EGFP-EGF1-conjugated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles as a carrier for the delivery of CCR2- shRNA to atherosclerotic macrophage in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Reducing macrophage recruitment by silencing chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) expression is a promising therapeutic approach against atherosclerosis. However the transfection of macrophages with siRNA is often technically challenging. EGFP-EGF1-conjugated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (ENPs) have a specific affinity to tissue factor (TF). In this study, the feasibility of ENPs as a carrier for target delivery of CCR2-shRNA to atherosclerotic cellular models of macrophages was investigated. Coumarin-6 loaded ENPs were synthesized using a double-emulsion method. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay were taken to examine the uptake of Coumarin-6 loaded ENPs in the cellular model. Then a sequence of shRNA specific to CCR2 mRNA was constructed and encapsulated into ENPs. Target delivery of CCR2-shRNA to atherosclerotic cellular models of macrophages in vitro were evaluated. Results showed more uptake of ENPs by the cellular model than common PLGA nanoparticles. CCR2-shRNA loaded ENPs effectively silenced CCR2 gene in the atherosclerotic macrophages and exhibited a favorable cytotoxic profile to cultured cells. With their low cytotoxicity and efficient drug delivery, ENP could be a useful carrier for target delivery of CCR2-shRNA to inflammatory monocytes/macrophages for the therapy against atherosclerosis.
Project description:With high morbidity and death rates, liver cancer has become one of the most common cancers in the world. But, most chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs have high toxicity as well as low specificity. To improve the treatment modalities and enhance the therapeutic effect of liver cancer, a brand new liver-targeting nanoparticle (NP), Ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (5 F)-loaded cholic acid (CA)-functionalized star-shaped poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lactobionic acid (LA) (5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA), was developed. The particle size, zeta potential, size distribution, surface morphology, drug loading content, drug encapsulation efficiency and drug release of 5 F-loaded NPs were characterized. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry showed that the prepared NPs could be internalized by HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the cellular uptake efficiency of coumarin 6-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs was much better in compare with that of CA-PLGA-PEG and CA-PLGA NPs. Moreover, LA-conjugated NPs (CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs) enhanced fluorescence of HepG2 cells via ligand-mediated endocytosis. The antitumor effects of 5 F-loaded NPs were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that targeted 5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs were significantly superior to free 5 F and 5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG NPs. All the results indicated the 5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs can be employed as a novel potentially targeting drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy.
Project description:Injured endothelium is an important target for drug and/or gene therapy because brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) play critical roles in various pathophysiological conditions. RNA-mediated gene silencing presents a new therapeutic approach for treating such diseases, but major challenge is to ensure minimal toxicity and target delivery of siRNA to injured BMECs. Injured BMECs overexpress tissue factor (TF), which the fusion protein EGFP-EGF1 could be targeted to. In this study, TNF alpha (TNF-α) was chosen as a stimulus for primary BMECs to produce injured endothelium in vitro. The EGFP-EGF1-PLGA nanoparticles (ENPs) with loaded TF-siRNA were used as a new carrier for targeted delivery to the injured BMECs. The nanoparticles then produced intracellular RNA interference against TF. We compared ENP-based transfections with NP-mediated transfections, and our studies show that the ENP-based transfections result in a more efficient downregulation of TF. Our findings also show that the TF siRNA-loaded ENPs had minimal toxicity, with almost 96% of the cells viable 24 h after transfection while Lipofectamine-based transfections resulted in only 75% of the cells. Therefore, ENP-based transfection could be used for efficient siRNA transfection to injured BMECs and for efficient RNA interference (RNAi). This transfection could serve as a potential treatment for diseases, such as stroke, atherosclerosis and cancer.
Project description:Polymeric nanoparticle-based carriers are promising agents to deliver drugs to cells. <i>Vitis</i> <i>vinifera</i> phenolic compounds are known for their antifungal activity against <i>Candida albicans</i>. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifungal activity of pterostilbene or crude extracts from non-fermented grape pomace, entrapped in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (NPs), with diameters of 50 and 150 nm, on <i>Candida</i> biofilm. The fluorescent probe coumarin 6 was used to study the uptake of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) NPs in planktonic cells and biofilm. The green fluorescent signal of coumarin 6 was observed in <i>Candida</i> biofilm after 24 and 48 hours. Both pterostilbene and crude pomace extract entrapped in NPs exerted a significantly higher anti-biofilm activity compared to their free forms. The entrapment efficiency of both pterostilbene and crude pomace extract in PLGA NPs was ~90%. At 16 µg/mL, pterostilbene loaded in PLGA NPs reduced biofilm formation of 63% and reduced mature biofilm of 50%. Moreover, at 50 µg/mL, the pomace extract loaded in NPs reduced mature biofilm of 37%. These results strongly suggest that PLGA NPs are promising nanodevices for the delivery of antifungal drugs as the crude grape pomace extract, a by-product of white wine making.
