A Comprehensive Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug-Gene Interaction Model of Metformin and Cimetidine in Healthy Adults and Renally Impaired Individuals.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Metformin is a widely prescribed antidiabetic BCS Class III drug (low permeability) that depends on active transport for its absorption and disposition. It is recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration as a clinical substrate of organic cation transporter 2/multidrug and toxin extrusion protein for drug-drug interaction studies. Cimetidine is a potent organic cation transporter 2/multidrug and toxin extrusion protein inhibitor. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to provide mechanistic whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of metformin and cimetidine, built and evaluated to describe the metformin-SLC22A2 808G>T drug-gene interaction, the cimetidine-metformin drug-drug interaction, and the impact of renal impairment on metformin exposure. METHODS:Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed in PK-Sim® (version 8.0). Thirty-nine clinical studies (dosing range 0.001-2550 mg), providing metformin plasma and urine data, positron emission tomography measurements of tissue concentrations, studies in organic cation transporter 2 polymorphic volunteers, drug-drug interaction studies with cimetidine, and data from patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease, were used to develop the metformin model. Twenty-seven clinical studies (dosing range 100-800 mg), reporting cimetidine plasma and urine concentrations, were used for the cimetidine model development. RESULTS:The established physiologically based pharmacokinetic models adequately describe the available clinical data, including the investigated drug-gene interaction, drug-drug interaction, and drug-drug-gene interaction studies, as well as the metformin exposure during renal impairment. All modeled drug-drug interaction area under the curve and maximum concentration ratios are within 1.5-fold of the observed ratios. The clinical data of renally impaired patients shows the expected increase in metformin exposure with declining kidney function, but also indicates counter-regulatory mechanisms in severe renal disease; these mechanisms were implemented into the model based on findings in preclinical species. CONCLUSIONS:Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of metformin and cimetidine were built and qualified for the prediction of metformin pharmacokinetics during drug-gene interaction, drug-drug interaction, and different stages of renal disease. The model files will be freely available in the Open Systems Pharmacology model repository. Current guidelines for metformin treatment of renally impaired patients should be reviewed to avoid overdosing in CKD3 and to allow metformin therapy of CKD4 patients.
Project description:Metformin is an important antidiabetic drug and often used as a probe for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) mediated by renal transporters. Despite evidence supporting the inhibition of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as the likely DDI mechanism, the previously reported physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model required the substantial lowering of the inhibition constant values of cimetidine for multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins from those obtained in vitro to capture the clinical DDI data between metformin and cimetidine.1 We constructed new PBPK models in which the transporter-mediated uptake of metformin is driven by a constant membrane potential. Our models successfully captured the clinical DDI data using in vitro inhibition constant values and supported the inhibition of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins by cimetidine as the DDI mechanism upon sensitivity analysis and data fitting. Our refined PBPK models may facilitate prediction approaches for DDI involving metformin using in vitro inhibition constant values.
Project description:Elevated serum creatinine (S<sub>Cr</sub> ) caused by the inhibition of renal transporter(s) may be misinterpreted as kidney injury. The interpretation is more complicated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to altered disposition of creatinine and renal transporter inhibitors. A clinical study was conducted in 17 patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> ); changes in S<sub>Cr</sub> were monitored during trimethoprim treatment (100-200 mg/day), administered to prevent recurrent urinary infection, relative to the baseline level. Additional S<sub>Cr</sub> -interaction data with trimethoprim, cimetidine, and famotidine in patients with CKD were collated from the literature. Our published physiologically-based creatinine model was extended to predict the effect of the CKD on S<sub>Cr</sub> and creatinine-drug interaction. The creatinine-CKD model incorporated age/sex-related differences in creatinine synthesis, CKD-related glomerular filtration deterioration; change in transporter activity either proportional or disproportional to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline were explored. Optimized models successfully recovered baseline S<sub>Cr</sub> from 64 patients with CKD (geometric mean fold-error of 1.1). Combined with pharmacokinetic models of inhibitors, the creatinine model was used to simulate transporter-mediated creatinine-drug interactions. Use of inhibitor unbound plasma concentrations resulted in 66% of simulated S<sub>Cr</sub> interaction data within the prediction limits, with cimetidine interaction significantly underestimated. Assuming that transporter activity deteriorates disproportional to GFR decline resulted in higher predicted sensitivity to transporter inhibition in patients with CKD relative to healthy patients, consistent with sparse clinical data. For the first time, this novel modelling approach enables quantitative prediction of S<sub>Cr</sub> in CKD and delineation of the effect of disease and renal transporter inhibition in this patient population.
