Agreement of Gait Events Detection during Treadmill Backward Walking by Kinematic Data and Inertial Motion Units.
ABSTRACT: Backward walking (BW) is being increasingly used in neurologic and orthopedic rehabilitation as well as in sports to promote balance control as it provides a unique challenge to the sensorimotor control system. The identification of initial foot contact (IC) and terminal foot contact (TC) events is crucial for gait analysis. Data of optical motion capture (OMC) kinematics and inertial motion units (IMUs) are commonly used to detect gait events during forward walking (FW). However, the agreement between such methods during BW has not been investigated. In this study, the OMC kinematics and inertial data of 10 healthy young adults were recorded during BW and FW on a treadmill at different speeds. Gait events were measured using both kinematics and inertial data and then evaluated for agreement. Excellent reliability (Interclass Correlation > 0.9) was achieved for the identification of both IC and TC. The absolute differences between methods during BW were 18.5 ± 18.3 and 20.4 ± 15.2 ms for IC and TC, respectively, compared to 9.1 ± 9.6 and 10.0 ± 14.9 for IC and TC, respectively, during FW. The high levels of agreement between methods indicate that both may be used for some applications of BW gait analysis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based motion capture systems are gaining popularity for gait analysis outside laboratories. It is important to determine the performance of such systems in specific patient populations. We aimed to validate and determine within-day reliability of an IMU system for measuring lower limb gait kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters (TSP) in people with and without HIV.<h4>Methods</h4>Gait was recorded in eight adults with HIV (PLHIV) and eight HIV-seronegative participants (SNP), using IMUs and optical motion capture (OMC) simultaneously. Participants performed six gait trials. Fifteen TSP and 28 kinematic angles were extracted. Intraclass correlations (ICC), root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess concurrent validity of the IMU system (relative to OMC) separately in PLHIV and SNP. IMU reliability was assessed during within-session retest of trials. ICCs were used to assess relative reliability. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and percentage SEM were used to assess absolute reliability.<h4>Results</h4>Between-system TSP differences demonstrated acceptable-to-excellent ICCs (0.71-0.99), except for double support time and temporophasic parameters (<?0.60). All TSP demonstrated good mean absolute percentage errors (?7.40%). For kinematics, ICCs were acceptable to excellent (0.75-1.00) for all but three range of motion (ROM) and four discrete angles. RMSE and bias were 0.0°-4.7° for all but two ROM and 10 discrete angles. In both groups, TSP reliability was acceptable to excellent for relative (ICC 0.75-0.99) (except for one temporal and two temporophasic parameters) and absolute (%SEM 1.58-15.23) values. Reliability trends of IMU-measured kinematics were similar between groups and demonstrated acceptable-to-excellent relative reliability (ICC 0.76-0.99) and clinically acceptable absolute reliability (SEM 0.7°-4.4°) for all but two and three discrete angles, respectively. Both systems demonstrated similar magnitude and directional trends for differences when comparing the gait of PLHIV with that of SNP.<h4>Conclusions</h4>IMU-based gait analysis is valid and reliable when applied in PLHIV; demonstrating a sufficiently low precision error to be used for clinical interpretation (<?5° for most kinematics; <?20% for TSP). IMU-based gait analysis is sensitive to subtle gait deviations that may occur in PLHIV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Community ambulation requires the ability to adapt walking patterns to task demands. For example, complex walking tasks, such as obstacle crossing (OBS) and backwards walking (BW), require modification of gait kinematics to complete the task, maintain stability and prevent falling. More women than men fall each year, but few studies have investigated gender differences in performance of adaptive walking tasks. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine gender differences in two common adaptive tasks. METHODS:Walking performance was assessed from 54 age and gender matched participants (72?±?5?yrs.) while they completed forward walking (FW), OBS and BW. Gait outcomes and the distance of the lead foot and the trail foot from the obstacle were normalized by leg length and assessed using multivariate analysis of variance. Additionally, performance in a battery of clinical physical and cognitive measures as well as self-reported activity levels were associated with adaptive gait behavior. RESULTS:Gait speed and step width were not different between genders in any walking task. Compared to FW and OBS, women only decreased step length in BW, resulting in significantly shorter step lengths than men in OBS (p?=?0.02) and BW (p?=?0.04), a conservative walking strategy. Women crossed the obstacle in a manner that may limit recovery steps in case of a trip: stepping closer to the obstacle during approach without increasing trail toe-clearance. The Timed Up and Go mobility test, Short Physical Performance Battery, and Trail Making Test of processing speed and executive function were associated with gender differences in adaptive gait patterns. CONCLUSION:The findings revealed that older adult women adapt walking in a way that might predispose them to tripping or falling (i.e. shorter steps and closer obstacle approach). Gender differences in adaptive walking are related to functional test performance and processing speed. Clinicians should consider targeting step length during adaptive walking tasks in women that may be at risk of mobility impairments.
