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The Roles of Host 5-Methylcytosine RNA Methyltransferases during Viral Infections.


ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic 5-methylcytosine RNA methyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to the fifth carbon of a cytosine base in RNA sequences to produce 5-methylcytosine (m5C). m5C RNA methyltransferases play a crucial role in the maintenance of functionality and stability of RNA. Viruses have developed a number of strategies to suppress host innate immunity and ensure efficient transcription and translation for the replication of new virions. One such viral strategy is to use host m5C RNA methyltransferases to modify viral RNA and thus to affect antiviral host responses. Here, we summarize the latest findings concerning the roles of m5C RNA methyltransferases, namely, NOL1/NOP2/SUN domain (NSUN) proteins and DNA methyltransferase 2/tRNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT2/TRDMT1) during viral infections. Moreover, the use of m5C RNA methyltransferase inhibitors as an antiviral therapy is discussed.

SUBMITTER: Wnuk M 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7663479 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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