A Data Visualization and Dissemination Resource to Support HIV Prevention and Care at the Local Level: Analysis and Uses of the AIDSVu Public Data Resource.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:AIDSVu is a public resource for visualizing HIV surveillance data and other population-based information relevant to HIV prevention, care, policy, and impact assessment. OBJECTIVE:The site, AIDSVu.org, aims to make data about the US HIV epidemic widely available, easily accessible, and locally relevant to inform public health decision making. METHODS:AIDSVu develops visualizations, maps, and downloadable datasets using results from HIV surveillance systems, other population-based sources of information (eg, US Census and national probability surveys), and other data developed specifically for display and dissemination through the website (eg, pre-exposure prophylaxis [PrEP] prescriptions). Other types of content are developed to translate surveillance data into summarized content for diverse audiences using infographic panels, interactive maps, local and state fact sheets, and narrative blog posts. RESULTS:Over 10 years, AIDSVu.org has used an expanded number of data sources and has progressively provided HIV surveillance and related data at finer geographic levels, with current data resources providing HIV prevalence data down to the census tract level in many of the largest US cities. Data are available at the county level in 48 US states and at the ZIP Code level in more than 50 US cities. In 2019, over 500,000 unique users consumed AIDSVu data and resources, and HIV-related data and insights were disseminated through nearly 4,000,000 social media posts. Since AIDSVu's inception, at least 249 peer-reviewed publications have used AIDSVu data for analyses or referenced AIDSVu resources. Data uses have included targeting of HIV testing programs, identifying areas with inequitable PrEP uptake, including maps and data in academic and community grant applications, and strategically selecting locations for new HIV treatment and care facilities to serve high-need areas. CONCLUSIONS:Surveillance data should be actively used to guide and evaluate public health programs; AIDSVu translates high-quality, population-based data about the US HIV epidemic and makes that information available in formats that are not consistently available in surveillance reports. Bringing public health surveillance data to an online resource is a democratization of data, and presenting information about the HIV epidemic in more visual formats allows diverse stakeholders to engage with, understand, and use these important public health data to inform public health decision making.
Project description:Sub-Saharan Africa has been heavily impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Social data (e.g., social media, internet search, wearable device, etc) show great promise assisting in public health and HIV surveillance. However, research on this topic has primarily focused in higher resource settings, such as the United States. It is especially important to study the prevalence and potential use of these data sources and tools in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), such as Sub-Saharan Africa, which have been heavily impacted by the HIV epidemic, to determine the feasibility of using these technologies as surveillance and intervention tools. Accordingly, we 1) described the prevalence and characteristics of various social technologies within South Africa, 2) using Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube as a case study, analyzed the prevalence and patterns of social media use related to HIV risk in South Africa, and 3) mapped and statistically tested differences in HIV-related social media posts within regions of South Africa. Geocoded data were collected over a three-week period in 2018 (654,373 tweets, 90,410 Instagram posts and 14,133 YouTube videos with 1,121 comments). Of all tweets, 4,524 (0.7%) were found to related to HIV and AIDS. The percentage was similar for Instagram 95 (0.7%) but significantly lower for YouTube 18 (0.1%). We found regional differences in prevalence and use of social media related to HIV. We discuss the implication of data from these technologies in surveillance and interventions within South Africa and other LMICs.
Project description:Analysis of disease incidence using geospatial mapping techniques can enhance targeted public health efforts in resource-limited settings. While data for HIV incidence are readily available for some metropolitan regions, there is no existing resource that maps HIV incidence geospatially for Charleston, South Carolina and surrounding counties. To facilitate the public health approach to address the HIV epidemic in this region, we used data collected by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) from 2014 to 2015 to generate local geospatial maps of disease incidence and identify specific areas that may benefit from increased testing and educational efforts. We identified specific zip codes in which there were a high number of cases from patients residing in those areas, but a low number of providers reporting new cases, and we describe ongoing efforts to address this disparity. This analysis identifies a local, collaborative approach to address the HIV epidemic using routinely collected surveillance data.
