Subgenual cingulate connectivity and hippocampal activation are related to MST therapeutic and adverse effects.
ABSTRACT: Aberrant connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the subgenual cingulate cortex (SGC) has been linked to the pathophysiology of depression. Indirect evidence also links hippocampal activation to the cognitive side effects of seizure treatments. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel treatment for patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). Here we combine transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to evaluate the effects of MST on connectivity and activation between the DLPFC, the SGC and hippocampus (Hipp) in patients with TRD. The TMS-EEG was collected from 31 TRD patients prior to and after an MST treatment trial. Through TMS-EEG methodology we evaluated significant current scattering (SCS) as an index of effective connectivity between the SGC and left DLPFC. Significant current density (SCD) was used to assess activity at the level of the Hipp. The SCS between the SGC and DLPFC was reduced after the course of MST (p?
Project description:Importance:Hyperactivity in the subgenual cingulate cortex (SGC) is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anticorrelated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This association was found to be predictive of responsiveness to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Such findings suggest that DLPFC-SGC connectivity is important for understanding both the therapeutic mechanism of rTMS in patients with MDD and the underlying pathophysiology of MDD. Objective:To evaluate SGC hyperactivity in patients with MDD before and after rTMS treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this diagnostic study, among participants recruited from the adult and geriatric mood and anxiety services at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who had participated in a randomized clinical trial, baseline SGC activity of patients with MDD was compared with healthy controls. In patients with MDD, SGC activity was compared before and after active or sham high-frequency rTMS treatment. Data collection started in July 2008 and concluded in March 2012. Neurophysiological data analysis started in January 2017 and ended in May 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Hyperactivity in the SGC before and after rTMS treatment was measured. Subgenual cingulate cortex hyperactivity activity was quantified using significant current density (SCD), and effective connectivity between the left DLPFC and SGC was computed using significant current scattering (SCS). Both measures were computed around TMS evoked potentials standard peak latencies prior to rTMS and after rTMS treatment, comparing patients with MMD treated with active and sham rTMS. Patients with MDD were assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results:Of 121 patients with MDD in the initial trial, 30 (15 [50.0%] women) were compared with 30 healthy controls (15 [50.0%] women) at rTMS treatment baseline. The mean (SD) age of the cohort with MDD was 39.1 (10.9) years, and the mean (SD) age of healthy controls was 37.0 (11.0) years. Following rTMS treatment, 26 patients with MDD who had active rTMS treatment (21.5%) were compared with 17 patients with MDD who had sham treatment (14.0%). At baseline, the SGC mean (SD) SCD and mean (SD) SCS at 200 milliseconds after TMS pulse were higher in participants with MDD compared with healthy controls (SCD: 1.04?×?10-6 [1.41?×?10-6] ?A/mm2 vs 3.8?×?10-7 [7.8?×?10-7] ?A/mm2; z?=?-2.95; P?=?.004; SCS: 0.87 [0.86] mm vs 0.54 [0.87] mm; z?=?-2.27; P?=?.02). Baseline source current density was able to classify MDD with 77% accuracy. Scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were correlated with current density at the SGC (??=?0.41; P?=?.03). After rTMS treatment, SGC mean (SD) SCD and mean (SD) SCS at 200 milliseconds after rTMS pulse were attenuated to approximately the standard TMS-evoked potential latencies in the active rTMS group compared with the sham rTMS group (SCD: 1.57?×?10-7 [3.67?×?10-7] ?A/mm2 vs 7.00?×?10-7 [7.51?×?10-7] ?A/mm2; z?=?-2.91; P?=?.004; SCS: 0.20 [0.44] mm vs 0.74 [0.73] mm; z?=?-2.78; P?=?.006). Additionally, the SGC SCS change was correlated with symptom improvement on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in the active rTMS group (??=?0.58; P?=?.047). Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this study further implicate left DLPFC-SGC effective connectivity and SGC excitability in the pathophysiology of MDD and treatment with rTMS. These findings suggest that DLPFC-SGC connectivity may be a marker of rTMS treatment responsiveness. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01515215.
