Comparative effects of intensive ganglionated plexus ablation in treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and vasovagal syncope.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Ganglionated plexus (GP) ablation is used to treat atrial fibrillation (AF) and vasovagal syncope (VVS). However, the comparative effects of GP ablation in treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and VVS have not been well studied. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive GP ablation on PAF and VVS. METHODS:PAF and VVS patients were enrolled in this study. Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was performed in the PAF group, and additional ablation was performed at GP sites. Anatomic ablation of left atrial GPs was performed in the VVS group. The primary endpoint was freedom from AF or other sustained atrial tachycardia and syncope recurrence. RESULTS:A total of 195 patients were enrolled: 146 patients with PAF, including eight patients with combined VVS (PAF group), and 49 patients with VVS (VVS group). Vasovagal response (VR) was achieved in 78 (53.4%) patients in the PAF group and 48 patients (98.0%) in the VVS group (P?
Project description:Non-pharmacological therapies, especially the physical maneuvers, are viewed as important and promising strategies for reducing syncope recurrences in vasovagal syncope (VVS) patients. We observed the efficacy of a modified Valsalva maneuver (MVM) in VVS patients. 72 VVS patients with syncope history and positive head-up tilt table testing (HUTT) results were randomly divided into conventional treatment group (NVM group, n = 36) and conventional treatment plus standard MVM for 30 days group (MVM group, n = 36). Incidence of recurrent syncope after 12 months (6.5% vs. 41.2%, P<0.01) and rate of positive HUTT after 30 days (9.7% vs.79.4%, P<0.01) were significantly lower in MVM group than in NVM group. HRV results showed that low frequency (LF), LF/ high frequency (HF), standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and standard deviation of all 5-min average NN intervals (SDANN) values were significantly lower in the NVM and MVM groups than in the control group at baseline. After 30 days treatment, LF, LF/HF, SDNN, SDANN values were significantly higher compared to baseline in MVM group. Results of Cox proportional hazard model showed that higher SDNN and SDANN values at 30 days after intervention were protective factors, while positive HUTT at 30 days after intervention was risk factor for recurrent syncope. Our results indicate that 30 days MVM intervention could effectively reduce the incidence of recurrent syncope up to 12 months in VVS patients, possibly through improving sympathetic function of VVS patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is common in children and significantly affects their quality of life. To our knowledge, this the first case report of SCN5A gene mutation associated with VVS and third-degree atrioventricular block (atrioventricular block, AVB), which could help pediatricians aware that VVS is not always a benign condition and help to identify VVS children at the risk of sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION:A twelve-year-old male child was admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital of Capital Medical University for chest tightness for 9?days and syncope in July 2018. The child was diagnosed as VVS with third-degree AVB after complete investagations. A heterozygous mutation in the exon coding region of the SCN5A gene, C. 5851G?>?T (coding region 5551 nucleotide changed from G to T), was detected in the peripheral blood of the child. Electrophysiological examination and modified vagal ganglion radiofrequency ablation were performed in the child. The ECG playback was normal on the second day after operation. Holter showed no abnormality and no chest tightness or syncope occurred after 3?months and 1 year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Our case report firstly reported that SCN5A mutation contributed to the pathogenesis of VVS with third-degree AVB. Vagal ganglion modified ablation have obtained good therapeutic effect. Gene analysis was of great value to the accurate diagnosis and treatment of VVS children.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Increased adrenergic tone might be an additional trigger of orthostatic stress of vasovagal syncope (VVS). Exercise before standing might provide increased sensitivity compared to standing using a sublingual nitroglycerines protocol during tilt table testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of treadmill testing before standing with nitroglycerin administration.<h4>Methods and results</h4>A total of 36 patients with syncope or presyncope were enrolled for the test. VVS was confirmed in 29 patients according to the Calgary Score (? -2), including 20 patients who were likely to have typical (classical) VVS. All 36 subjects were subjected to a novel provocation test consisting of treadmill test using the Bruce protocol followed by standing with administration of 300 ?g sublingual nitroglycerin. Consequently, syncope or presyncope occurred in 22 patients of the 36 patients. The sensitivity and a specificity of the test for Calgary score based VVS was 82.7% and 85.75%, respectively. Reproducibility rate for typical VVS was 90% (18 of 20). In all symptomatic patients, systolic blood pressure dropped to < 90 mmHg and symptom occurred a mean of 6.7 ± 2.3 minutes after the nitroglycerine administration. No patient required anticholinergics injection to restore vital signs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Treadmill test with administration of sublingual nitroglycerines might be safely used to reproduce syncope in patients with VVS. More clinical experience and confirmation are needed to validate this protocol.