Project description:Inertial measurement unit systems are wearable sensors that can measure the movement of a human in real-time with relatively little space and high portability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for gait analysis by comparing it with measurements obtained using an optical motion capture (OMC) system. To compare the accuracies of these two different motion capture systems, the Spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters were measured in young adults during normal walking. Thirty healthy participants participated in the study. Data were collected while walking 5 strides on a 7 m walkway at a self-selected speed. Results of gait analysis showed that the Spatio-temporal (stride time, stride length, cadence, step length) and kinematic (knee joint peak to peak of movement) parameters were not significantly different in the participant. Spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters of the two systems were compared using the Bland-Altman method. The results obtained showed that the measurements of Spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters of gait by the two systems were similar, which suggested that IMU and OMC systems could be used interchangeably for gait measurements. Therefore, gait analysis performed using the wearable IMU system might efficiently provide gait measurements and enable accurate analysis.
Project description:3D joint kinematics can provide important information about the quality of movements. Optical motion capture systems (OMC) are considered the gold standard in motion analysis. However, in recent years, inertial measurement units (IMU) have become a promising alternative. The aim of this study was to validate IMU-based 3D joint kinematics of the lower extremities during different movements. Twenty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. They performed bilateral squats (SQ), single-leg squats (SLS) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). The IMU kinematics was calculated using a recently-described sensor-fusion algorithm. A marker based OMC system served as a reference. Only the technical error based on algorithm performance was considered, incorporating OMC data for the calibration, initialization, and a biomechanical model. To evaluate the validity of IMU-based 3D joint kinematics, root mean squared error (RMSE), range of motion error (ROME), Bland-Altman (BA) analysis as well as the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated. The evaluation was twofold. First, the IMU data was compared to OMC data based on marker clusters; and, second based on skin markers attached to anatomical landmarks. The first evaluation revealed means for RMSE and ROME for all joints and tasks below 3°. The more dynamic task, CMJ, revealed error measures approximately 1° higher than the remaining tasks. Mean CMC values ranged from 0.77 to 1 over all joint angles and all tasks. The second evaluation showed an increase in the RMSE of 2.28°- 2.58° on average for all joints and tasks. Hip flexion revealed the highest average RMSE in all tasks (4.87°- 8.27°). The present study revealed a valid IMU-based approach for the measurement of 3D joint kinematics in functional movements of varying demands. The high validity of the results encourages further development and the extension of the present approach into clinical settings.
Project description:Background:Normative foot kinematic and kinetic data with different walking speeds will benefit rehabilitation programs and improving gait performance. The purpose of this study was to analyze foot kinematics and kinetics differences between slow walking (SW), normal walking (NW) and fast walking (FW) of healthy subjects. Methods:A total of 10 healthy male subjects participated in this study; they were asked to carry out walks at a self-selected speed. After measuring and averaging the results of NW, the subjects were asked to perform a 25% slower and 25% faster walk, respectively. Temporal-spatial parameters, kinematics of the tibia (TB), hindfoot (HF), forefoot (FF) and hallux (HX), and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded while the subjects walked at averaged speeds of 1.01 m/s (SW), 1.34 m/s (NW), and 1.68 m/s (FW). Results:Hindfoot relative to tibia (HF/TB) and forefoot relative to hindfoot (FF/HF) dorsiflexion (DF) increased in FW, while hallux relative to forefoot (HX/FF) DF decreased. Increased peak eversion (EV) and peak external rotation (ER) in HF/TB were observed in FW with decreased peak supination (SP) in FF/HF. GRFs were increased significantly with walking speed. The peak values of the knee and ankle moments in the sagittal and frontal planes significantly increased during FW compared with SW and NW. Discussion:Limited HF/TB and FF/HF motion of SW was likely compensated for increased HX/FF DF. Although small angle variation in HF/TB EV and FF/HF SP during FW may have profound effects for foot kinetics. Higher HF/TB ER contributed to the FF push-off the ground while the center of mass (COM) progresses forward in FW, therefore accompanied by higher FF/HF abduction in FW. Increased peak vertical GRF in FW may affected by decreased stance duration time, the biomechanical mechanism maybe the change in vertical COM height and increase leg stiffness. Walking speed changes accompanied with modulated sagittal plane ankle moments to alter the braking GRF during loading response. The findings of foot kinematics, GRFs, and lower limb joint moments among healthy males may set a reference to distinguish abnormal and pathological gait patterns.