Project description:Background While advances have been made in HIV prevention and treatment, new HIV infections continue to occur. The introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as an additional HIV prevention option for those at high risk of HIV may change the landscape of the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, which bears the greatest HIV burden. METHODS:This paper details Kenya's experience of PrEP rollout as a national public sector program. The process of a national rollout of PrEP guidance, partnerships, challenges, lessons learnt and progress related to national scale up of PrEP in Kenya, as of 2018, is described. National rollout of PrEP was strongly lead by the government, and work was executed through a multidisciplinary, multi-organisation dedicated team. This required reviewing available evidence, providing guidance to health providers, integration into existing logistic and health information systems, robust communication and community engagement. Mapping of the response showed that subnational levels had existing infrastructure but required targeted resources to catalyse PrEP provision. Rollout scenarios were developed and adopted, with prioritisation of 19 counties focusing on high incidence area and high potential PrEP users to maximise impact and minimise costs. RESULTS:PrEP is now offered in over 900 facilities countrywide. There are currently over 14000 PrEP users 1 year after launching PrEP. CONCLUSIONS:Kenya becomes the first African country to rollout PrEP as a national program, in the public sector. This case study will provide guidance for low- and middle-income countries planning the rollout of PrEP in response to both generalised and concentrated epidemics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected persons and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for uninfected persons are extraordinarily effective strategies for HIV prevention. In Africa, the region which shoulders the highest HIV burden, HIV care is principally delivered through public health HIV care clinics, offering an existing platform to incorporate PrEP delivery and maximize ART and PrEP synergies. However, successfully bringing this integrated approach to scale requires an implementation science evaluation in public health settings. METHODS:The Partners Scale Up Project is a prospective, pragmatic implementation evaluation, designed as a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial, operating at 24 clinics in Kenya. In collaboration with the Kenya Ministry of Health, we are catalyzing scaled implementation of PrEP delivery integrated in HIV care clinics. The intervention package includes staff training, clinic streamlined access to PrEP commodity from the Kenya Medical Supply Authority, and ongoing intensive technical assistance to rigorously assess how PrEP delivery is implemented. PrEP service delivery including retention efforts are conducted by the clinic staff with no additional resources from the project. Guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Science Research, project progress and learning are documented through ongoing monitoring and process evaluations, including chart abstraction and individual and key informant interviews, to evaluate pragmatic rollout and understand barriers and facilitators for successful PrEP delivery in this setting. In this staged rollout design, each step provides data for both pre-implementation (baseline) and implementation periods, and we will compare time points across steps in the baseline versus implementation periods. DISCUSSION:Cost-effective delivery models are urgently needed to maximize the public health impact of PrEP and ART. The Partners Scale Up Project will set the stage for full-scale PrEP implementation fully run and owned by the Kenya Ministry of Health. The work combines nationally sponsored PrEP delivery with technical support and implementation science from academic partners, defining a new but sustainable paradigm for public health collaboration. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on February 14, 2017: NCT03052010 .
Project description:Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use. We also searched online posts and associated comments (news articles, opinion pieces, blogs and other social media posts) in diverse venues (Facebook, Slate Outward, Huffington Post Gay Voices, Queerty, and My PrEP Experience blog) to identify posts about PrEP. We used content analysis to identify themes and compare potential differences between the peer-reviewed literature and online posts. We identified 25 peer-reviewed articles and 28 online posts meeting inclusion criteria. We identified 48 unique barriers and 46 facilitators to using PrEP. These 94 themes fit into six overarching categories: (1) access (n = 14), (2) attitudes/beliefs (n = 24), (3) attributes of PrEP (n = 13), (4) behaviors (n = 11), (5) sociodemographic characteristics (n = 8), and (6) social network (n = 6). In all categories, analysis of online posts resulted in identification of a greater number of unique themes. Thirty-eight themes were identified in the online posts that were not identified in the peer-reviewed literature. We identified barriers and facilitators to PrEP in online posts that were not identified in a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. By incorporating data both from a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles and from online posts, we have identified salient and novel information about barriers to and facilitators of PrEP use. Traditional research approaches may not comprehensively capture current factors important for designing and implementing PrEP related interventions.
Project description:UNAIDS has identified the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) as a priority for elimination. Incidence is close to the elimination threshold of one new infection per year per 1,000 individuals. However, surveillance data show that HIV strains are being imported into Denmark, mainly due to travel. We use a transmission model to predict (from 2018 to 2030) the impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on incidence. Our model reflects the current epidemic and diagnosis rates in the Danish MSM community. We conduct a sensitivity analysis based on 20,000 simulations, and assume that PrEP coverage could range from zero to 50% and diagnosis rates increase up to three-fold. We predict that incidence will fall below the elimination threshold, even without the introduction of PrEP, reaching 0.87 (median, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.65-1.23) new infections per 1,000 MSM by 2030. PrEP could reduce incidence to well below the threshold, if it results in a significant increase in diagnosis rates and reduces the number of infections occurring abroad. The Danish Medicine Agency and Danish Health Authority have recommended introducing PrEP. Our study provides strong support for this recommendation, and shows the importance of Danish MSM using PrEP when abroad.