Project description:Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic agent belonging to biguanide class, is widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, and several drug transporters such as organic cation transporters (OCTs), multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter (MATE), and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) are thought to affect its disposition. We evaluated the role of PMAT genetic variations on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of metformin in a Korean population. In this retrospective study, 91 healthy subjects from four different metformin pharmacokinetic studies were analyzed; in each study, the subjects were administered two oral doses of metformin at intervals of 12 hours and dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the subjects' genotypes. Subjects who had more than one allele of c.883-144A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PMAT gene (rs3889348) showed increased renal clearance of metformin compared to wild-type subjects (814.79 ± 391.73 vs. 619.90 ± 195.43 mL/min, p=0.003), whereas no differences in metformin exposure were observed between the PMAT variant subjects and wild-type subjects. Similarly, subjects with variant rs316019 SNP in OCT2 showed decreased renal clearance of metformin compared to wild-type subjects (586.01 ± 160.54 vs. 699.13 ± 291.40 mL/min, p=0.048). Other SNPs in PMAT and MATE1/2-K genes did not significantly affect metformin pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, the genetic variation of c.883-144A>G SNP in PMAT significantly affects the renal clearance of metformin in healthy Korean male subjects.
Project description:The kidney is a major drug-eliminating organ. Renal impairment or concomitant use of transporter inhibitors may decrease active secretion and increase exposure to a drug that is a substrate of kidney secretory transporters. However, prediction of the effects of patient factors on kidney transporters remains challenging because of the multiplicity of transporters and the lack of understanding of their abundance and specificity. The objective of this study was to use physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to evaluate the effects of patient factors on kidney transporters.Models for three renally cleared drugs (oseltamivir carboxylate, cidofovir and cefuroxime) were developed using a general PBPK platform, with the contributions of net basolateral uptake transport (T up,b) and apical efflux transport (T eff,a) being specifically defined.We demonstrated the practical use of PBPK models to: (1) define transporter-mediated renal secretion, using plasma and urine data; (2) inform a change in the system-dependent parameter (≥10-fold reduction in the functional 'proximal tubule cells per gram kidney') in severe renal impairment that is responsible for the decreased secretory transport activities of test drugs; (3) derive an in vivo, plasma unbound inhibition constant of T up,b by probenecid (≤1 μM), based on observed drug interaction data; and (4) suggest a plausible mechanism of probenecid preferentially inhibiting T up,b in order to alleviate cidofovir-induced nephrotoxicity.
Project description:Rosuvastatin is a frequently used probe in transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. This report describes the development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of rosuvastatin for prediction of pharmacokinetic (PK) DDIs. The rosuvastatin model predicted the observed single (i.v. and oral) and multiple dose PK profiles, as well as the impact of coadministration with transporter inhibitors. The predicted effects of rifampin and cyclosporine (6.58-fold and 5.07-fold increase in rosuvastatin area under the curve (AUC), respectively) were mediated primarily via inhibition of hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 (Inhibition constant (Ki ) ?1.1 and 0.014 µM, respectively) and OATP1B3 (Ki ?0.3 and 0.007 µM, respectively), with cyclosporine also inhibiting intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; Ki ?0.07 µM). The predicted effects of gemfibrozil and its metabolite were moderate (1.88-fold increase in rosuvastatin AUC) and mediated primarily via inhibition of hepatic OATP1B1 and renal organic cation transporter 3. This model of rosuvastatin will be useful in prospectively predicting transporter-mediated DDIs with novel pharmaceutical agents in development.
Project description:PURPOSE:Peficitinib is an oral pan-Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Co-administration of peficitinib with metformin, a type 2 diabetes therapy, can occur in clinical practice. Hepatic and renal uptake of metformin is mediated by organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) and OCT2, respectively, and its renal excretion by multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) and MATE2-K. This study investigated the effect of peficitinib on metformin pharmacokinetics in vitro and in healthy volunteers. METHODS:Inhibitory effects of peficitinib and its metabolite H2 on metformin uptake into human OCT1/2- and MATE1/2-K-expressing cells were assessed in vitro. In an open-label, drug-drug interaction study, 24 healthy volunteers received a single dose of metformin 750 mg on Days 1 and 10, and a single dose of peficitinib 150 mg on Days 3 and 5-11. Blood and urine samples were collected pre-dose on Days 1 and 10, and at intervals ??48 h post-dose. Metformin concentration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. RESULTS:Peficitinib, but not H2, inhibited metformin uptake into OCT1- and MATE1/2-K-expressing cells. Repeated-dose administration of peficitinib reduced metformin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf) by 17.4%, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) by 17.0%, and renal clearance (CLR) by 12.9%. Co-administration of peficitinib with metformin was generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION:Slight changes in AUCinf, Cmax and CLR of metformin were observed when co-administered with peficitinib; however, these changes were considered not clinically relevant.
