Multivariate Design of 3D Printed Immediate-Release Tablets with Liquid Crystal-Forming Drug-Itraconazole.
ABSTRACT: The simplicity of object shape and composition modification make additive manufacturing a great option for customized dosage form production. To achieve this goal, the correlation between structural and functional attributes of the printed objects needs to be analyzed. So far, it has not been deeply investigated in 3D printing-related papers. The aim of our study was to modify the functionalities of printed tablets containing liquid crystal-forming drug itraconazole by introducing polyvinylpyrrolidone-based polymers into the filament-forming matrices composed predominantly of poly(vinyl alcohol). The effect of the molecular reorganization of the drug and improved tablets' disintegration was analyzed in terms of itraconazole dissolution. Micro-computed tomography was applied to analyze how the design of a printed object (in this case, a degree of an infill) affects its reproducibility during printing. It was also used to analyze the structure of the printed dosage forms. The results indicated that the improved disintegration obtained due to the use of Kollidon®CL-M was more beneficial for the dissolution of itraconazole than the molecular rearrangement and liquid crystal phase transitions. The lower infill density favored faster dissolution of the drug from printed tablets. However, it negatively affected the reproducibility of the 3D printed object.
Project description:The aim of the present work was to produce 3D-printed oral dosage forms with a sufficient drug dose displaying various release profiles. Hot-melt extrusion was utilized to produce drug-loaded feedstock material that was subsequently 3D-printed into 6, 8, and 10?×?2.5 mm tablets with 15% and 90% infill levels. The prepared formulations contained 30% (w/w) isoniazid in combination with one or multiple pharmaceutical polymers possessing suitable properties for oral drug delivery. Thirteen formulations were successfully hot-melt extruded of which eight had properties suitable for fused deposition modeling 3D printing. Formulations containing HPC were found to be superior regarding printability in this study. Filaments with a breaking distance below 1.5 mm were observed to be too brittle to be fed into the printer. In addition, filaments with high moisture uptake at high relative humidity generally failed to be printable. Different release profiles for the 3D-printed tablets were obtained as a result of using different polymers in the printed formulations. For 8 mm tablets printed with 90% infill, 80% isoniazid release was observed between 40 and 852 min. Drug release characteristics could further be altered by changing the infill or the size of the printed tablets allowing personalization of the tablets. This study presents novel formulations containing isoniazid for prevention of latent tuberculosis and investigates 3D printing technology for personalized production of oral solid dosage forms enabling adjustable dose and drug release properties.
Project description:This research demonstrates the use of fill density as an effective tool for controlling the drug release without changing the formulation composition. The merger of hot-melt extrusion (HME) with fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based 3-dimensional (3-D) printing processes over the last decade has directed pharmaceutical research towards the possibility of printing personalized medication. One key aspect of printing patient-specific dosage forms is controlling the release dynamics based on the patient's needs. The purpose of this research was to understand the impact of fill density and interrelate it with the release of a poorly water-soluble, weakly acidic, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) matrix, both mathematically and experimentally. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of ibuprofen with three grades of AquaSolveTM HPMC-AS (HG, MG, and LG) were developed using an HME process and evaluated using solid-state characterization techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and polarized light microscopy (PLM) confirmed the amorphous state of the drug in both polymeric filaments and 3D printed tablets. The suitability of the manufactured filaments for FDM processes was investigated using texture analysis (TA) which showed robust mechanical properties of the developed filament compositions. Using FDM, tablets with different fill densities (20-80%) and identical dimensions were printed for each polymer. In vitro pH shift dissolution studies revealed that the fill density has a significant impact (F(11, 24) = 15,271.147, p < 0.0001) and a strong negative correlation (r > -0.99; p < 0.0001) with the release performance, where 20% infill demonstrated the fastest and most complete release, whereas 80% infill depicted a more controlled release. The results obtained from this research can be used to develop a robust formulation strategy to control the drug release from 3D printed dosage forms as a function of fill density.
