Clinical utility of the exosome based ExoDx Prostate(IntelliScore) EPI test in men presenting for initial Biopsy with a PSA 2-10?ng/mL.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The ExoDx Prostate(IntelliScore) (EPI) test is a non-invasive risk assessment tool for detection of high-grade prostate cancer (HGPC) that informs whether to proceed with prostate biopsy. We sought to assess the impact of EPI on the decision to biopsy in a real-world clinical setting. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, randomized, blinded, two-armed clinical utility study that enrolled 1094 patients with 72 urologists from 24 urology practices. Patients were considered for prostate biopsy at enrollment based on standard clinical criteria. All patients had an EPI test; however, patients were randomized into EPI vs. control arms where only the EPI arm received results for their biopsy decision. RESULTS:In the EPI arm (N?=?458), 93 patients received negative EPI scores of which 63% were recommended to defer biopsy by the urologist and 74% ultimately deferred. In contrast, 87% of patients with positive EPI scores were recommended to undergo biopsy with a 72% compliance rate to the urologist's recommendation. This led to detection of 30% more HGPC compared to the control arm, and we estimate that 49% fewer HGPC were missed due to deferrals compared to standard of care (SOC). Overall, 68% of urologists reported that the EPI test influenced their biopsy decision. The primary reason not to comply with EPI results was rising PSA. CONCLUSION:To our knowledge this is the first report on a PC biomarker utility study with a blinded control arm. The study demonstrates that the EPI test influences the overall decision to defer or proceed with a biopsy and improves patient stratification.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Patients' preferences are important for shared decision making. Therefore, we investigated patients' and urologists' preferences for treatment alternatives for early prostate cancer (PC). METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted among 150 patients who were waiting for their biopsy results, and 150 urologists. Regression analysis was used to determine patients' and urologists' stated preferences using scenarios based on PC treatment modality (radiotherapy, surgery, and active surveillance (AS)), and risks of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: The response rate was 110 out of 150 (73%) for patients and 50 out of 150 (33%) for urologists. Risk of urinary incontinence was an important determinant of both patients' and urologists' stated preferences for PC treatment (P<0.05). Treatment modality also influenced patients' stated preferences (P<0.05), whereas the risk of erectile dysfunction due to radiotherapy was mainly important to urologists (P<0.05). Both patients and urologists preferred AS to radical treatment, with the exception of patients with anxious/depressed feelings who preferred radical treatment to AS. CONCLUSION: Although patients and urologists generally may prefer similar treatments for PC, they showed different trade-offs between various specific treatment aspects. This implies that urologists need to be aware of potential differences compared with the patient's perspective on treatment decisions in shared decision making on PC treatment.
Project description:To evaluate whether the addition of biomarkers to traditional clinicopathological parameters may help to increase the accurate prediction of prostate re-biopsy outcome. A training cohort with 98 patients and a validation cohort with 72 patients were retrospectively recruited into our study. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate the immunoreactivity of a group of biomarkers in the initial negative biopsy normal-looking tissues of the training and validation cohorts. p-STAT3, Mcm2, and/or MSR1 were selected out of 10 biomarkers to construct a biomarker index for predicting cancer and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) in the training cohort based on the stepwise logistic regression analysis; these biomarkers were then validated in the validation cohort. In the training cohort study, we found that the biomarker index was independently associated with the re-biopsy outcomes of cancer and HGPCa. Moreover supplementing the biomarker index with traditional clinical-pathological parameters can improve the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model from 0.722 to 0.842 and from 0.735 to 0.842, respectively, for predicting cancer and HGPCa at re-biopsy. In the decision-making analysis, we found the model supplemented with the biomarker index can improve patients' net benefit. The application of the model to clinical practice, at a 10% risk threshold, would reduce the number of biopsies by 34.7% while delaying the diagnosis of 7.8% cancers and would reduce the number of biopsies by 73.5% while delaying the diagnosis of 17.8% HGPCas. Taken together, supplementing the biomarker index with clinicopathological parameters may help urologists in re-biopsy decision-making processes.
