Drugs Repurposing Using QSAR, Docking and Molecular Dynamics for Possible Inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro Protease.
ABSTRACT: Wuhan, China was the epicenter of the first zoonotic transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 and it is the causative agent of the novel human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Almost from the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak several attempts were made to predict possible drugs capable of inhibiting the virus replication. In the present work a drug repurposing study is performed to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 protease inhibitors. We created a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model based on a machine learning strategy using hundreds of inhibitor molecules of the main protease (Mpro) of the SARS-CoV coronavirus. The QSAR model was used for virtual screening of a large list of drugs from the DrugBank database. The best 20 candidates were then evaluated in-silico against the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by using docking and molecular dynamics analyses. Docking was done by using the Gold software, and the free energies of binding were predicted with the MM-PBSA method as implemented in AMBER. Our results indicate that levothyroxine, amobarbital and ABP-700 are the best potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through their binding to the Mpro enzyme. Five other compounds showed also a negative but small free energy of binding: nikethamide, nifurtimox, rebimastat, apomine and rebastinib.
Project description:Main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) intervenes in the replication and transcription processes of the virus. Hence, it is a lucrative target for anti-viral drug development. In this study, molecular modeling analyses were performed on the structure activity data of recently reported diverse SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors to understand the structural requirements for higher inhibitory activity. The classification-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were generated between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitory activities and different descriptors. Identification of structural fingerprints to increase or decrease in the inhibitory activity was mapped for possible inclusion/exclusion of these fingerprints in the lead optimization process. Challenges in ADME properties of protease inhibitors were also discussed to overcome the problems of oral bioavailability. Further, depending on the modeling results, we have proposed novel as well as potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors.
Project description:As the world struggles against current global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is challenging to trigger drug discovery efforts to search broad-spectrum antiviral agents. Thus, there is a need of strong and sustainable global collaborative works especially in terms of new and existing data analysis and sharing which will join the dots of knowledge gap. Our present chemical-informatics based data analysis approach is an attempt of application of previous activity data of SARS-CoV main protease (Mpro) inhibitors to accelerate the search of present SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. The study design was composed of three major aspects: (1) classification QSAR based data mining of diverse SARS-CoV Mpro inhibitors, (2) identification of favourable and/or unfavourable molecular features/fingerprints/substructures regulating the Mpro inhibitory properties, (3) data mining based prediction to validate recently reported virtual hits from natural origin against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme. Our Structural and physico-chemical interpretation (SPCI) analysis suggested that heterocyclic nucleus like diazole, furan and pyridine have clear positive contribution while, thiophen, thiazole and pyrimidine may exhibit negative contribution to the SARS-CoV Mpro inhibition. Several Monte Carlo optimization based QSAR models were developed and the best model was used for screening of some natural product hits from recent publications. The resulted active molecules were analysed further from the aspects of fragment analysis. This approach set a stage for fragment exploration and QSAR based screening of active molecules against putative SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme. We believe the future in vitro and in vivo studies would provide more perspectives for anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 is highly homologous to SARS-CoV. To date, the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is regarded as an important drug target for the treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some experiments confirmed that several HIV protease inhibitors present the inhibitory effects on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting Mpro. However, the mechanism of action has still not been studied very clearly. In this work, the interaction mechanism of four HIV protease inhibitors Darunavir (DRV), Lopinavir (LPV), Nelfinavir (NFV), and Ritonavire (RTV) targeting SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was explored by applying docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and MM-GBSA methods using the broad-spectrum antiviral drug Ribavirin (RBV) as the negative and nonspecific control. Our results revealed that LPV, RTV, and NFV have higher binding affinities with Mpro, and they all interact with catalytic residues His41 and the other two key amino acids Met49 and Met165. Pharmacophore model analysis further revealed that the aromatic ring, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic group are the essential infrastructure of Mpro inhibitors. Overall, this study applied computational simulation methods to study the interaction mechanism of HIV-1 protease inhibitors with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and the findings provide useful insights for the development of novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents for the treatment of COVID-19.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has received global attention due to the serious threat it poses to public health. Since the outbreak in December 2019, millions of people have been affected and its rapid global spread has led to an upsurge in the search for treatment. To discover hit compounds that can be used alone or in combination with repositioned drugs, we first analyzed the pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of natural products from Brazil's semiarid region. After, we analyzed the site prediction and druggability of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), followed by docking and molecular dynamics simulation. The best SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexes revealed that other sites were accessed, confirming that our approach could be employed as a suitable starting protocol for ligand prioritization, reinforcing the importance of catalytic cysteine-histidine residues and providing new structural data that could increase the antiviral development mainly against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we selected 10 molecules that could be in vitro assayed in response to COVID-19. Two compounds (b01 and b02) suggest a better potential for interaction with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and could be further studied.
Project description:COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus family, was identified at the end of 2019 in China. The COVID-19 virus spread rapidly all over the world. Scientists strive to find virus-specific antivirals for the treatment of COVID-19. The present study reports a molecular docking study of the stilbenolignans and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro) inhibitors. The detailed interactions between the stilbenolignan analogues and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors were determined as hydrophobic bonds, hydrogen bonds and electronic bonds, inhibition activity, ligand efficiency, bonding type and distance and etc. The binding energies of the stilbenolignan analogues were obtained from the molecular docking of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Lehmbachol D, Maackolin, Gnetucleistol, Gnetifolin F, Gnetofuran A and Aiphanol were found to be -7.7, -8.2, -7.3, -8.5, -8.0 and -7.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Osirus, Molinspiration and SwissADME chemoinformatic tools were used to examine ADMET properties, pharmacokinetic parameters and toxicological characteristics of the stilbenolignan analogues. All analogues obey the Lipinski's rule of five. Furthermore, stilbenolignan analogues were studied to predict their binding affinities against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using molecular modeling and simulation techniques, and the binding free energy calculations of all complexes were calculated using the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. With the data presented here it has been observed that these analogues may be a good candidate for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro <i>in vivo</i> studies, so more research can be done on stilbenolignan analogues.