Project description:The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing to prepare intragastric floating sustained release (FSR) tablets. Domperidone (DOM), an insoluble weak base, was chosen as a model drug to investigate the potential of FSR in increasing its oral bioavailability and reducing its administration frequency. DOM was successfully loaded into hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) filaments using hot melt extrusion (HME). The filaments were then printed into hollow structured tablets through changing the shell numbers and the infill percentages. Physical characterization results indicated that the majority of DOM gradually turned into the amorphous form during the fabrication process. The optimized formulation (contain 10% DOM, with 2 shells and 0% infill) exhibited the sustained release characteristic and was able to float for about 10?h in vitro. Radiographic images showed that the BaSO4-labeled tablets were retained in the stomach of rabbits for more than 8?h. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies showed the relative bioavailability of the FSR tablets compared with reference commercial tablets was 222.49?±?62.85%. All the results showed that FDM based 3D printing might be a promising way to fabricate hollow tablets for the purpose of intragastric floating drug delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fused deposition modeling 3D printing is used in medicine for diverse purposes such as creating patient-specific anatomical models and surgical instruments. For use in the sterile surgical field, it is necessary to understand the mechanical behavior of these prints across 3D printing materials and after autoclaving. It has been previously understood that steam sterilization weakens polylactic acid, however, annealing heat treatment of polylactic acid increases its crystallinity and mechanical strength. We aim to identify an optimal and commercially available 3D printing process that minimizes distortion after annealing and autoclaving and to quantify mechanical strength after these interventions. METHODS:Thirty millimeters cubes with four different infill geometries were 3D printed and subjected to hot water-bath annealing then immediate autoclaving. Seven commercially available 3D printing materials were tested to understand their mechanical behavior after intervention. The dimensions in the X, Y, and Z axes were measured before and after annealing, and again after subsequent autoclaving. Standard and strength-optimized Army-Navy retractor designs were printed using the 3D printing material and infill geometry that deformed the least. These retractors were subjected to annealing and autoclaving interventions and tested for differences in mechanical strength. RESULTS:For both the annealing and subsequent autoclaving intervention, the material and infill geometry that deformed the least, respectively, was Essentium PLA Gray and "grid". Standard retractors without intervention failed at 95?N +/-?2.4?N. Annealed retractors failed at 127.3?N +/-?10?N. Autoclave only retractors failed at 15.7?N +/-?1.4?N. Annealed then autoclaved retractors failed at 19.8?N +/-?3.1?N. Strength-optimized retractors, after the annealing then autoclaving intervention, failed at 164.8?N +/-?12.5?N. CONCLUSION:For 30?mm cubes, the 3D printing material and infill geometry that deformed the least, respectively, was Essentium PLA and "grid". Hot water-bath annealing results in increased 3D printed model strength, however autoclaving 3D prints markedly diminishes strength. Strength-optimized 3D printed PLA Army-Navy retractors overcome the strength limitation due to autoclaving.
Project description:Among the 3D-printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) represents a promising route to enable direct incorporation of the battery within the final 3D object. Here, the preparation and characterization of lithium iron phosphate/polylactic acid (LFP/PLA) and SiO2/PLA 3D-printable filaments, specifically conceived respectively as positive electrode and separator in a lithium-ion battery is reported. By means of plasticizer addition, the active material loading within the positive electrode is raised as high as possible (up to 52 wt.%) while still providing enough flexibility to the filament to be printed. A thorough analysis is performed to determine the thermal, electrical and electrochemical effect of carbon black as conductive additive in the positive electrode and the electrolyte uptake impact of ceramic additives in the separator. Considering both optimized filaments composition and using our previously reported graphite/PLA filament for the negative electrode, assembled and "printed in one-shot" complete LFP/Graphite battery cells are 3D-printed and characterized. Taking advantage of the new design capabilities conferred by 3D-printing, separator patterns and infill density are discussed with a view to enhance the liquid electrolyte impregnation and avoid short-circuits.
Project description:The disintegrant potential of native starches of five new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) varieties developed by the Crops Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) was studied in paracetamol tablet formulations. The yield of the starches ranged from 8.0 to 26.7%. The starches were basic (pH: 8.1-9.9), with satisfactory moisture content (≤15%), swelling capacity (≥20%), ash values (<1%), flow properties, and negligible toxic metal ion content, and compatible with the drug. The tensile strength (Ts ), crushing strength (Cs ), and friability (Ft ) of tablets containing 5-10% w/w of the cassava starches were similar (p > 0.05) to those containing maize starch BP. The disintegration times of the tablets decreased with increase in concentration of the cassava starches. The tablets passed the disintegration test (DT ≤ 15 min) and exhibited faster disintegration times (p > 0.05) than those containing maize starch BP. The disintegration efficiency ratio (DER) and the disintegration parameter DER c of the tablets showed that cassava starches V20, V40, and V50 had better disintegrant activity than maize starch BP. The tablets passed the dissolution test for immediate release tablets (≥70% release in 45 min) with dissolution rates similar to those containing maize starch BP.