Project description:CONTEXT:Urologists regularly develop clinical risk prediction models to support clinical decisions. In contrast to traditional performance measures, decision curve analysis (DCA) can assess the utility of models for decision making. DCA plots net benefit (NB) at a range of clinically reasonable risk thresholds. OBJECTIVE:To provide recommendations on interpreting and reporting DCA when evaluating prediction models. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:We informally reviewed the urological literature to determine investigators' understanding of DCA. To illustrate, we use data from 3616 patients to develop risk models for high-grade prostate cancer (n=313, 9%) to decide who should undergo a biopsy. The baseline model includes prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination; the extended model adds two predictors based on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:We explain risk thresholds, NB, default strategies (treat all, treat no one), and test tradeoff. To use DCA, first determine whether a model is superior to all other strategies across the range of reasonable risk thresholds. If so, that model appears to improve decisions irrespective of threshold. Second, consider if there are important extra costs to using the model. If so, obtain the test tradeoff to check whether the increase in NB versus the best other strategy is worth the additional cost. In our case study, addition of TRUS improved NB by 0.0114, equivalent to 1.1 more detected high-grade prostate cancers per 100 patients. Hence, adding TRUS would be worthwhile if we accept subjecting 88 patients to TRUS to find one additional high-grade prostate cancer or, alternatively, subjecting 10 patients to TRUS to avoid one unnecessary biopsy. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed guidelines can help researchers understand DCA and improve application and reporting. PATIENT SUMMARY:Decision curve analysis can identify risk models that can help us make better clinical decisions. We illustrate appropriate reporting and interpretation of decision curve analysis.
Project description:Although prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, it also leads to high incidence of negative biopsies and the diagnosis of clinically low-risk prostate cancer and the subsequent overtreatment. It remains an unmet need to discover new biomarkers in order to defer the unnecessary biopsies in clinical practice. In this study, we described a new method, LBXexo score, to measure the urine exosomal PCA3/PRAC expression from non-DRE urine as a noninvasive diagnosis to improve the detection rate in Chinese population with a low serum PSA level. First-voided urine samples were collected to isolate exosomes, and exosomal RNAs of PCA3 and PRAC were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. A significant increase in exoPCA3/PRAC was observed in both any-grade and high-grade prostate cancer groups when compared with the biopsy-negative group. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the LBXexo score significantly improved diagnostic performance in predicting biopsy results, with AUCs of 0.723 (p=0.017) and 0.736 (p=0.038) for any-grade and high-grade (GS???7) prostate cancer, respectively. For high-grade cancer, LBXexo had the negative and positive predictive values of 100% and 27.59%, respectively, and could potentially avoid unnecessary biopsy. This is the first report in Chinese population that demonstrates the predictive value of the exosomal expression of PCA3 and PRAC derived from non-DRE urine in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes. It could be used in clinical practice to make a better informed biopsy decision and avoid unnecessary biopsies in Chinese population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The clinical landscape of prostate biopsy (PB) is evolving with changes in procedures and techniques. Moreover, antibiotic resistance is increasing and influences the efficacy of pre-biopsy prophylactic regimens. Therefore, increasing antibiotic resistance may impact on clinical care, which probably results in differences between hospitals. The objective of our study is to determine the (variability in) current practices of PB in the Netherlands and to gain insight into Dutch urologists' perceptions of fluoroquinolone resistance and biopsy related infections. METHODS:An online questionnaire was prepared using SurveyMonkey® platform and distributed to all 420 members of the Dutch Association of Urology, who work in 81 Dutch hospitals. Information about PB techniques and periprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis was collected. Urologists' perceptions regarding pre-biopsy antibiotic prophylaxis in an era of antibiotic resistance was assessed. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:One hundred sixty-one responses (38.3%) were analyzed representing 65 (80.3%) of all Dutch hospitals performing PB. Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB) was performed in 64 (98.5%) hospitals. 43.1% of the hospitals (also) used other image-guided biopsy techniques. Twenty-three different empirical prophylactic regimens were reported among the hospitals. Ciprofloxacin was most commonly prescribed (84.4%). The duration ranged from one pre-biopsy dose (59.4%) to 5 days extended prophylaxis. 25.2% of the urologists experienced ciprofloxacin resistance as a current problem in the prevention of biopsy related infections and 73.6% as a future problem. CONCLUSIONS:There is a wide variation in practice patterns among Dutch urologists. TRUSPB is the most commonly used biopsy technique, but other image-guided biopsy techniques are increasingly used. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is not standardized and prolonged prophylaxis is common. The wide variation in practice patterns and lack of standardization underlines the need for evidence-based recommendations to guide urologists in choosing appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis for PB in the context of increasing antibiotic resistance.
Project description:To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs) on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment.Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically.The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4), government urologists (n = 6), urology trainees (n = 6), government policy maker (n = 1) and oncologists (n = 3). HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family) included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture.A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.