Project description:A new SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus has caused a pandemic known as COVID-19. Among coronaviruses, the main protease (Mpro) is an essential drug target which, along with papain-like proteases catalyzes the processing of polyproteins translated from viral RNA and recognizes specific cleavage sites. There are no human proteases with similar cleavage specificity and therefore, inhibitors are highly likely to be nontoxic. Therefore, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme with small molecules can block viral replication. The present study is aimed at the identification of promising lead molecules for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of antiviral compounds from plants. The binding affinity of selected small drug-like molecules to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro were studied using molecular docking. Bonducellpin D was identified as the best lead molecule which shows higher binding affinity (-9.28 kcal/mol) as compared to the control (-8.24 kcal/mol). The molecular binding was stabilized through four hydrogen bonds with Glu166 and Thr190 as well as hydrophobic interactions via eight residues. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro shows identities of 96.08% and 50.65% to that of SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro respectively at the sequence level. At the structural level, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and SARS-CoV Mpro was found to be 0.517 Å and 0.817 Å between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro. Bonducellpin D exhibited broad-spectrum inhibition potential against SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro and therefore is a promising drug candidate, which needs further validations through in vitro and in vivo studies.
Project description:The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has recently emerged as a pandemic. Here, an attempt has been made through in-silico high throughput screening to explore the antiviral compounds from traditionally used plants for antiviral treatments in India namely, Tea, Neem and Turmeric, as potential inhibitors of two widely studied viral proteases, main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) of the SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking study using BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2018 revealed, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), a tea polyphenol has a binding affinity toward both the selected receptors, with the lowest CDocker energy - 46.22 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and CDocker energy - 44.72 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexed with (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, which had shown the best binding affinity was subjected to molecular dynamics simulations to validate its binding affinity, during which, the root-mean-square-deviation values of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro-Co-crystal ligand (N3) and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro- (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate systems were found to be more stable than SARS-CoV-2 Mpro system. Further, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate was subjected to QSAR analysis which predicted IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.3281 nM against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Overall, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate showed a potential binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and could be proposed as a potential natural compound for COVID-19 treatment.
Project description:COVID-19 pandemic caused by very severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) agent is an ongoing major global health concern. The disease has caused more than 452 million affected cases and more than 6 million death worldwide. Hence, there is an urgency to search for possible medications and drug treatments. There are no approved drugs available to treat COVID-19 yet, although several vaccine candidates are already available and some of them are listed for emergency use by the world health organization (WHO). Identifying a potential drug candidate may make a significant contribution to control the expansion of COVID-19. The <i>in vitro</i> biological activity of asymmetric disulfides against coronavirus through the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) protein was reported. Due to the lack of convincing evidence those asymmetric disulfides have favorable pharmacological properties for the clinical treatment of Coronavirus, <i>in silico</i> evaluation should be performed to assess the potential of these compounds to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In this context, we report herein the molecular docking for a series of 40 unsymmetrical aromatic disulfides as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor. The optimal binding features of disulfides within the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 endoribonuclease protein (Protein Data Bank [PDB]: 6LU7) was described. Studied compounds were ranked for potential effectiveness, and those have shown high molecular docking scores were proposed as novel drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the outcomes of drug similarity and ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) analyses have may have the effectiveness of acting as medicines, and would be of interest as promising starting point for designing compounds against SARS-CoV-2. Finally, the stability of these three compounds in the complex with Mpro was validated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, in which they displayed stable trajectory and molecular properties with a consistent interaction profile.
Project description:Due to the genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, the present work endeavored to derive a balanced Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies to identify novel molecules having inhibitory potential against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. The QSAR analysis developed on multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model with acceptable statistical performance (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.898, Q<sup>2</sup>loo = 0.859, etc.). QSAR analysis attributed the good correlation with different types of atoms like non-ring Carbons and Nitrogens, amide Nitrogen, sp<sup>2</sup>-hybridized Carbons, etc. Thus, the QSAR model has a good balance of qualitative and quantitative requirements (balanced QSAR model) and satisfies the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. After that, a QSAR-based virtual screening of 26,467 food compounds and 360 heterocyclic variants of molecule <b>1</b> (benzotriazole-indole hybrid molecule) helped to identify promising hits. Furthermore, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Mpro with molecule <b>1</b> recognized the structural motifs with significant stability. Molecular docking and QSAR provided consensus and complementary results. The validated analyses are capable of optimizing a drug/lead candidate for better inhibitory activity against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:The outbreak of a novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into global health emergency, infecting hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. We have identified experimental data on the inhibitory activity of compounds tested against closely related (96% sequence identity, 100% active site conservation) protease of SARS-CoV and employed this data to build QSAR models for this dataset. We employed these models for virtual screening of all drugs from DrugBank, including compounds in clinical trials. Molecular docking and similarity search approaches were explored in parallel with QSAR modeling, but molecular docking failed to correctly discriminate between experimentally active and inactive compounds. As a result of our studies, we recommended 41 approved, experimental, or investigational drugs as potential agents against SARS-CoV-2 acting as putative inhibitors of Mpro. Ten compounds with feasible prices were purchased and are awaiting the experimental validation.<br>.