Project description:Therapeutic seizures may work for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) by producing neuroplasticity. We evaluated whether magnetic seizure therapy (MST) produces changes in suicidal ideation and neuroplasticity as indexed through transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-three patients with TRD were treated with MST. Changes in suicidal ideation was assessed through the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI). Before and after the treatment course, neuroplasticity in excitatory and inhibitory circuits was assessed with TMS-EEG measures of cortical-evoked activity (CEA) and long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) from the left DLPFC, and the left motor cortex as a control condition. As in our previous report, the relationship between TMS-EEG measures and suicidal ideation was examined with the SSI. Results show that 44.4% of patients experienced resolution of suicidal ideation. Based on DLPFC assessment, MST produced significant CEA increase over the frontal central electrodes (cluster p?<?0.05), but did not change LICI on a group level. MST also reduced the SSI scores (p?<?0.005) and the amount of reduction correlated with the decrease in LICI over the right frontal central electrodes (cluster p?<?0.05; rho?=?0.73 for Cz). LICI change identified patients who were resolved of suicidal ideation with 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity (AUC?=?0.9, p?=?0.004). There was no significant finding with motor cortex assessment. Overall, MST produced significant rates of resolution of suicidal ideation. MST also produced neuroplasticity in the frontal cortex, likely through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like mechanisms. The largest reduction in suicidal ideation was demonstrated in patients showing concomitant decreases in cortical inhibition-a mechanism linked to enhanced LTP-like plasticity. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms through which patients experience resolution of suicidal ideation following seizure treatments in depression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cognitive dysfunction is considered a core feature of schizophrenia, and impaired performances in episodic memory (EM) and executive function (EF) tasks are consistently reported in schizophrenia patients. Traditional fMRI and EEG studies have helped identifying brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), involved in these tasks. However, it is unclear whether intrinsic defects in prefrontal function per se contribute to poor performance in schizophrenia, given the presence of confounds like reduced motivation and psychotic symptoms. TMS/hd-EEG measurements are obtained without cognitive effort, and can be calculated in any cortical area. METHODS:We performed TMS/hd-EEG recordings in parietal, motor, premotor, and PFC in healthy individuals (N=20) and schizophrenia patients (N=20). Source modeling of TMS-evoked responses was performed, and measures of cortical activity (significant current density, SCD) and connectivity (significant current scattering, SCS) were computed. Patients with schizophrenia also performed Penn Word memory delayed (CPWd) and Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET). CPWd evaluates EM and involves primarily PFC, whereas PCET reflects EF and implicates PFC with other brain regions. FINDINGS:We found no difference in SCD and SCS after TMS of parietal/motor cortices, whereas those parameters were reduced in premotor/prefrontal areas in schizophrenia patients. In PFC, where these measures were most defective, SCD was negatively correlated with performance in CPWd whereas higher SCS values were associated with more errors in PCET. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that schizophrenia patients have intrinsic defects in both activity and connectivity of PFC, and that these defects are specifically associated with impairments in cognitive abilities.
Project description:By employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with high-density electroencephalography (EEG), we recently reported that cortical effective connectivity is disrupted during early non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This is a time when subjects, if awakened, may report little or no conscious content. We hypothesized that a similar breakdown of cortical effective connectivity may underlie loss of consciousness (LOC) induced by pharmacologic agents. Here, we tested this hypothesis by comparing EEG responses to TMS during wakefulness and LOC induced by the benzodiazepine midazolam. Unlike spontaneous sleep states, a subject's level of vigilance can be monitored repeatedly during pharmacological LOC. We found that, unlike during wakefulness, wherein TMS triggered responses in multiple cortical areas lasting for >300 ms, during midazolam-induced LOC, TMS-evoked activity was local and of shorter duration. Furthermore, a measure of the propagation of evoked cortical currents (significant current scattering, SCS) could reliably discriminate between consciousness and LOC. These results resemble those observed in early NREM sleep and suggest that a breakdown of cortical effective connectivity may be a common feature of conditions characterized by LOC. Moreover, these results suggest that it might be possible to use TMS-EEG to assess consciousness during anesthesia and in pathological conditions, such as coma, vegetative state, and minimally conscious state.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique with therapeutic applications for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The standard protocol uses high frequency stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) identified in a heuristic manner leading to moderate clinical efficacy. A proposed strategy to increase the anatomical precision in targeting, based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), identifies the subregion within the DLPFC having the strongest anticorrelated functional connectivity with the subgenual cortex (SGC) for each individual subject. OBJECTIVE:In this work, we comprehensively test the reliability and reproducibility of this targeting method for different scan lengths on 100 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) where each subject had a four 15-min rsfMRI scan on 2 different days. METHODS:We quantified the inter-scan and inter-day distance between the rsfMRI-guided DLPFC targets for each subject controlling for a number of expected sources of noise using volumetric as well as surface analyses. RESULTS:Our results show that the average inter-day distance (with fMRI scans lasting 30?min on each day) is 25% less variable than the inter-scan distance, which uses 50% less data. Specifically, the inter-scan distance was more than 37?mm, while for the longer-scan, the inter-day distance had lower variability at 25?mm. Finally, we tested the same rsfMRI strategy using the nucleus accumbens (NAc) as a control region relevant to MDD but less susceptible to artifacts, using both volume and surface rsfMRI data. The results showed similar variability to the SGC-DLPFC functional connectivity. Moreover, our results suggest that a smoothing kernel with 12?mm full-width half maximum (FWHM) lead to more stable and reliable target estimates. CONCLUSION:Our work provides a quantitative assessment of the topographic precision of this targeting method, describing an anatomical variability that may surpass the spatial resolution of some forms of focal TMS as it is commonly applied, and provides recommendations for improved accuracy.
