IL-12-Induced Immune Suppressive Deficit During CD8+ T-Cell Differentiation.
ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases are characterized by regulatory deficit in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell compartments. We have shown that CD8+ T-cells associated with acute relapse of multiple sclerosis are significantly deficient in their immune suppressive ability. We hypothesized that distinct CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell (Tc) lineages, determined by cytokine milieu during naïve T-cell differentiation, may harbor differential ability to suppress effector CD4+ T-cells. We differentiated purified human naïve CD8+ T-cells in vitro toward Tc0 (media control), Tc1 and Tc17 lineages. Using in vitro flow cytometric suppression assays, we observed that Tc0 and Tc17 cells had similar suppressive ability. In contrast, Tc1 cells showed significant loss of suppressive ability against ex vivo CD4+ T-cells and in vitro-differentiated Th0, Th1 and Th17 cells. Of note, Tc1 cells were also suboptimal in suppressing CD4-induced acute xenogeneic graft versus host disease (xGVHD) in vivo. Tc subtypes derived under various cytokine combinations revealed that IL-12-containing conditions resulted in less suppressive cells exhibiting dysregulated cytotoxic degranulation. RNA sequencing transcriptome analyses indicated differential regulation of inflammatory genes and enrichment in GM-CSF-associated pathways. These studies provide insights into the role of T-cell differentiation in CD8 suppressive biology and may reveal therapeutically targetable pathways to reverse suppressive deficit during immune-mediated disease.
Project description:Memory CD8+ T cells are ideal candidates for cancer immunotherapy because they can mediate long-term protection against tumors. However, the therapeutic potential of different in vitro-generated CD8+ T cell effector subsets to persist and become memory cells has not been fully characterized. Type 1 CD8+ T (Tc1) cells produce interferon-? and are endowed with high cytotoxic capacity, whereas IL-17-producing CD8+ T (Tc17) cells are less cytotoxic but display enhanced self-renewal capacity. We sought to evaluate the functional properties of in vitro-generated Tc17 cells and elucidate their potential to become long lasting memory cells. Our results show that in vitro-generated Tc17 cells display a greater in vivo persistence and expansion in response to secondary antigen stimulation compared to Tc1 cells. When transferred into recipient mice, Tc17 cells persist in secondary lymphoid organs, present a recirculation behavior consistent with central memory T cells, and can shift to a Tc1 phenotype. Accordingly, Tc17 cells are endowed with a higher mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity than Tc1 cells and express higher levels of memory-related molecules than Tc1 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that in vitro-generated Tc17 cells acquire a central memory program and provide a lasting reservoir of Tc1 cells in vivo, thus supporting the use of Tc17 lymphocytes in the design of novel and more effective therapies.
Project description:The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to be required for optimal Thelper (Th) 17 cell activation. Th17 cells provide immunity against extracellular pathogens and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. Herein, the role of the AhR in cytokine production by Th17, and by the analogous population of T cytotoxic (Tc)17 cells, has been examined. Lymph node Tc (CD8(+)) and Th (CD4(+)) cells were isolated by negative selection from naive AhR(+/-) and AhR(-/-) mice and polarised to Tc1/Th1 or Tc17/Th17 phenotypes with appropriate cytokines. Cell differentiation was assessed as a function of mRNA and protein (ELISA and flow cytometry) expression for interferon (IFN)-? and for key Th17 cytokines. In AhR(+/-) mice, Th17 cells displayed an exclusive IL-17 profile, which was markedly inhibited by a selective AhR antagonist to levels observed in AhR knockout mice. Addition of the natural AhR agonist 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) markedly enhanced Th17 cell activity in the heterozygotes. In contrast, Tc17 cells polarised into 3 distinct subsets: producing either IL-17 or IFN-? alone, or both cytokines. Blocking AhR was also detrimental to Tc17 development, with reduced responses recorded in AhR(-/-) mice and antagonist-mediated reduction of IL-17 expression in the heterozygotes. However, Tc17 cells were largely refractory to exogenous FICZ, presumably because Tc17 cells express baseline AhR mRNA, but unlike Th17 cells, there is no marked up-regulation during polarisation. Thus, Th17 cell development is more dependent upon AhR activation than is Tc17 cell development, suggesting that endogenous AhR ligands play a much greater role in driving Th17 cell responses.
