Multilineage differentiation potential of hematoendothelial progenitors derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer a renewable source of cells for the generation of hematopoietic cells for cell-based therapy, disease modeling, and drug screening. However, current serum/feeder-free differentiation protocols rely on the use of various cytokines, which makes the process very costly or the generation of embryoid bodies (EBs), which are labor-intensive and can cause heterogeneity during differentiation. Here, we report a simple feeder and serum-free monolayer protocol for efficient generation of iPSC-derived multipotent hematoendothelial progenitors (HEPs), which can further differentiate into endothelial and hematopoietic cells including erythroid and T lineages. METHODS:Formation of HEPs from iPSCs was initiated by inhibition of GSK3 signaling for 2?days followed by the addition of VEGF and FGF2 for 3?days. The HEPs were further induced toward mature endothelial cells (ECs) in an angiogenic condition and toward T cells by co-culturing with OP9-DL1 feeder cells. Endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) of the HEPs was further promoted by supplementation with the TGF-? signaling inhibitor. Erythroid differentiation was performed by culturing the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in a three-stage erythroid liquid culture system. RESULTS:Our protocol significantly enhanced the number of KDR+ CD34+ CD31+ HEPs on day 5 of differentiation. Further culture of HEPs in angiogenic conditions promoted the formation of mature ECs, which expressed CD34, CD31, CD144, vWF, and ICAM-1, and could exhibit the formation of vascular-like network and acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL) uptake. In addition, the HEPs were differentiated into CD8+ T lymphocytes, which could be expanded up to 34-fold upon TCR stimulation. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling at the HEP stage promoted EHT and yielded a large number of HSPCs expressing CD34 and CD43. Upon erythroid differentiation, these HSPCs were expanded up to 40-fold and displayed morphological changes following stages of erythroid development. CONCLUSION:This protocol offers an efficient and simple approach for the generation of multipotent HEPs and could be adapted to generate desired blood cells in large numbers for applications in basic research including developmental study, disease modeling, and drug screening as well as in regenerative medicine.
Project description:Generation of fully functional hematopoietic multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has a great therapeutic potential to provide an unlimited cell source for treatment of hematological disorders. We previously demonstrated that CD34(+) CD31(+) CD144(+) population derived from hPSCs contain hemato-endothelial progenitors (HEPs) that give rise to hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Here, we report a differentiation system to generate definitive hematopoietic MPP cells from HEPs via endothelial monolayer. In the presence of angiogenic factors, HEPs formed an endothelial monolayer, from which hematopoietic clusters emerged through the process of endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). EHT was significantly enhanced by hematopoietic growth factors. The definitive MPP cells generated from endothelial monolayer were capable of forming multilineage hematopoietic colonies, giving rise to T lymphoid cells, and differentiating into enucleated erythrocytes. Emergence of hematopoietic cells from endothelial monolayer occurred transiently. Hematopoietic potential was lost during prolonged culture of HEPs in endothelial growth conditions. Our study demonstrated that CD34(+) CD31(+) CD144(+) HEPs gave rise to hematopoietic MPP cells via hemogenic endothelial cells that exist transiently. The established differentiation system provides a platform for future investigation of regulatory factors involved in de novo generation of hematopoietic MPP cells and their applications in transplantation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ex vivo production of hematopoietic stem/precursor cells (HSPCs) represents a promising versatile approach for blood disorders.<h4>Methods</h4>To derive definitive HSPCs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we differentiated mesodermally specified embryoid bodies (EBs) on gelatin-coated plates in serum/feeder-free conditions.<h4>Results</h4>Seven-day EB maturation followed by an 8-day differentiation period on OP9 cells provided the highest number of definitive (CD34+ CD235a-, 69%, p?<?0.01) and lowest number of primitive (CD34- CD235a+, 1.55%, p?<?0.01) precursor cells along with the highest colony-forming units (149.8?±?11.6, p?<?0.01) in feeder-free conditions. Maximal HSPC fraction (CD34+ CD38- CD45RA- CD49f+ CD90+) was 7.6-8.9% after 10?days of hematopoietic differentiation with 14.5% adult ?