Project description:Aim:The present study was performed to assess the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene with birth weight (BW), final weight (FW), and average daily gain (ADG) in three Egyptian sheep breeds. Materials and Methods:Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of 50 male and female individuals representing Ossimi, Rahmani, and Barki sheep breeds. A 407 bp nucleotide (nt) segment from the first intron of FABP4 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed in the different samples. Results:Sequence analysis of the determined segment (407 bp) revealed four SNPs (all transition types) at nt position 372 (CP011894.1:g.57605471) A>G, nt position 211 (CP011894.1:g.57605632) A>G, nt position 143 (CP011894.1:g.57605700) T>C, and nt position 111 (CP011894.1:g.57605732) T>C. The allelic and genotypic frequencies for the identified SNPs in the sheep breeds were calculated. At nt positions 372 and 211, two alleles were identified (A and G). Only two genotypes were present at nt position 372 (AA and AG), while three genotypes were present at nt position 211 (AA, AG, and GG). Two alleles (T and C) and three identified genotypes (TT, TC, and CC) were detected at nt positions 143 and 111. Analysis of the results revealed that AA genotype at nt position 372 is associated with higher estimates for BW, FW, and ADG when compared to all the other genotypes. Very high correlation coefficients were found between the genotypes 143-TT and 111-TT and also between 143-TC and 111-TC. The genotypes 372-AG, 211-GG, 211-AA, 143-TT, 143-CC, 111-TT, 111-TC, and 111-CC were associated with negative effects on BW, FW, and ADG. Conclusion:The detection of four SNPs in a partial sequence of the Egyptian ovine FABP4 gene intron 1 reflected that this gene harbors substantial diversity. In addition, a novel SNP at nt position 372 (CP011894.1:g.57605471) A>G was associated with higher estimates for BW, FW, and ADG.
Project description:Accurately assessing the dynamic kinematics of the skeletal wrist could advance our understanding of the normal and pathological wrist. Biplane videoradiography (BVR) has allowed investigators to study dynamic activities in the knee, hip, and shoulder joint; however, currently, BVR has not been utilized for the wrist joint because of the challenges associated with imaging multiple overlapping bones. Therefore, our aim was to develop a BVR procedure and to quantify its accuracy for evaluation of wrist kinematics. BVR was performed on six cadaveric forearms for one neutral static and six dynamic tasks, including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, circumduction, pronation, supination, and hammering. Optical motion capture (OMC) served as the gold standard for assessing accuracy. We propose a feedforward tracking methodology, which uses a combined model of metacarpals (second and third) for initialization of the third metacarpal (MC3). BVR-calculated kinematic parameters were found to be consistent with the OMC-calculated parameters, and the BVR/OMC agreement had submillimeter and sub-degree biases in tracking individual bones as well as the overall joint's rotation and translation. All dynamic tasks (except pronation task) showed a limit of agreement within 1.5° for overall rotation, and within 1.3?mm for overall translations. Pronation task had a 2.1° and 1.4?mm limit of agreement for rotation and translation measurement. The poorest precision was achieved in calculating the pronation-supination angle, and radial-ulnar and volar-dorsal translational components, although they were sub-degree and submillimeter. The methodology described herein may assist those interested in examining the complexities of skeletal wrist function during dynamic tasks.