Project description:Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17) homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17 phenotype. Tc17 cells persisted durably for a year as functional IL-17A+ memory cells without converting to IFN?+ (Tc1) cells, although they produced multiple type I cytokines in the absence of residual vaccine antigen. Memory Tc17 cells were canonical CD8+ T cells with phenotypic features distinct from Tc1 cells, and were Ror(?)thi, TCF-1hi, T-betlo and EOMESlo. In investigating the bases of Tc17 persistence, we observed that memory Tc17 cells had much higher levels of basal homeostatic proliferation than did Tc1 cells. Conversely, memory Tc17 cells displayed lower levels of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL than Tc1 cells, yet were resistant to apoptosis. Tc1 cells required Bcl-2 for their survival, but Bcl-2 was dispensable for the maintenance of Tc17 cells. Tc17 and Tc1 cells displayed different requirements for HIF-1? during effector differentiation and sustenance and memory persistence. Thus, antifungal vaccination induces durable and stable memory Tc17 cells with distinct requirements for long-term persistence that distinguish them from memory Tc1 cells.
Project description:Background. CD8(+) T lymphocytes are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, systematic analyses of CD8(+) T cell (Cytotoxic T cells, Tc) subsets in COPD patients have yet to be well conducted. Methods. The whole Tc subsets, including Tc1/2/10/17, CD8(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8(+) ?7(+) T cells, were quantified by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 24 stable COPD subjects (SCOPD), 14 patients during acute exacerbations (AECOPD), and 14 healthy nonsmokers (HN). Results. Acute exacerbations of COPD were accompanied by elevated levels of circulating CD8(+) T cells. Tc1 cells were increased in both SCOPD and AECOPD patients, whereas the percentage of Tc2 cells was decreased in SCOPD patients but remained normal in AECOPD patients. Tc17 cells were increased only in AECOPD patients, and the percentage of Tc10 cells was reduced in both SCOPD and AECOPD patients. The imbalances of pro/anti-inflammatory Tc subsets observed in COPD may be caused by the lack of Tc10 cells and the impaired anti-inflammatory capacity of CD8(+) Tregs. Conclusions. The imbalances between subsets of CD8(+) peripheral blood T cells contribute to the immune response dysfunction in COPD pathogenesis.
Project description:Although IL-10 is known to be an important cytokine in the immune response to TB, very little is known about the role of IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in the host response to TB. To identify the role of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells producing IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in human TB, we enumerated the frequencies of IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following Mtb-specific antigen stimulation of cells from individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) and latent TB (LTB). We first demonstrated that Mtb-specific antigen induce an expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 in PTB and LTB individuals, with frequencies being significantly higher in PTB. Next, we demonstrated that IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 play an important role in the regulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing Th1/Tc1 and Th17/Tc17 cytokines in PTB but not LTB individuals. Thus, active PTB is characterized by an IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 mediated down modulation of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets. This suggests that the IL-20 subfamily of cytokines, similar to IL-10 might play a potentially crucial role in the modulation of T cell responses in active TB disease.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with the down modulation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection but the role of prediabetes (PDM) in this setting is not well understood. To examine the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokines in latent tuberculosis (LTB) with coincident PDM, we studied the baseline, mycobacterial, control antigen and mitogen-stimulated T cell cytokine responses in LTB individuals with (LTB-PDM; n = 20) or without (LTB-NDM; n = 20) concomitant prediabetes. LTB-PDM is characterized by diminished frequencies of mono-and dual-functional CD4+ Th1 and Th17 cells and mono-functional Th2 cells at baseline and/or following mycobacterial-antigen stimulation in comparison to LTB-NDM. LTB-PDM is also characterized by diminished frequencies of mono-functional CD8+ Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17 cells at baseline and/or following mycobacterial-antigen stimulation in comparison to LTB-NDM. LTB-PDM is therefore characterized by diminished frequencies of antigen-specific Th1/Tc1 and Th17/Tc17 cells, indicating that PDM is associated with alterations of the immune response in latent TB associated with compromised CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function.