-globin expression following RBC differentiation. Myeloid and erythroid colonies were restricted strictly to the CD34+ CD43+ fraction (370.5?±?65.7, p?<?0.001), while the CD34- CD43+ fraction produced only a small number of colonies (21.6?±?11.9). In addition, we differentiated the CD34+ CD43+ cells towards T-lymphocytes using the OP9/DLL1 co-culture system demonstrating double-positive T cells (CD4+ CD8+) with CD3+ expression displaying a broad T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Confocal imaging of organoid-like structures revealed a close association of CD31+ cells with CD34+ and CD43+ cells, suggesting a potential emergence of HSPCs through endothelial to hematopoietic transition. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled organoids exhibited the emergence of spherical non-attached cells from rare progenitors at the border of the organoid center.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In summary, definitive HSPCs can be derived from ESCs through a dynamic cellular process from an organoid-like structure, where erythroid progeny are capable of producing adult hemoglobin and lymphoid progeny shows a diverse TCR repertoire.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) stand to revolutionize the way we study human development, model disease, and eventually, treat patients. However, these cell sources produce progeny that retain embryonic and/or fetal characteristics. The failure to mature to definitive, adult-type cells is a major barrier for iPSC-based disease modeling and drug discovery. To directly address these concerns, we have developed a chemically defined, serum and feeder-free-directed differentiation platform to generate hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (HSPCs) and resultant adult-type progeny from iPSCs. This system allows for strict control of signaling pathways over time through growth factor and/or small molecule modulation. Through direct comparison with our previously described protocol for the production of primitive wave hematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that induced HSPCs are enhanced for erythroid and myeloid colony forming potential, and strikingly, resultant erythroid-lineage cells display enhanced expression of adult ? globin indicating definitive pathway patterning. Using this system, we demonstrate the stage-specific roles of two key signaling pathways, Notch and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), in the derivation of definitive hematopoietic cells. We illustrate the stage-specific necessity of Notch signaling in the emergence of hematopoietic progenitors and downstream definitive, adult-type erythroblasts. We also show that genetic or small molecule inhibition of the AHR results in the increased production of CD34+ CD45+ HSPCs while conversely, activation of the same receptor results in a block of hematopoietic cell emergence. Results presented here should have broad implications for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and future clinical translation of iPSC-derived blood cells. Stem Cells 2018;36:1004-1019.
Project description:Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) have been recently exploited as a feeder layer in coculture systems to expand umbilical cord blood-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (UCB-HSPCs). Here, we investigated the role of WJ-MSCs in supporting ex vivo UCB-HSPC expansion either when cultured in direct contact (DC) with WJ-MSCs or separated by a transwell system or in the presence of WJ-MSC-conditioned medium. We found, in short-term culture, a greater degree of expansion of UCB-CD34+ cells in a DC system (15.7 ± 4.1-fold increase) with respect to the other conditions. Moreover, in DC, we evidenced two different CD34+ cell populations (one floating and one adherent to WJ-MSCs) with different phenotypic and functional characteristics. Both multipotent CD34+/CD38- and lineage-committed CD34+/CD38+ hematopoietic progenitors were expanded in a DC system. The former were significantly more represented in the adherent cell fraction than in the floating one (18.7 ± 11.2% vs. 9.7 ± 7.9% over the total CD34+ cells). Short-term colony forming unit (CFU) assays showed that HSPCs adherent to the stromal layer were able to generate a higher frequency of immature colonies (CFU-granulocyte/macrophage and burst-forming unit erythroid/large colonies) with respect to the floating cells. In the attempt to identify molecules that may play a role in supporting the observed ex vivo HSPC growth, we performed secretome analyses. We found a number of proteins involved in the HSPC homing, self-renewal, and differentiation in all tested conditions. It is important to note that a set of sixteen proteins, which are only in part reported to be expressed in any hematopoietic niche, were exclusively found in the DC system secretome. In conclusion, WJ-MSCs allowed a significant ex vivo expansion of multipotent as well as committed HSPCs. This may be relevant for future clinical applications.