Project description:Cancer diagnosis and treatment represent an urgent medical need given the rising cancer incidence over the past few decades. Cancer theranostics, namely, the combination of diagnostics and therapeutics within a single agent, are being developed using various anticancer drug-, siRNA-, or inorganic materials-loaded nanocarriers. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy of encapsulating quantum dots, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocrystals, and doxorubicin (DOX) into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymeric nanocomposites using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method, followed by coupling to the amine group of polyethyleneimine premodified with polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PEI-PEG-FA [PPF]) segments and adsorption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted small hairpin RNA (shRNA). VEGF is important for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. These drug-loaded luminescent/magnetic PLGA-based hybrid nanocomposites (LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA) were fabricated for tumor-specific targeting, drug/gene delivery, and cancer imaging. The data showed that LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites can codeliver DOX and VEGF shRNA into tumor cells and effectively suppress VEGF expression, exhibiting remarkable synergistic antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. The cell viability wa?14% when treated with LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites ([DOX] =25 ?g/mL), and in vivo tumor growth data showed that the tumor volume decreased by 81% compared with the saline group at 21 days postinjection. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging data revealed that the luminescent/magnetic hybrid nanocomposites may also be used as an efficient nanoprobe for enhanced T2-weighted magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo. The present work validates the great potential of the developed multifunctional LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites as effective theranostic agents through the codelivery of drugs/genes and dual-modality imaging in cancer treatment.
Project description:To study the effects of X-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers on delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the reduction-sensitive property on drug release, a novel reduction-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 with a Gemini-like X-shape, was successfully synthesized. The formation of nanomicelles was proved with respect to the blue shift of the emission fluorescence as well as the fluorescent intensity increase of coumarin 6-loaded particles. The X-shaped polymers exhibited a smaller critical micelle concentration value and possessed higher micellar stability in comparison with those of linear ones. The size of X-shaped (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 polymer nanomicelles (XNMs) was much smaller than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. The reduction sensitivity of polymers was confirmed by the increase of micellar sizes as well as the in vitro drug release profile of DTX-loaded XNMs (DTX/XNMs). Cytotoxicity assays in vitro revealed that the blank XNMs were nontoxic against A2780 cells up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL, displaying good biocompatibility. DTX/XNMs were more toxic against A2780 cells than other formulations in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Cellular uptake assay displayed a higher intracellular drug delivery efficiency of XNMs than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. Besides, the promotion of tubulin polymerization induced by DTX was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis, and the acceleration of apoptotic process against A2780 cells was also imaged using a fluorescent staining method. Therefore, this X-shaped reduction-sensitive (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 copolymer could effectively improve the micellar stability and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX by increasing the cellular uptake and selectively accelerating the drug release inside cancer cells.
Project description:Increasing evidence has highlighted the pivotal role that intimal macrophage (iM?) plays in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaques, which represents an attractive target for atherosclerosis treatment. In this work, to address the insufficient specificity of conventional reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) for iM? and its limited cholesterol efflux ability, we designed a hyaluronan (HA)-anchored core-shell rHDL. This nanoparticle achieved efficient iM?-targeted drug delivery via a multistage-targeting approach, and excellent cellular cholesterol removal. It contained a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core within a lipid bilayer, and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) absorbing on the lipid bilayer was covalently decorated with HA. The covalent HA coating with superior stability and greater shielding was favorable for not only minimizing the liver uptake but also facilitating the accumulation of nanoparticles at leaky endothelium overexpressing CD44 receptors in atherosclerotic plaques. The ultimate iM? homing was achieved via apoA-I after HA coating degraded by hyaluronidase (HAase) (abundant in atherosclerotic plaque). The multistage-targeting mechanism was revealed on the established injured endothelium-macrophage co-culture dynamic system. Upon treatment with HAase in vitro, the nanoparticle HA-(C)-PLGA-rHDL exhibited a greater cholesterol efflux capacity compared with conventional rHDL (2.43-fold). Better targeting efficiency toward iM? and attenuated liver accumulation were further proved by results from ex vivo imaging and iM?-specific fluorescence localization. Ultimately, HA-(C)-PLGA-rHDL loaded with simvastatin realized the most potent anti-atherogenic efficacies in model animals over other preparations. Thus, the HAase-responsive HDL-mimetic nanoparticle was shown in this study to be a promising nanocarrier for anti-atherogenic therapy, in the light of efficient iM?-targeted drug delivery and excellent function of mediating cellular cholesterol efflux.
