Comparing the Potential of Marker-Assisted Selection and Genomic Prediction for Improving Rust Resistance in Hybrid Wheat.
ABSTRACT: Improving leaf rust and stripe rust resistance is a central goal in wheat breeding. The objectives of this study were to (1) elucidate the genetic basis of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in a hybrid wheat population, (2) compare the findings using a previously published hybrid wheat data set, and (3) contrast the prediction accuracy with those of genome-wide prediction. The hybrid wheat population included 1,744 single crosses from 236 parental lines. The genotypes were fingerprinted using a 15k SNP array and evaluated for leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in multi-location field trials. We observed a high congruency of putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf rust resistance between both populations. This was not the case for stripe rust resistance. Accordingly, prediction accuracy of the detected QTL was moderate for leaf rust but low for stripe rust resistance. Genome-wide selection increased the prediction accuracy slightly for stripe rust albeit at a low level but not for leaf rust. Thus, our findings suggest that marker-assisted selection seems to be a robust and efficient tool to improve leaf rust resistance in European wheat hybrids.
Project description:<h4>Key message</h4>We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:Hybrid wheat breeding is a promising strategy to improve the level of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in wheat. Leaf rust and stripe rust belong to the most important fungal diseases in wheat production. Due to a dynamic development of new virulent races, epidemics appear in high frequency and causes significant losses in grain yield and quality. Therefore, research is needed to develop strategies to breed wheat varieties carrying highly efficient resistances. Stacking of dominant resistance genes through hybrid breeding is such an approach. Within this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance of 1750 wheat hybrids and their 230 parental lines using a genome-wide association study. We observed on average a lower rust susceptibility for hybrids in comparison to their parental inbred lines and some hybrids outperformed their better parent with up to 56%. Marker-trait associations were identified on chromosome 3D and 4A for leaf rust and on chromosome 2A, 2B, and 6A for stripe rust resistance by using a genome-wide association study with a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P?<?0.10. Detected loci on chromosomes 4A and 2A were located within previously reported genomic regions affecting leaf rust and stripe rust resistance, respectively. The degree of dominance was for most associations favorable in the direction of improved resistance. Thus, resistance can be increased in hybrid wheat breeding by fixing complementary leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes with desired dominance effects in opposite parental pools.
Project description:The accuracy of genomic selection depends on the relatedness between the members of the set in which marker effects are estimated based on evaluation data and the types for which performance is predicted. Here, we investigate the impact of relatedness on the performance of marker-assisted selection for fungal disease resistance in hybrid wheat. A large and diverse mapping population of 1739 elite European winter wheat inbred lines and hybrids was evaluated for powdery mildew, leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 9 k and 90 k SNP arrays. Comparison of the accuracies of prediction achieved with data sets from the two marker arrays revealed a crucial role for a sufficiently high marker density in genome-wide association mapping. Cross-validation studies using test sets with varying degrees of relationship to the corresponding estimation sets revealed that close relatedness leads to a substantial increase in the proportion of total genotypic variance explained by the identified QTL and consequently to an overoptimistic judgment of the precision of marker-assisted selection.
Project description:Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt), and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ) and one race of Pst (PSTv-37) frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.
Project description:Stripe rust (also known as yellow rust), caused by the pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To identify effective stripe rust resistance loci, a genome-wide association study was performed using 152 wheat landraces from the Yellow and Huai River Valleys in China based on Diversity Arrays Technology and simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic evaluation of the degree of resistance to stripe rust at the adult-plant stage under field conditions was carried out in five environments. In total, 19 accessions displayed stable, high degrees of resistance to stripe rust development when exposed to mixed races of Pst at the adult-plant stage in multi-environment field assessments. A marker-trait association analysis indicated that 51 loci were significantly associated with adult-plant resistance to stripe rust. These loci included 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for adult-plant resistance. Twenty identified resistance QTL were linked closely to previously reported yellow rust resistance genes or QTL regions, which were distributed across chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B, and 7D. Six multi-trait QTL were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2B, 3A, 3B, and 7D. Twenty QTL were mapped to chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 4B, 5B, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7A, 7B, and 7D, distant from previously identified yellow rust resistance genes. Consequently, these QTL are potentially novel loci for stripe rust resistance. Among the 20 potentially novel QTL, five (QDS.sicau-2A, QIT.sicau-4B, QDS.sicau-4B.2, QDS.sicau-6A.3, and QYr.sicau-7D) were associated with field responses at the adult-plant stage in at least two environments, and may have large effects on stripe rust resistance. The novel effective QTL for adult-plant resistance to stripe rust will improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms that control the spread of stripe rust, and will aid in the molecular marker-assisted selection-based breeding of wheat for stripe rust resistance.