Project description:Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a chronic debilitating condition seen mostly in young women of reproductive age. There are anecdotal reports of increased syncope and presyncope around menstruation. This case-control study assessed the effects of the menstrual cycle on lightheadedness episodes and compared the gynecological and pregnancy history of VVS patients to healthy subjects.A custom-designed gynecological and menstrual cycle questionnaire was previously developed for patients with orthostatic intolerance. This questionnaire was administered to female patients with VVS (n = 128) as a part of the multicenter Second Prevention of Syncope Trial, and to gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 92).VVS patients and healthy subjects reported significant variability in self-reported lightheadedness throughout the menstrual cycle. Both cohorts experienced greatest lightheadedness during menses (53 ± 2 vs. 56 ± 4), which decreased during the follicular phase (44 ± 2 vs. 41 ± 4). VVS patients reported less severity in premenstrual symptoms (Fisher's method P = 2.7E-06) compared to healthy controls. There is no difference in the incidence of gynecological abnormalities (Fisher's exact P = 0.193) and pregnancy complications (P = 1.0) between the two cohorts. VVS patients have similar pregnancy rates compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.674).The severity of lightheadedness varies during the menstrual cycle and is similar in both VVS patients and healthy controls. VVS patients have no greater risk of gynecological abnormalities and pregnancy complications than healthy subjects.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Numerous hormones, neurotransmitters, and other stimuli exert their biological effect on cellular functioning through heptahelical receptors coupled to G proteins (GPCR - G protein-coupled receptors). Adrenergic receptors that belong to this superfamily of receptors are components of the sympathetic nervous system. They play a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation and myocardial contractility. Alterations of the adrenergic receptor pathway have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of vasovagal syncope (VVS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of Arg389Gly polymorphism within the ADRB1 gene among patients with recurrent syncope. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Arg389Gly single nucleotide polymorphism was analyzed in 205 patients with recurrent syncope. Ninety-five patients (46%) had a positive head-up tilt test (HUT) result. The control group comprised 143 non-fainting subjects. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with BstNI enzyme. RESULTS:Both analyzed groups had similar distribution of the 389Gly allele. Sixty percent of polymorphic 389Gly carriers belong to the group of syncopal patients, while 40% belong to the control group of healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS:An association between syncopal incidence and Arg389Gly polymorphism within the ADRB1 gene was not found. The analyzed polymorphism affecting sympathetic activity does not influence vasovagal syncope in Polish patients.
Project description:To describe the combination of tilt-induced vasovagal syncope (VVS) and psychogenic pseudosyncope (PPS) and aid its clinical recognition.We identified people with tilt-induced VVS/PPS from 2 tertiary syncope referral centers. For each case, 3 controls with tilt-induced VVS were selected at random from the same center. Clinical characteristics were compared between both groups adjusting for multiple comparisons.Of 1,164 tilt-table tests, 23 (2%) resulted in VVS/PPS; these 23 cases were compared with 69 VVS controls. VVS and PPS coincided more often than chance would predict: 2% vs 0.6%, p < 0.001. Typical VVS prodromes and triggers were reported in all people with VVS/PPS and in controls with VVS. Attack frequency was significantly higher in the VVS/PPS (2 per month, range 0.1-60) than in the VVS group (0.25 per month, range 0.02-4; p < 0.001). Delayed recovery of consciousness was more frequently reported in the VVS/PPS group (likelihood ratio [+LR] 8.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.94-16.84), as well as episodes without prodromes (+LR 5.57, 95% CI 2.53-12.26), atypical triggers (+LR 5.00, 95% CI 2.04-12.24), eye closure (+LR 3.75, 95% CI 1.68-8.35), and apparent loss of consciousness >1 minute (+LR 2.86, 95% CI 1.98-4.13).VVS/PPS presents with a complex phenotype. High attack frequency, delayed recovery of consciousness, apparent loss of consciousness >1 minute, ictal eye closure, atypical triggers, and the absence of prodromes may serve as indicators that PPS coincides with VVS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vasovagal syncope (VVS) patients have a reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There are limited data comparing HRQoL and psychological profile in VVS patients and healthy individuals. We tested the hypothesis that VVS patients have greater impairment in both HRQoL and psychological profile compared to healthy nonfainting individuals, and that both outcome measures are negatively correlated for VVS patients. METHODS:The RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND36), global health visual analogue scale (VAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form were completed by healthy individuals and at baseline by VVS patients enrolled in the Second Prevention of Syncope Trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fludrocortisone for VVS. RESULTS:Data were available on 76 VVS patients (34 ± 14 years; 68% F) and 85 healthy participants (35 ± 11 years; 