Project description:The opioid crisis presents substantial challenges to public health in New England's rural states, where access to pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD), harm reduction, HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) services vary widely. We present an approach to characterizing the epidemiology, policy and resource environment for OUD and its consequences, with a focus on eleven rural counties in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont between 2014 and 2018. We developed health policy summaries and logic models to facilitate comparison of opioid epidemic-related polices across the three states that could influence the risk environment and access to services. We assessed sociodemographic factors, rates of overdose and infectious complications tied to OUD, and drive-time access to prevention and treatment resources. We developed GIS maps and conducted spatial analyses to assess the opioid crisis landscape. Through collaborative research, we assessed the potential impact of available resources to address the opioid crisis in rural New England. Vermont's comprehensive set of policies and practices for drug treatment and harm reduction appeared to be associated with the lowest fatal overdose rates. Franklin County, Massachusetts had good access to naloxone, drug treatment and SSPs, but relatively high overdose and HIV rates. New Hampshire had high proportions of uninsured community members, the highest overdose rates, no HCV surveillance data, and no local access to SSPs. This combination of factors appeared to place PWID in rural New Hampshire at elevated risk. Study results facilitated the development of vulnerability indicators, identification of locales for subsequent data collection, and public health interventions.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Seven years after TDF/FTC was approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis to reduce risks of HIV infection, there have been large increases in the number of persons using PrEP in the USA. However, recent data on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use at the state level indicate that people living in the Southern United States are underserved by PrEP relative to their epidemic need. We sought to review possible reasons for inequitable uptake of PrEP in the South and identify implementation approaches to increase PrEP uptake in the South. RECENT FINDINGS:Published literature, data on the locations of PrEP service providers, recent data on PrEP utilization from pharmacy prescription databases, HIV surveillance data and government data on healthcare providers, and health literacy indicate a confluence of factors in the South that are likely limiting PrEP uptake. A variety of approaches are needed to address the complex challenges to PrEP implementation in the South. These include considering alternative PrEP provision strategies (e.g., pharmacy-based PrEP, telemedicine-delivered PrEP), conducting gain-based stigma-reduction campaigns, increasing capacity for reimbursement for PrEP medications and services through policy change to expand Medicaid and to preserve access to Affordable Care Act-compliant health plans, expanding STI screening programs and improving integration of PrEP offering with delivery of positive STI results, using mHealth tools to screen groups at highest risk for HIV (e.g., men who have sex with men) periodically to increase correct perception of risk, and streamlining clinical procedures to allow same-day PrEP starts for patients without obvious medical contraindications. Overcoming the structural, capacity, and policy challenges to increasing PrEP uptake in the South will require innovations in clinical approaches, leveraging technologies, and policy changes. The South has unique challenges to achieving equitable PrEP uptake, and addressing key barriers to expanded PrEP use will require multisectoral responses.
Project description:Effectiveness of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention will require high adherence. Using qualitative data, this paper identifies potential lay social resources for support of PrEP adherence by HIV serodiscordant couples in Uganda, laying the groundwork for incorporation of these resources into adherence support initiatives as part of implementation. The qualitative analysis characterizes support for PrEP adherence provided by HIV-infected spouses, children, extended family members, and the larger community. Results suggest social resources for support of PrEP adherence in Africa are plentiful outside formal health care settings and health systems and that couples will readily use them. The same shortage of health professionals that impeded scale-up of antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS in Africa promises to challenge delivery of PrEP. Building on the treatment scale-up experience, implementers can address this challenge by examining the value of lay social resources for adherence support in developing strategies for delivery of PrEP.
Project description:Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations. We aim to estimate the incremental cost per health outcome of PrEP compared with placebo, no PrEP, or other HIV prevention strategies; assess the methodological variability in, and quality of, economic evaluations of PrEP; estimate the incremental cost per health outcome of different PrEP implementation strategies; and quantify the potential sources of heterogeneity in outcomes.We will systematically search electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase) and the gray literature. We will include economic evaluation studies that assess both costs and health outcomes of PrEP in HIV-uninfected individuals, without restricting language or year of publication. Two reviewers will independently screen studies using predefined inclusion criteria, extract data, and assess methodological quality using the Philips checklist, Second Panel on the Cost-effectiveness of Health and Medicines, and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research recommendations. Outcomes of interest include incremental costs and outcomes in natural units or utilities, cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefit. We will perform descriptive and quantitative syntheses using sensitivity analyses of outcomes by population subgroups, HIV epidemic settings, study designs, baseline intervention contexts, key parameter inputs and assumptions, type of outcomes, economic perspectives, and willingness to pay values.Findings will guide future economic evaluation of PrEP strategies in terms of methodological and knowledge gaps, and will inform decisions on the efficient integration of PrEP into public health programs across epidemiologic and health system contexts.PROSPERO CRD42016038440 .