Project description:A once-daily single-tablet antiretroviral regimen containing tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine (FTC), elvitegravir (EVG), and cobicistat (COBI) is an approved combination for the treatment of patients infected with HIV. COBI and TFV have been reported to interact with distinct transporters in renal proximal tubules; while TFV is renally eliminated by a combination of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion via anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, and MRP4, COBI inhibits renal cation transporters, particularly MATE1, resulting in a measurable decrease in the tubular secretion of creatinine. To investigate the potential for a renal drug-drug interaction between TFV and COBI in vitro, the uptake of TFV in the presence and absence of COBI was determined in fresh human renal cortex tissue and in cells expressing the relevant renal transporters. At concentrations exceeding clinical protein-unbound plasma levels, COBI did not significantly inhibit the transport of TFV by the anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, and MRP4 (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] of >15, 6.6, and 8.5 ?M, respectively). Conversely, TFV had little or no effect on the cation transporters OCT2 and MATE1 (IC50 > 100 ?M). Consistent with studies using individual transporters, no increase in the accumulation of TFV in freshly isolated human renal cortex tissue or renal proximal tubule cells (RPTECs) was observed in the presence of COBI. Finally, COBI alone or in combination with FTC and EVG did not affect the sensitivity to TFV of cultured primary RPTECs or cells coexpressing OAT1 and MRP4. These results illustrate that COBI and TFV interact primarily with distinct renal transporters and indicate a low potential for pharmacokinetic renal drug-drug interaction.
Project description:Predictive performance of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models of drugs predominantly eliminated through kidney in the pediatric population was evaluated. After optimization using adult clinical data, the verified PBPK models can predict 33 of 34 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children 1 month and older. More specifically, 10 of 11 of predicted clearance values were within 1.5-fold of those observed in children between 1 month and 2 years old. The PopPK approach also predicted 19 of 21 drug clearance within twofold of the observed values in children. In summary, our analysis demonstrated both PBPK and PopPK adult models, after verification with additional adult pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and incorporation of known ontogeny of renal filtration, could be applied for dosing regimen recommendation in children 1 month and older for renally eliminated drugs in a first-in-pediatric study.
Project description:The expression of the organic cation transport system of rat renal proximal tubules has been studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with poly(A)+ RNA from the rat renal cortex. The effectiveness of the technique was confirmed by examining expression of the Na+/D-glucose co-transporter. Compared with water-injected and non-injected oocytes, the injection of total poly(A)+ RNA resulted in about a 3-fold increase in tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake activity. TEA uptake by poly(A)(+)-RNA-injected oocytes was time-dependent and was inhibited by cimetidine and HgCl2, but not by p-aminohippurate. After size-fractionation on a sucrose density gradient, a 1.4-2.4 kb poly(A)+ RNA fragment was identified that expressed the organic cation transport system in oocytes. These results demonstrate that the renal organic cation transporter was expressed in oocytes and that this expression system can provide an effective assay procedure for cloning of the organic cation transporter.
Project description:Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are major causes of serious adverse drug reactions. Most DDIs have a pharmacokinetic basis in which one drug reduces the elimination of a second drug, leading to potentially toxic drug levels. As a major organ of drug elimination, the kidney represents an important site for DDIs. Here, we screened a prescription drug library against the renal organic cation transporter OCT2/SLC22A2, which mediates the first step in the renal secretion of many cationic drugs. Of the 910 compounds screened, 244 inhibited OCT2. Computational analyses revealed key properties of inhibitors versus noninhibitors, which included overall molecular charge. Four of six potential clinical inhibitors were transporter-selective in follow-up screens against additional transporters: OCT1/SLC22A1, MATE1/SLC47A1, and MATE2-K/SLC47A2. Two compounds showed different kinetics of interaction with the common polymorphism OCT2-A270S, suggesting a role of genetics in modulating renal DDIs.