80% F). Compared to healthy participants, VVS patients reported poorer HRQoL on all scales of the RAND36 and the VAS. VVS patients had significantly greater anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity (each P < 0.001). VVS patients had more negative affect (P < 0.001) and less positive affect (P = 0.003) compared to healthy participants. Anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity were negatively correlated with HRQoL for VVS patients, but not for healthy participants. CONCLUSION:In this first direct comparison, VVS patients have a significantly reduced HRQoL and more anxiety and depression compared to healthy nonfainting individuals. For VVS patients, there is a relationship between psychological distress and HRQoL, suggesting a potential benefit from more comprehensive assessment and treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:The induction and recurrence of syncope is a concerning situation that could be unpredicted in the vasovagal syncope (VVS). We investigated a simple predictor for the induced and recurrent VVS during Head-Up table-tilt Test (HUT) and clinically follow-up. METHODS:The 143 consecutive patients with VVS (age 31 ± 19 years, 33 male) who referred by a cardiologist or neurologist and had undergone an echocardiogram, HUT, and a treadmill exercise test (TMT) were recruited and clinically follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups based on the result of HUT and TMT. The data was analyzed and compared between VVS patients and control 141 patients without VVS who were enrolled in the same study period (age 40 ± 5 years, 117 male). RESULTS:The heart rate recovery (HRR), recovery systolic blood pressure (RecSBP), recovery diastolic blood pressure (RecDBP), HRR/RecSBP and HRR/RecDBP were significantly different between controls and VVS during the TMT. Within VVS, even if, baseline characteristics were similar between negative and positive HUT (n = 92 vs. n = 51). HRR (31 ± 10 vs. 35 ± 10), HRR/RecSBP (0.24 ± 0.09 vs. 0.28 ± 0.09) and HRR/RecDBP (0.49 ± 0.18 vs. 0.58 ± 0.19) were significantly different between negative and positive HUT results. Especially, HRR/RecSBP and HRR/RecDBP were significantly correlated with induced syncope with a sensitivity and specificity ([60%, 83%] cut-off, 0.31; [72%, 80%] cut-off, 0.63). In the Cox regression, HRR/ RecDBP were significantly associated with recurrence of VVS with hazard ratio of 3.29 (confidence interval, 0.95 to 11.3; p = 0.049). CONCLUSION:HRR/RecDBP may be a useful predictor for induction during HUT and recurrence during follow-up in the VVS.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) is associated with decreased quality-of-life and frequent use of emergency services. The evidence base for causality, diagnostic procedures and potential VVS treatments is poor. Scattered observations in the literature suggest a link between respiratory disturbances during sleep and VVS. Empirical observations lead us to further hypothesise that the appropriate management of sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) may help resolve comorbid recurrent VVS in certain patients. We therefore designed this pilot study to provide a framework for the observation of changes in outcomes accompanying the deployment of SAS treatments in patients with VVS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a multicentre, registry-based study whose primary objective is to evaluate the effect of SAS management on the number of syncope/presyncope episodes in a population suffering from both VVS and SAS. To this effect, syncope rates prior to the treatment of SAS will be compared with those occurring after the initiation of the latter. In addition, yearly assessments will collect data for echocardiography, polysomnography, Holter monitoring, table tilt tests, multiple sleep latency tests, SAS management parameters and questionnaires describing fatigue, depression and quality-of-life. Sixty patients will be included with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. The primary analysis will use comparisons of centrality for paired data to describe the changes in syncope rates before versus after the initiation of SAS management. Longitudinal data will be analysed using mixed models with patients set as a random effect. Subgroup analyses will be performed for SAS-treatment adherence and efficacy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The VVS-SAS registry was approved by an ethics committee (Comité pour la Protection des Personnes Ile-de-France VI, Reference number CPP/2-18) in accordance with French law. The princeps publication will present before-after SAS management results and longitudinal analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT04294524. Pre-results.
Project description:Vasovagal Syncope (VVS) can lead to a markedly diminished quality of life for some patients. While there are many treatments for this condition including physical, mechanical, pharmacologic, and device-based control of heart rate, there are few that have been shown to be effective in randomized clinical trials. In our local experience, we have achieved significant improvement in symptom frequency and quality of life using algorithms based on the data available and on clinical acumen for the majority of patients with VVS. Despite this, there are still many patients who suffer from treatment refractory VVS. Fortunately, there are a number of ongoing clinical trials that are likely to add to our knowledge. Ongoing clinical trials are reviewed to examine new treatment methods for VVS that were listed on public trial registries as of April 15, 2014. Data from these trials should inform future strategies in the care of patients with VVS.