Project description:Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies.Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator.Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vitro for formulation composition, manufacturing method, disintegration and dissolution characteristics, and formulation differences in comparison with freeze dried Zydis(®) ODT. Automated dissolution test equipment captured ODT dissolution rates by measuring real-time release of active ingredient. A high-speed video camera was used to capture tablet disintegration times in warm simulated saliva.The main outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations.The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration.Differences in the formulation and manufacturing process of olanzapine ODTs appear to have a strong influence on the disintegration time of the active compound; differences that may potentially impact their use in clinical practice.
Project description:Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the geometric shape on the dissolution rate of the domperidone, a drug model for immediate release dosage form. In this regard, a lack of sufficient information about the effective dissolution rate of the drugs regarding their shapes has made this issue an interesting subject for researchers. Methods: For this purpose, three tablet shapes, namely flat and biconvex both in a round and oblong shapes, with different four sizes were modelled for the preparation of domperidone tablet. In vitro dissolution test was accomplished using a USP dissolution apparatus II. The drug dissolution rate was assessed by calculating various dissolution parameters; e.g., dissolution efficiency (DE), mean dissolution rate (MDR), mean dissolution time (MDT), and difference and similarity factors (f1 and f2 ). Results: Regarding the disintegration time, the larger tablets showed a faster disintegration time. When the size of the tablets was smaller, the amount of released drug was significantly decreased. In addition, #9 tablets with a flat or biconvex geometry had obvious effects on the DE values. Generally, biconvex tablets had higher DE percentage than the flat tablets. Conclusion: Noticeable differences in dissolution parameters by considering the different geometric shapes play an important role in the drug release kinetics which makes a significant effect on quick onset of action in oral administration.
Project description:Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) improve the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. ASDs of olanzapine (OLZ), which have a high melting point and low solubility, are performed using a complicated process. Three-dimensional (3D) printing based on hot-melt pneumatic extrusion (HMPE) is a simplified method for producing ASDs. Unlike general 3D printing, printlet extrusion is possible without the preparation of drug-loaded filaments. By heating powder blends, direct fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing through a nozzle is possible, and this step produces ASDs of drugs. In this study, we developed orodispersible films (ODFs) loaded with OLZ as a poorly water-soluble drug. Various ratios of film-forming polymers and plasticizers were investigated to enhance the printability and optimize the printing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the surface morphology of the film for the optimization of the polymer carrier ratios. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate thermal properties. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the physical form of the drug during printing. The 3D printed ODF formulations successfully loaded ASDs of OLZ using HMPE. Our ODFs showed fast disintegration patterns within 22 s, and rapidly dissolved and reached up to 88% dissolution within 5 min in the dissolution test. ODFs fabricated using HMPE in a single process of 3D printing increased the dissolution rates of the poorly water-soluble drug, which could be a suitable formulation for fast drug absorption. Moreover, this new technology showed prompt fabrication feasibility of various formulations and ASD formation of poorly water-soluble drugs as a single process. The immediate dissolution within a few minutes of ODFs with OLZ, an atypical antipsychotic, is preferred for drug compliance and administration convenience.
Project description:Development and comparison of spine-shaped phantoms generated by two different 3D-printing technologies, digital light processing (DLP) and Polyjet has been purposed to utilize in patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of stereotactic body radiation treatment. The developed 3D-printed spine QA phantom consisted of an acrylic body phantom and a 3D-printed spine shaped object. DLP and Polyjet 3D printers using a high-density acrylic polymer were employed to produce spine-shaped phantoms based on CT images. Image fusion was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of our phantom, and the Hounsfield units (HUs) were measured based on each CT image. Two different intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans based on both CT phantom image sets from the two printed spine-shaped phantoms with acrylic body phantoms were designed to deliver 16 Gy dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and were compared for target coverage and normal organ-sparing. Image fusion demonstrated good reproducibility of the developed phantom. The HU values of the DLP- and Polyjet-printed spine vertebrae differed by 54.3 on average. The PTV Dmax dose for the DLP-generated phantom was about 1.488 Gy higher than that for the Polyjet-generated phantom. The organs at risk received a lower dose for the 3D printed spine-shaped phantom image using the DLP technique than for the phantom image using the Polyjet technique. Despite using the same material for printing the spine-shaped phantom, these phantoms generated by different 3D printing techniques, DLP and Polyjet, showed different HU values and these differently appearing HU values according to the printing technique could be an extra consideration for developing the 3D printed spine-shaped phantom depending on the patient's age and the density of the spinal bone. Therefore, the 3D printing technique and materials should be carefully chosen by taking into account the condition of the patient in order to accurately produce 3D printed patient-specific QA phantom.