the AUC for presepsin (0.99 (0.98, 1.00)) was greater than PCT?+?CRP (0.96 (0.93, 0.97)), CRP (0.85 (0.82, 0.88)) and PCT (0.91 (0.89, 0.94)). The results of the subgroup analysis showed that 0.5-2 ng/mL may be the appropriate cutoff interval for PCT. A cut-off value >?10 mg/L for CRP had high sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of PCT and CRP or presepsin alone improves the accuracy of diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. However, further studies are required to confirm these findings.
Project description:The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and cellular immune markers levels in sepsis. This was a prospective observational study in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients, between 2012 and 2014. The 8-color flow cytometric biomarker panel included CD64, CD163, and HLA-DR. Index test results were compared with sepsis, using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the relationship of sets of markers with the probability of sepsis. Of 219 enrolled patients, 120 had sepsis. C-statistic was the highest for CRP (0.86) followed by neutrophil CD64 expression (0.83), procalcitonin (0.82), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV (0.72). After adjustment for APACHE IV, the combination of CRP, PCT, and neutrophil CD64 measure remained a significant predictor of sepsis with an excellent AUC (0.90). In a targeted ICU population at increased risk of sepsis, CRP, PCT, and neutrophil CD64 combined improve the diagnostic accuracy of sepsis.
Project description:To evaluate the clinical utility of neutrophil (n)CD64 index to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (ePTB) and to predict the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We recruited 189 patients with active TB and 140 controls and measured the differential expression of nCD64 index using flow cytometry. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the diagnostic performance of the nCD64 index and T-SPOT.TB assay for the diagnosis of TB. Furthermore, we analysed whether the nCD64 index in patients with TB was correlated with inflammatory indicators. Finally, we assessed the prognosis of patients by following the dynamic changes of the nCD64 index once a week. The nCD64 index was significantly higher in active TB group (PTB and ePTB), than in the anti-TB and healthy controls (HC) groups. The sensitivity and specificity of nCD64 index for the differential diagnosis of PTB and pneumonia (PN) patients were 68.33% and 77.55%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of nCD64 index for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) were 53.85% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, there was a weak correlation between the nCD64 index and inflammatory indicators. More importantly, with the improvement in patient condition, the nCD64 index started to decline in the first week of anti-TB therapy and significantly decreased at 4 weeks after treatment. Our study demonstrated that the CD64 assay is a rapid, non-invasive and stable method for clinical application, and the nCD64 index can serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of TB.
Project description:Biomarkers have great potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis. The available literature supports the potential utility of sTREM-1, IL-27, suPAR, neutrophil CD64, presepsin, cfDNA and miRNAs as novel diagnostic, prognostic and treatment response biomarkers. The future of sepsis biomarkers lies in extensive validation studies of such novel biomarkers across heterogeneous populations and exploration of their power in combination. Furthermore, the use of a companion diagnostics model may augment the ability of investigators to identify novel sepsis biomarkers and develop specific therapeutic strategies based on biomarker information.
Project description:Sepsis biomarkers change continuously during the postoperative period. We aimed to demonstrate the influence of immunosuppressants after transplantation (Tx) on presepsin, procalcitonin, CRP, white blood cells, and IL-6. A group of 140 patients after major surgery (86 non-Tx, 54 Tx) without any signs of sepsis or infectious complications was followed for 7 days. The changes in biomarkers were analyzed with respect to the type of surgery, organ, and induction immunosuppressant used (antithymocyte globulin, corticosteroids, or basiliximab/rituximab). Concentrations (95th percentiles) of presepsin and procalcitonin were higher in the Tx group (presepsin: Tx < 2380 vs. non-Tx < 1368?ng/L, <i>p</i> < 0.05; procalcitonin: <28.0 vs. 3.49?<i>?</i>g/L, <i>p</i> < 0.05). In contrast, CRP and IL-6 were lower in the Tx group (CRP: Tx < 84.2 vs. non-Tx < 229?mg/L, <i>p</i> < 0.05; IL-6: <71.2 vs. 317?ng/L, <i>p</i> < 0.05). Decreases in CRP and IL-6 were found for all immunosuppressants, and procalcitonin was increased after antithymocyte globulin and corticosteroids. Negligible changes were found for white blood cells. Different responses of presepsin, procalcitonin, CRP, and IL-6 were therefore found in patients without any infectious complications after major surgery or transplantation. Immunosuppression decreased significantly IL-6 and CRP in comparison to non-Tx patients, while procalcitonin was increased after corticosteroids and antithymocyte globulin only. Cautious interpretation of sepsis biomarkers is needed in the early posttransplant period. This work was conducted as a noninterventional (nonregistered) study.