Project description:Cell-mediated drug delivery system (CDDS) has shown great potential for cancer therapy. However, a single cell-mediated drug delivery mechanism has not generally been successful, particularly for systemic administration. To augment the antitumor therapy efficacy, herein, we propose a strategy of cell relay-delivery for the use of artificially damaging/aging erythrocytes to hitchhike on circulating monocytes/macrophages for intratumoral accumulation of anticancer drugs. This biomimetic relay-delivery strategy was derived from the manner in which circulating monocytes/macrophages in body specifically engulf damaged/senescent erythrocytes and actively transmigrate into the tumor bulk. The strategy elegantly combines the natural functions of both cells, which therefore provides a new perspective to challenge current obstacles in drug delivery. According to the strategy, we developed biotinylated erythrocyte-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle hybrid DDSs (bE-NPs) using avidin-biotin coupling. In such a system, biotinylated erythrocytes can mimic the natural property of damaged/senescent erythrocytes, while PLGA NPs are capable of encapsulating anticancer drugs and promoting sustained drug release. Anticancer drugs can effectively target tumor sites by two steps. First, by using biotinylated erythrocytes as the carrier, the drug-loaded PLGA NPs could be specifically phagocytized by monocytes/macrophages. Second, by taking advantage of the tumor-tropic property of monocytes/macrophages, the drug-loaded PLGA NPs could be efficiently transported into the tumor bulk. After encapsulating vincristine (VIN) as the model drug, bE-NPs exhibited the most favorable antitumor effects <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> by the cell relay-delivery effect. These results demonstrate that the cell relay-delivery provides a potential method for improving tumor treatment efficacy.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of targeted and nontargeted doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(d,l-lactide co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems in drug-resistant ovarian (SKOV-3) and uterine (MES-SA/Dx5) cancer cell lines. The cellular uptakes of DOX from nonconjugated DOX-loaded NPs (DNPs) and from HER-2 antibody-conjugated DOX-loaded NPs (ADNPs) in MES-SA/Dx5 cancer cells were higher compared to free DOX. Results also showed higher uptake of DOX from ADNPs in SKOV-3 cells compared with both free DOX and DNPs treatment. Cytotoxicity results at 10 ?M extracellular DOX concentration were consistent with the cellular uptake results. Our study concludes that cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX can be improved in MES-SA/Dx5 cells by loading DOX into PLGA NPs. DNPs targeted to membrane receptors may enhance cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in SKOV-3 cells.The authors of this study compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of targeted and nontargeted doxorubicin loaded PLGA nanoparticle delivery systems in drug-resistant ovarian and uterine cancer cell lines, concluding that cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin can be improved by the proposed methods.
Project description:In this study, curcumin-loaded porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and surface modified with red blood cell membranes (RBCM) to yield biomimetic RBCM-p-PLGA@Cur NPs. The NPs displayed a visible cell-membrane structure at their exterior and had a uniform size of 162 ± 3 nm. In vitro studies showed that drug release from non-porous PLGA NPs was slow and that much of the drug remained trapped in the NPs. In contrast, release was accelerated from the porous PLGA NPs, and after the RBCM coating, a sustained release over 48 h was obtained. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results revealed that the RBCM-p-PLGA NPs led to a greater cellular uptake by H22 hepatocarcinoma cells than the uncoated analogue NPs, but could avoid phagocytosis by macrophages. The drug-free formulations were highly biocompatible, while the drug-loaded systems were effective in killing cancer cells. RBCM-p-PLGA@Cur NPs possess potent anti-tumor activity in a murine H22 xenograft cancer model (in terms of reduced tumor volume and mass, as well as inducing apoptosis of tumor cells), and have no observable systemic toxicity. Overall, our study demonstrates that the use of the RBCM to cloak nanoscale drug delivery systems holds great promise for targeted cancer treatment, and can ameliorate the severe side effects currently associated with chemotherapy.
Project description:In general, atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation. Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis, but it was not considered for long-term administration on account of a poor pharmacokinetic profile and adverse side effects. Nanoparticles in which drugs can be dissolved, encapsulated, entrapped or chemically attached to the particle surface have abilities to incorporate dexamethasone and to be used as controlled or targeted drug delivery system. Long circulatory polymeric nanoparticles present as an assisting approach for controlled and targeted release of the encapsulated drug at the atherosclerotic site. Polymeric nanoparticles combined with ultrasound (US) are widely applied in cancer treatment due to their time applications, low cost, simplicity, and safety. However, there are few studies on atherosclerosis treatment using polymeric nanoparticles combined with US. In this study, targeted dexamethasone acetate (DA)-loaded poly (lactide-glycolide)-polyethylene glycol-cRGD (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) nanoparticles (DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs) were prepared by the emulsion-evaporation method using cRGD modified PLGA-PEG polymeric materials (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) prepared as the carrier. The average particle size of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs was 221.6 ± 0.9 nm. Morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical and uniformly dispersed. In addition, the DA released profiles suggested that ultrasound could promote drug release from the nanocarriers and accelerate the rate of release. In vitro, the cellular uptake process of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)@DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US into the damaged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) indicated that US promoted rapid intracellular uptake of FITC@DA- PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs. The cell viability of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US reached 91.9% ± 0.2%, which demonstrated that DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US had a positive therapeutic effect on damaged HUVECs. Overall, DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs in combination with US may provide a promising drug delivery system to enhance the therapeutic effects of these chemotherapeutics at the cellular level.