Project description:Propionibacterium acnes has recently been implicated as a cause of chronic prostatitis and this commensal bacterium may be linked to prostate carcinogenesis. The occurrence of intracellular P. acnes infection in prostate glands and the higher frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) than in those from patients without PCa led us to examine whether the P. acnes-positive gland frequency can be used to assess the risk for PCa in patients whose first prostate biopsy, performed due to an increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer, was negative.We retrospectively collected the first and last prostate biopsy samples from 44 patients that were diagnosed PCa within 4 years after the first negative biopsy and from 36 control patients with no PCa found in repeated biopsy for at least 3 years after the first biopsy. We evaluated P. acnes-positive gland frequency and P. acnes-positive macrophage number using enzyme-immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody).The frequency of P. acnes-positive glands was higher in PCa samples than in control samples in both first biopsy samples and in combined first and last biopsy samples (P < 0.001). A frequency greater than the threshold (18.5 and 17.7, respectively) obtained by each receiver operating characteristic curve was an independent risk factor for PCa (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) with odds ratios (14.8 and 13.9, respectively) higher than those of serum PSA titers of patients just before each biopsy (4.6 and 2.3, respectively). The number of P. acnes-positive macrophages did not differ significantly between PCa and control samples.These results suggested that the frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in the first negative prostate biopsy performed due to increased PSA titers can be supportive information for urologists in planning repeated biopsy or follow-up strategies.
Project description:I report a case of multiple organ failure (acute kidney injury, interstitial pneumonitis and liver dysfunction) associated with combined androgen blockade(CAB) with bicalutamide and leuprorelin acetate for prostate cancer that was successfully managed by prompt hemodialysis and withdrawal of medications. Finally, patient received orchiectomy for the treatment of prostate cancer, and the histology of renal biopsy revealed drug-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis. Although the condition is extremely rare, urologists should be aware of CAB-induced organ failures such as those of the lung, kidney and liver. It should also be noted that urologists should not initially prescribe long-acting Gn-RH.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Urologists face a dilemma when a lesion identified on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is benign on image guided fusion biopsy. We investigated the detection rate of prostate cancer on repeat fusion biopsy in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging lesions initially found to be pathologically benign on fusion biopsy.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We reviewed the records of all patients from 2007 to 2014 who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and image guided fusion biopsy. We identified men who underwent rebiopsy of the same discrete lesion after initial fusion biopsy results were benign. Data were documented on a per lesion basis. We manually reviewed UroNav system (Invivo, Gainesville, Florida) needle tracking to verify accurate image registration. Multivariate analysis was used to identify clinical and imaging factors predictive of prostate cancer detection at repeat fusion biopsy.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 131 unique lesions were rebiopsied in 90 patients. Of these 131 resampled lesions 21 (16%) showed prostate cancer, which in 13 (61.9%) was Gleason 3 + 3. On multivariate analysis only lesion growth on repeat multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was significantly associated with prostate cancer detection at repeat biopsy (HR 3.274, 95% CI 1.205-8.896, p = 0.02).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pathologically benign multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging lesions on initial image guided fusion biopsy are rarely found to harbor clinically significant prostate cancer on repeat biopsy. When prostate cancer was identified, most disease was low risk. An increase in lesion diameter was an independent predictor of prostate cancer detection. While these data are retrospective, they may provide some confidence in the reliability of negative initial image guided fusion biopsies despite a positive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging finding.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Post-biopsy infection is one of the major concerns of urologists and patients for prostate biopsy. Many efforts have been made to reduce the infection rate. We conducted a study at a single institution with the goal of describing the bacteriology and incidence trends of febrile infections following trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2002 (Period 1 of the study), January 2003 to August 2005 (Period 2), September 2005 to October 2007 (Period 3), and November 2007 to December 2009 (Period 4), 1,406 patients underwent prostate biopsy at our hospital. All biopsies were conducted under TRUS guidance without preparation by enemas. Several steps were taken to reduce infectious complications following biopsy, including a shift to levofloxacin prophylaxis starting from Period 3 of our study and thorough instructions in post-biopsy self-care starting from the beginning of Period 4. The incidence and bacteriology of urinary tract infection (UTI) following the prostate biopsies were reviewed from chart records. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 514 (5.4%), 13 of 276 (4.7%) nine of 274 (3.2%), and three of 342 (0.9%) patients had post-biopsy febrile infections during the four periods of the study, respectively. Fifteen of 28 (53.5%), four of 13 (30.8%), five of nine (55.6%), and zero of three patients, respectively, had positive cultures of blood, urine, or both during the four study periods. Escherichia coli was the pathogen isolated most commonly and ampicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of this organism were identified at a high frequency. The times to onset of fever after biopsy in the four study periods were 1.5±1.3?d, 3.7±2.7?d, 2.2±1.6?d, and 2.5±0.9?d, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of E. coli were the uropathogenic bacteria identified most commonly after prostate biopsy at our hospital. The incidence of UTI following prostate biopsy can be reduced by explaining instructions for medication and self-care thoroughly to patients undergoing such biopsy.