Project description:Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-?, TNF-? and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-?+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients.
Project description:A better understanding of the distribution and functional capacity of CD4 T helper (Th) and CD8 T cytotoxic (Tc) cell subsets in the rectal mucosa (RM), a major site for HIV acquisition and replication, in adults is needed. In this study, we compared the distribution of Th and Tc cell subsets between blood and RM compartments in 62 HIV negative men, focusing primarily on IL-17-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells due to their importance in establishing and maintaining mucosal defenses, and examined associations between the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cell subsets and the availability of highly HIV-susceptible target cells in the RM. The RM exhibited a distinct immune cell composition comprised of higher frequencies of Th2, Th17, and Tc17 cells compared to the peripheral blood. The majority of Tc17 cells in RM were quadruple-cytokine producers (IL-17A+, IFN-γ+, TNF-α+, and IL4+), whereas most Th17 cells in blood and RM were single IL-17A producers or dual-cytokine producers (IL-17A+TNF-α+). In a separate cohort of 21 HIV positive men, we observed similar tissue distributions of Th and Tc cell subsets, although Tc17 cell frequencies in both blood and tissues were very low. Higher frequencies of multi-cytokine-producing Th17 and Tc17 cells in RM of HIV negative men positively correlated with increased mucosal HIV target cells, suggesting a need to further characterize the effector functions of these cells and their role in HIV acquisition and pathogenesis.
Project description:As the blockade of inhibitory surface-molecules such as CTLA-4 on T cells has led to recent advances in antitumor immune therapy, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms of action of CD8+ T cells to evoke effective cytotoxic antitumor responses. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the molecular pathways underlying the CTLA-4-mediated differentiation of IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17 cells) that strongly impairs cytotoxicity. Our studies demonstrate that Tc17 cells lacking CTLA-4 signaling have limited production of STAT3-target gene products such as IL-17, IL-21, IL-23R and ROR?t. Upon re-stimulation with IL-12, these cells display fast downregulation of Tc17 hallmarks and acquire Tc1 characteristics such as IFN? and TNF-? co-expression, which is known to correlate with tumor control. Indeed, upon adoptive transfer, these cells were highly efficient in the antigen-specific rejection of established OVA-expressing B16 melanoma in vivo. Mechanistically, in primary and re-stimulated Tc17 cells, STAT3 binding to the IL-17 promoter was strongly augmented by CTLA-4, associated with less binding of STAT5 and reduced relative activation of STAT1 which is known to block STAT3 activity. Inhibiting CTLA-4-induced STAT3 activity reverses enhancement of signature Tc17 gene products, rendering Tc17 cells susceptible to conversion to Tc1-like cells with enhanced cytotoxic potential. Thus, CTLA-4 critically shapes the characteristics of Tc17 cells by regulating relative STAT3 activation, which provides new perspectives to enhance cytotoxicity of antitumor responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CD8+ effector cells often have an antitumor function in patients with cancer. However, CD8+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tcregs) and interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17 cells) also derive from the CD8+ T cell lineage. Their role in the antitumor response remains largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the distribution, characterization, and generation of CD8+ Tcregs and Tc17 cells in NPC patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood and tumor biopsy tissues from 21 newly diagnosed patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were collected, along with peripheral blood from 21 healthy donors. The biological characteristics of Tcregs and Tc17 cells from blood and tumor tissues were examined by intracellular staining, tetramer staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The suppressive function of Tcregs was investigated using a proliferation assay that involved co-culture of sorted CD8+CD25+ T cells with naïve CD4+ T cells in vitro. RESULTS: We observed an increased prevalence of Tcregs and Tc17 cells among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and different distribution among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in NPC patients. Cytokine profiles showed that the Tcregs expressed a high level of IL-10 and low level of transforming growth factor ?, whereas Tc17 cells expressed a high level of tumor necrosis factor ?. Interestingly, both subsets expressed a high level of interferon ? in TILs, and the Tcregs suppressed naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation by a cell contact-dependent mechanism in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated the existence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 and LMP2 antigen-specific Tcregs in NPC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide new insights into the composition and function of CD8+ T-cell subsets in NPC, which may have an important influence on NPC immunotherapy.