Project description:Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent an ideal source for in vitro modeling of erythropoiesis and a potential alternative source for red blood cell transfusions. However, iPS cell-derived erythroid cells predominantly produce ?- and ?-globin without ?-globin production. We recently demonstrated that ES cell-derived sacs (ES sacs), known to express hemangioblast markers, allow for efficient erythroid cell generation with ?-globin production. In this study, we generated several iPS cell lines derived from bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and peripheral blood erythroid progenitors (EPs) from sickle cell disease patients, and evaluated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) generation after iPS sac induction as well as subsequent erythroid differentiation. MSC-derived iPS sacs yielded greater amounts of immature hematopoietic progenitors (VEGFR2?+?GPA-), definitive HSPCs (CD34?+?CD45+), and megakaryoerythroid progenitors (GPA?+?CD41a+), as compared to EP-derived iPS sacs. Erythroid differentiation from MSC-derived iPS sacs resulted in greater amounts of erythroid cells (GPA+) and higher ?-globin (and ?S-globin) expression, comparable to ES sac-derived cells. These data demonstrate that human MSC-derived iPS sacs allow for more efficient erythroid cell generation with higher ?-globin production, likely due to heightened emergence of immature progenitors. Our findings should be important for iPS cell-derived erythroid cell generation. Stem Cells 2017;35:586-596.
Project description:Myeloid malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia, are characterized by abnormal proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Reports on analysis of bone marrow samples from patients have revealed a high incidence of mutations in splicing factors in early stem and progenitor cell clones, but the mechanisms underlying transformation of HSPCs harboring these mutations remain unknown. Using ex vivo cultures of primary human CD34+ cells as a model, we find that mutations in splicing factors SRSF2 and U2AF1 exert distinct effects on proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs. SRSF2 mutations cause a dramatic inhibition of proliferation via a G2-M phase arrest and induction of apoptosis. U2AF1 mutations, conversely, do not significantly affect proliferation. Mutations in both SRSF2 and U2AF1 cause abnormal differentiation by skewing granulo-monocytic differentiation toward monocytes but elicit diverse effects on megakaryo-erythroid differentiation. The SRSF2 mutations skew differentiation toward megakaryocytes whereas U2AF1 mutations cause an increase in the erythroid cell populations. These distinct functional consequences indicate that SRSF2 and U2AF1 mutations have cell context-specific effects and that the generation of myeloid disease phenotype by mutations in the genes coding these two proteins likely involves different intracellular mechanisms. Stem Cells 2018;36:1663-1675.
Project description:Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibit erythropoiesis and cause anemia in patients with cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. TNFα is also a potent activator of the sphingomyelinase (SMase)/ceramide pathway leading to ceramide synthesis and regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and autophagy. Here we evaluated the implication of the TNFα/SMase/ceramide pathway on inhibition of erythropoiesis in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (CD34/HSPCs) from healthy donors. Exogenous synthetic C2- and C6-ceramide as well as bacterial SMase inhibited erythroid differentiation in erythropoietin-induced (Epo)CD34/HSPCs shown by the analysis of various erythroid markers. The neutral SMase inhibitor GW4869 as well as the genetic inhibition of nSMase with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3) prevented the inhibition by TNFα, but not the acid SMase inhibitor desipramine. Moreover, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a ceramide metabolite, restored erythroid differentiation, whereas TNFα inhibited sphingosine kinase-1, required for S1P synthesis. Analysis of cell morphology and colony formation demonstrated that erythropoiesis impairment was concomitant with a granulomonocytic differentiation in TNFα- and ceramide-treated EpoCD34/HSPCs. Inhibition of erythropoiesis and induction of granulomonocytic differentiation were correlated to modulation of hematopoietic transcription factors (TFs) GATA-1, GATA-2, and PU.1. Moreover, the expression of microRNAs (miR)-144/451, miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 was also modulated by TNFα and ceramide treatments, in line with cellular observations. Autophagy plays an essential role during erythropoiesis and our results demonstrate that the TNFα/neutral SMase/ceramide pathway inhibits autophagy in EpoCD34/HSPCs. TNFα- and ceramide-induced phosphorylation of mTORS2448 and ULK1S758, inhibited Atg13S355 phosphorylation, and blocked autophagosome formation as shown by transmission electron microscopy and GFP-LC3 punctae formation. Moreover, rapamycin prevented the inhibitory effect of TNFα and ceramides on erythropoiesis while inhibiting induction of myelopoiesis. In contrast, bafilomycin A1, but not siRNA against Atg5, induced myeloid differentiation, while both impaired erythropoiesis. We demonstrate here that the TNFα/neutral SMase/ceramide pathway inhibits erythropoiesis to induce myelopoiesis via modulation of a hematopoietic TF/miR network and inhibition of late steps of autophagy. Altogether, our results reveal an essential role of autophagy in erythroid vs. myeloid differentiation.