Project description:The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stripe rust is a serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), which results in yield reduction and decreased grain quality. Breeding for genetic resistance to stripe rust is the most cost-effective method to control the disease. In the present study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to identify markers linked to stripe rust resistance genes (or loci) in 93 Northern Chinese wheat landraces, using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular marker technology based on phenotypic data from two field locations over two growing seasons in China. RESULTS:Seventeen accessions were verified to display stable and high levels of adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust via multi-environment field assessments. Significant correlations among environments and high heritability were observed for stripe rust infection type (IT) and disease severity (DS). Using mixed linear models (MLM) for the GWAS, a total of 32 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) were detected. In combination with the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distance (6.4 cM), 25 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. Based on the integrated map of previously reported genes and QTL, six QTL located on chromosomes 4A, 6A and 7D were mapped far from resistance regions identified previously, and represent potentially novel stripe rust resistance loci at the adult plant stage. CONCLUSIONS:The present findings demonstrated that identification of genes or loci linked to significant markers in wheat by GWAS is feasible. Seventeen elite accessions conferred with stable and high resistance to stripe rust, and six putative newly detected APR loci were identified among the 93 Northern Chinese wheat landraces. The results illustrate the potential for acceleration of molecular breeding of wheat, and also provide novel sources of stripe rust resistance with potential utility in the breeding of improved wheat cultivars.
Project description:Stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks, is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide and there is an indication that it may also become a serious disease of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). Therefore, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying resistance to stripe rust in adapted durum wheat germplasm. Wheat infection assays were conducted under controlled conditions in Canada and under field conditions in Mexico. Disease assessments were performed on a population of 155 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross of Kofa (susceptible) and W9262-260D3 (moderately resistant) and on a breeding panel that consisted of 92 diverse cultivars and breeding lines. Both populations were genotyped using the 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay. In the DH population, QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosome 7B (LOD 6.87-11.47) and chromosome 5B (LOD 3.88-9.17). The QTL for stripe rust resistance on chromosome 7B was supported in the breeding panel. Both QTL were anchored to the genome sequence of wild emmer wheat, which identified gene candidates involved in disease resistance. Exome capture sequencing identified variation in the candidate genes between Kofa and W9262-260D3. These genetic insights will be useful in durum breeding to enhance resistance to stripe rust.
Project description:Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat in the world. Genetic resistance is the best strategy for control of the disease. Spring wheat landrace PI 181410 has shown high level resistance to stripe rust. The present study characterized the landrace to have both race-specific all-stage resistance and nonrace-specific high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance. To map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the resistance in PI 181410, it was crossed with Avocet S (AvS), from which a recombinant inbred line population was developed. The F5-F8 populations were consecutively phenotyped for stripe rust response in multiple field environments under natural Pst infection, and the F7 population was phenotyped in seedlings at low temperature and in adult-plant stage with selected Pst races in the greenhouse. The F7 population was genotyped using the 90K wheat SNP chip. Three QTL, QYrPI181410.wgp-4AS, QYrPI181410.wgp-4BL, and QYrPI181410.wgp-5BL.1, from PI 181410 for all-stage resistance, were mapped on chromosome arms 4AS, 4BL, and 5BL, respectively. Four QTL, QYrPI181410.wgp-1BL, QYrPI181410.wgp-4BL, QYrPI181410.wgp-5AS, and QYrPI181410.wgp-5BL.2, were identified from PI 181410 for HTAP resistance and mapped to 1BL, 4BL, 5AS, and 5BL, respectively. Two QTL with minor effects on stripe rust response were identified from AvS and mapped to 2BS and 2BL. Four of the QTL from PI 181410 and one from AvS were potentially new. As the 4BL QTL was most effective and likely a new gene for stripe rust resistance, three kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed for incorporating this gene into new wheat cultivars.
Project description:Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a serious disease of wheat in the United States and many other countries. Growing resistant cultivars has been approved to be the best approach for control of stripe rust. To determine stripe rust resistance genes in U.S. winter wheat cultivars and breeding lines, we analyzed a winter wheat panel of 857 cultivars and breeding lines in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using genotyping by multiplexed sequencing (GMS) and by genotyping with molecular markers of 18 important stripe rust resistance genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL). The accessions were phenotyped for stripe rust response at adult-plant stage under natural infection in Pullman and Mount Vernon, Washington in 2018 and 2019, and in the seedling stage with six predominant or most virulent races of Pst. A total of 51 loci were identified to be related to stripe rust resistance, and at least 10 of them (QYrww.wgp.1D-3, QYrww.wgp.2B-2, QYrww.wgp.2B-3, QYrww.wgp.2B-4, QYrww.wgp.3A, QYrww.wgp.5A, QYrww.wgp.5B, QYrww.wgp.5D, QYrww.wgp.6A-2 and QYrww.wgp.7B-3) were previously reported. These genes or QTL were found to be present at different frequencies in breeding lines and cultivars developed by breeding programs in various winter wheat growing regions. Both Yr5 and Yr15, which are highly resistant to all races identified thus far in the U.S., as well as Yr46 providing resistance to many races, were found absent in the breeding lines and commercially grown cultivars. The identified genes or QTL and their markers are useful in breeding programs to improve the level and durability of resistance to stripe rust.