Project description:This study proposes a minimal modeling magnetic, angular rate and gravity (MARG) methodology for assessing spatiotemporal and kinematic measures of functional fitness exercises. Thirteen healthy persons performed repetitions of the squat, box squat, sandbag pickup, shuffle-walk, and bear crawl. Sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle range of motion (ROM) and stride length, stride time, and stance time measures were compared for the MARG method and an optical motion capture (OMC) system. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and Bland-Altman plots and limits of agreement were used to assess agreement between methods. Hip and knee ROM showed good to excellent agreement with the OMC system during the squat, box squat, and sandbag pickup (RMSE: 4.4-9.8°), while ankle ROM agreement ranged from good to unacceptable (RMSE: 2.7-7.2°). Unacceptable hip and knee ROM agreement was observed for the shuffle-walk and bear crawl (RMSE: 3.3-8.6°). The stride length, stride time, and stance time showed good to excellent agreement between methods (MAPE: (3.2 ± 2.8)%-(8.2 ± 7.9)%). Although the proposed MARG-based method is a valid means of assessing spatiotemporal and kinematic measures during various exercises, further development is required to assess the joint kinematics of small ROM, high velocity movements.
Project description:Measuring motion of the human foot presents a unique challenge due to the large number of closely packed bones with congruent articulating surfaces. Optical motion capture (OMC) and multi-segment models can be used to infer foot motion, but might be affected by soft tissue artifact (STA). Biplanar videoradiography (BVR) is a relatively new tool that allows direct, non-invasive measurement of bone motion using high-speed, dynamic x-ray images to track individual bones. It is unknown whether OMC and BVR can be used interchangeably to analyse multi-segment foot motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the agreement in kinematic measures of dynamic activities. Nine healthy participants performed three walking and three running trials while BVR was recorded with synchronous OMC. Bone position and orientation was determined through manual scientific-rotoscoping. The OMC and BVR kinematics were co-registered to the same coordinate system, and BVR tracking was used to create virtual markers for comparison to OMC during dynamic trials. Root mean square (RMS) differences in marker positions and joint angles as well as a linear fit method (LFM) was used to compare the outputs of both methods. When comparing BVR and OMC, sagittal plane angles were in good agreement (ankle: R2 = 0.947, 0.939; Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA) Angle: R2 = 0.713, 0.703, walking and running, respectively). When examining the ankle, there was a moderate agreement between the systems in the frontal plane (R2 = 0.322, 0.452, walking and running, respectively), with a weak to moderate correlation for the transverse plane (R2 = 0.178, 0.326, walking and running, respectively). However, root mean squared error (RMSE) showed angular errors ranging from 1.06 to 8.31° across the planes (frontal: 3.57°, 3.67°, transverse: 4.28°, 4.70°, sagittal: 2.45°, 2.67°, walking and running, respectively). Root mean square (RMS) differences between OMC and BVR marker trajectories were task dependent with the largest differences in the shank (6.0 ± 2.01 mm) for running, and metatarsals (3.97 ± 0.81 mm) for walking. Based on the results, we suggest BVR and OMC provide comparable solutions to foot motion in the sagittal plane, however, interpretations of out-of-plane movement should be made carefully.
Project description:This meta-analysis compared the gait patterns of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) patients and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients during level walking by evaluating the kinetics, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they assessed the vertical ground reaction force (GRF), joint moment at stance, flexion at initial contact, flexion at swing, overall range of motion (ROM), coronal knee angle at stance, walking speed, cadence, and stride length in UKA patients or TKA patients. Seven non-randomized studies met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. UKA patients and TKA patients were similar in terms of vertical GRF (95% CI: -0.36 to 0.20; P = 0.60), joint moment (95% CI: -0.55 to 0.63; P = 0.90), kinematic outcomes (95% CI: -0.72 to 1.02; P = 0.74), walking speed (95% CI: -0.27 to 0.81; P = 0.32), and cadence (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.68; P = 0.20). In contrast, the stride length (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80; P = 0.04) differed significantly between groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled data were similar between the groups: 1st maximum (heel strike), -0.18 BW (P = 0.53); 1st minimum (mid-stance), -0.43 BW (P = 0.08); and 2nd maximum (toe off), -0.03 BW (P = 0.87). On gait analysis, there were no significant differences in vertical GRF, joint moment at stance, overall kinematics, walking speed, or cadence between UKA patients and TKA patients during level walking. However, the TKA group had significantly shorter stride length than UKA patients. Although the comparison was inconclusive in determining which types of knee arthroplasty offered the closest approximation to normal gait, we consider it important to provide better rehabilitation programs to reduce the abnormal stride length in TKA patients compared to UKA patients.