Project description:Studies of human erythropoiesis have relied, for the most part, on the in vitro differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) from different sources. Here, we report that despite the common core erythroid program that exists between cord blood (CB)- and peripheral blood (PB)-HSPC induced toward erythroid differentiation in vitro, significant functional differences exist. We undertook a comparative analysis of human erythropoiesis using these two different sources of HSPC. Upon in vitro erythroid differentiation, CB-derived cells proliferated 4-fold more than PB-derived cells. However, CB-derived cells exhibited a delayed kinetics of differentiation, resulting in an increased number of progenitors, notably colony-forming unit (CFU-E). The phenotypes of early erythroid differentiation stages also differed between the two sources with a significantly higher percentage of IL3R- GPA- CD34+ CD36+ cells generated from PB- than CB-HSPCs. This subset was found to generate both burst-forming unit (BFU-E) and CFU-E colonies in colony-forming assays. To further understand the differences between CB- and PB-HSPC, cells at eight stages of erythroid differentiation were sorted from each of the two sources and their transcriptional profiles were compared. We document differences at the CD34, BFU-E, poly- and orthochromatic stages. Genes exhibiting the most significant differences in expression between HSPC sources clustered into cell cycle- and autophagy-related pathways. Altogether, our studies provide a qualitative and quantitative comparative analysis of human erythropoiesis, highlighting the impact of the developmental origin of HSPCs on erythroid differentiation.
Project description:In vertebrates, embryonic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are derived from a subset of endothelial cells, the hemogenic endothelium (HE), through the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). Notch signaling is essential for HSPC development during embryogenesis across vertebrates. However, whether and how it regulates EHT remains unclear. Here, we show that G protein-coupled receptor 183 (Gpr183) signaling serves as an indispensable switch for HSPC emergence by repressing Notch signaling before the onset of EHT. Inhibition of Gpr183 significantly upregulates Notch signaling and abolishes HSPC emergence. Upon activation by its ligand 7?-25-OHC, Gpr183 recruits ?-arrestin1 and the E3 ligase Nedd4 to degrade Notch1 in specified HE cells and then facilitates the subsequent EHT. Importantly, 7?-25-OHC stimulation promotes HSPC emergence in vivo and in vitro, providing an attractive strategy for enhancing the in vitro generation of functional HSPCs.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that generate mature blood lineages throughout life. They, together with hematopoietic progenitor cells (collectively known as HSPCs), emerge from hemogenic endothelium in the floor of the embryonic dorsal aorta by an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is required for HSPC specification and that it regulates the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1a in endothelial cells prior to EHT, in a striking parallel with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The requirement for TGF? is two fold and sequential: autocrine via Tgf?1a and Tgf?1b produced in the endothelial cells themselves, followed by a paracrine input of Tgf?3 from the notochord, suggesting that the former programs the hemogenic endothelium and the latter drives EHT. Our findings have important implications for the generation of HSPCs from pluripotent cells in vitro.