Project description:Neuroimaging studies of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have reported abnormalities in the frontal and temporal regions. We sought to determine whether metabolism in these regions might be related to response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with TRD. Magnetic resonance images and baseline resting-state cerebral glucose uptake index (gluMI) obtained using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were analyzed in TRD patients who had participated in a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial of prefrontal 10 Hz TMS. Among the patients randomized to active TMS, 17 responders, defined as having 50% depression score decrease, and 14 nonresponders were investigated for prestimulation glucose metabolism and compared with 39 healthy subjects using a voxel-based analysis. In nonresponders relative to responders, gluMI was lower in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and higher in left amygdala and uncinate fasciculus. OFC and amygdala gluMI negatively correlated in nonresponders, positively correlated in responders, and did not correlate in healthy subjects. Relative to healthy subjects, both responders and nonresponders displayed lower gluMI in right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), right anterior cingulate (ACC), and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. Additionally, nonresponders had lower gluMI in left DLPFC, ACC, left and right insula, and higher gluMI in left amygdala and uncus. Hypometabolisms were partly explained by gray matter reductions, whereas hypermetabolisms were unrelated to structural changes. The findings suggest that different patterns of frontal-temporal-limbic abnormalities may distinguish responders and nonresponders to prefrontal magnetic stimulation. Both preserved OFC volume and amygdala metabolism might precondition response to TMS.
Project description:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is used clinically for the treatment of depression however outcomes vary greatly between patients. We have shown that average clinical efficacy of different left DLPFC TMS sites is related to intrinsic functional connectivity with remote regions including the subgenual cingulate and suggested that functional connectivity with these remote regions might be used to identify optimized left DLPFC targets for TMS. However it remains unclear if and how this connectivity-based targeting approach should be applied at the single-subject level to potentially individualize therapy to specific patients. In this article we show that individual differences in DLPFC connectivity are large, reproducible across sessions, and can be used to generate individualized DLPFC TMS targets that may prove clinically superior to those selected on the basis of group-average connectivity. Factors likely to improve individualized targeting including the use of seed maps and the focality of stimulation are investigated and discussed. The techniques presented here may be applicable to individualized targeting of focal brain stimulation across a range of diseases and stimulation modalities and can be experimentally tested in clinical trials.
Project description:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is used clinically for the treatment of depression. However, the antidepressant mechanism remains unknown and its therapeutic efficacy remains limited. Recent data suggest that some left DLPFC targets are more effective than others; however, the reasons for this heterogeneity and how to capitalize on this information remain unclear.Intrinsic (resting state) functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 98 normal subjects were used to compute functional connectivity with various left DLPFC TMS targets employed in the literature. Differences in functional connectivity related to differences in previously reported clinical efficacy were identified. This information was translated into a connectivity-based targeting strategy to identify optimized left DLPFC TMS coordinates. Results in normal subjects were tested for reproducibility in an independent cohort of 13 patients with depression.Differences in functional connectivity were related to previously reported differences in clinical efficacy across a distributed set of cortical and limbic regions. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex TMS sites with better clinical efficacy were more negatively correlated (anticorrelated) with the subgenual cingulate. Optimum connectivity-based stimulation coordinates were identified in Brodmann area 46. Results were reproducible in patients with depression.Reported antidepressant efficacy of different left DLPFC TMS sites is related to the anticorrelation of each site with the subgenual cingulate, potentially lending insight into the antidepressant mechanism of TMS and suggesting a role for intrinsically anticorrelated networks in depression. These results can be translated into a connectivity-based targeting strategy for focal brain stimulation that might be used to optimize clinical response.
Project description:Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) are noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition and glutamatergic excitatory transmission, respectively. Conventionally these measures have been restricted to the motor cortex. We investigated whether SICI and ICF could be recorded from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using combined TMS and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). We first characterized the neural signature of SICI and ICF in M1 in terms of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and spectral power modulation. Subsequently, these paradigms were applied in the DLPFC to determine whether similar neural signatures were evident. With TMS at M1, SICI and ICF led to bidirectional modulation (inhibition and facilitation, respectively) of P30 and P60 TEP amplitude, which correlated with MEP amplitude changes. With DLPFC stimulation, P60 was bidirectionally modulated by SICI and ICF in the same manner as for M1 stimulation, whereas P30 was absent. The sole modulation of early TEP components is in contradistinction to other measures such as long-interval intracortical inhibition and may reflect modulation of short latency excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs). Overall, the data suggest that SICI and ICF can be recorded using TMS-EEG in DLPFC providing noninvasive measures of glutamatergic and GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. This may facilitate future research attempting to ascertain the role of these neurotransmitters in the pathophysiology and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) allows for the assessment of various neurophysiological processes in the human cortex. One of these paradigms, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), is thought to be a sensitive measure of cholinergic activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated the temporal pattern of this paradigm from both the motor (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using simultaneous TMS-EEG recording. The SAI paradigm led to marked modulations at N100. In this study, we aimed to investigate the age-related effects on TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) with the SAI from M1 and the DLPFC in younger (18-59 years old) and older (?60 years old) participants. Older participants showed significantly lower N100 modulation in M1-SAI as well as DLPFC-SAI compared to the younger participants. Furthermore, the modulation of N100 by DLPFC-SAI in the older participants correlated with executive function as measured with the Trail making test. This paradigm has the potential to non-invasively identify cholinergic changes in cortical regions related to cognition in older participants.