Surface Antifouling Modification on Polyethylene Filtration Membranes by Plasma Polymerization.
ABSTRACT: Surface modification on microporous polyethylene (PE) membranes was facilitated by plasma polymerizing with two hydrophilic precursors: ethylene oxide vinyl ether (EO1V) and diethylene oxide vinyl ether (EO2V) to effectively improve the fouling against mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovary, CHO cells) and proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA). The plasma polymerization procedure incorporated uniform and pin-hole free ethylene oxide-containing moieties on the filtration membrane in a dry single-step process. The successful deposition of the plasma polymers was verified by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Water contact angle measurements and permeation experiments using cell and protein solutions were conducted to evaluate the change in hydrophilicity and fouling resistance for filtrating biomolecules. The EO1V and EO2V plasma deposited PE membranes showed about 1.45 fold higher filtration performance than the pristine membrane. Moreover, the flux recovery reached 80% and 90% by using deionized (DI) water and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, indicating the efficacy of the modification and the good reusability of the modified PE membranes.
Project description:Using combinatorial methods, we synthesized a series of new vinyl amide monomers and graft-polymerized them to light-sensitive poly(ether sulfone) (PES) porous films for protein resistance. To increase the discovery rate and statistical confidence, we developed high throughput surface modification methods (HTP) that allow synthesis, screening and selection of desirable monomers from a large library in a relatively short time (days). A series of amide monomers were synthesized by amidation of methacryloyl chloride with amines and grafted onto commercial poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membranes using irradiation from atmospheric pressure plasma (APP). The modified PES membrane surfaces were then tested and screened for static protein adhesion using HTP. Hydroxyl amide monomers N-(3-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (A3), N-(4-hydroxybutyl)methacrylamide (A4), and N-(4-hydroxybutyl)methacrylamide (A6), ethylene glycol (EG) monomer N-(3-methoxypropyl)methacrylamide (A7), and N-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-N-methylmethacrylamide (A8), and N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-N-methylmethacrylamide (A9) all terminated with tertiary amines and were shown to have protein resistance. The PES membranes modified with these monomers exhibited both low protein adhesion (i.e. membrane plugging or fouling) and high flux. Their performance is comparable with previously identified best performing PEG and zwitterionic monomers, i.e. the so-called gold-standard for protein resistance. Combining a Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis of the amide monomers and the HTP filtration results, we conclude that monomer solubility in water correlates with protein-resistant surfaces, presumably through its effects on surface-water interactions.
Project description:Porous organic frameworks (POFs) based membranes have potential applications in molecular filtration, despite the lack of a corresponding study. This study reports an interesting strategy to get processable POFs dispersion and a novel ultrathin sandwich-like membrane design. It was accidentally found that the hydrophobic N-rich Schiff based POFs agglomerates could react with lithium-ethylamine and formed stable dispersion in water. By successively filtrating the obtained POFs dispersion and graphene oxide (GO), we successfully prepared ultrathin sandwich-like hybrid membranes with layered structure, which showed significantly improved separation efficiency in molecular filtration of organic dyes. This study may provide a universal way to the preparation of processable POFs and their hybrid membranes with GO.
Project description:Electrically conductive composite ultrafiltration membranes composed of carbon nanotubes have exhibited efficient fouling inhibition in wastewater treatment applications. In the current study, poly(vinyl-alcohol)-carbon nanotube membranes were applied to fed batch crossflow electroultrafiltration of dilute (0.1 g/L of each species) single and binary protein solutions of ?-lactalbumin and hen egg-white lysozyme at pH 7.4, 4 mM ionic strength, and 1 psi. Electroultrafiltration using the poly(vinyl-alcohol)-carbon nanotube composite membranes yielded temporary enhancements in sieving for single protein filtration and in selectivity for binary protein separation compared to ultrafiltration using the unmodified PS-35 membranes. Assessment of membrane fouling based on permeate flux, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscopy visualization of the conditioned membranes indicated significant resulting protein adsorption and aggregation which limited the duration of improvement during electroultrafiltration with an applied cathodic potential of -4.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). These results imply that appropriate optimization of electroultrafiltration using carbon nanotube-deposited polymeric membranes may provide substantial short-term improvements in binary protein separations.
Project description:A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)] was pH-sensitive, with degradation at pH 5 being significantly faster than at pH 7.4 at 37 °C in PBS buffer while long-term stability could be obtained in either the solid-state or at pH 7.4 at 6 °C.
Project description:A novel approach is employed to prepare the active layer of the forward osmosis membrane by the photo-polymerization method. The poly (ethylene glycol) phenyl ether acrylate (PPEA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) are used as monomers. The emphasis is given to analysing the effect of monomer concentration on chemical functional groups of active layer, thermal stability, surface morphology, roughness, interfacial free energy, organic fouling tendency and osmotic flux performance. The functional groups of the active layer are characterized by ATR-FTIR. Furthermore, thermal analysis (TGA/DTG) is performed to calculate grafting density and thermal stability of prepared FO membranes. Surface morphology and roughness are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike control polyamide active layer membrane that suffered from organic fouling (28.14 ± 3.70% flux decline and 95% flux recovery), the photo-polymerized 75/25 active layer FO membrane demonstrated the low fouling propensity (2.77 ± 0.62% flux decline) and high flux recovery (nearly ~100%). The interfacial free energy and low fouling property of 75/25 FO membrane is also reflected in improved osmotic flux performance with 11.20 ± 0.79 L/g (AL-FS) and 8.41 ± 0.22 L/g (AL-DS) reverse solute flux selectivity (RSFS) (Jw/Js) than control polyamide FO membrane (7.94 ± 0.22 L/g (AL-FS) and 7.64 ± 0.54 L/g (AL-DS)).
Project description:Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most widely used materials in the world, but it is virtually undegradable and quickly accumulates in nature, which may contaminate the environment. We utilized the cobalt-mediated radical copolymerization (CMRP) of ethylene and cyclic ketene acetals (CKAs) to effectively incorporate ester groups into PE backbone as cleavable structures to make PE-based copolymer degradable under mild conditions. The content of ethylene and ester units in the produced copolymer could be finely regulated by CKA concentration or ethylene pressure. Also, the copolymerization of ethylene and CKA with other functional vinyl monomers can produce functional and degradable PE-based copolymer. All the formed PE-based copolymers could degrade in the presence of trimethylamine (Et3N).
Project description:A novel polyphosphoester (PPE) with vinyl ether side chain functionality was developed as a versatile template for postpolymerization modifications, and its degradability and biocompatibility were evaluated. An organo-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ethylene glycol vinyl ether-pendant cyclic phosphotriester monomer allowed for construction of poly(ethylene glycol vinyl ether phosphotriester) (PEVEP). This vinyl ether-functionalized PPE scaffold was coupled with hydroxyl- or thiol-containing model small molecules via three different types of conjugation chemistries-thiol-ene "click" reaction, acetalization, or thio-acetalization reaction-to afford modified polymers that accommodated either stable thio-ether or hydrolytically labile acetal or thio-acetal linkages. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and PEVEP formed well-defined micelles with a narrow and monomodal size distribution in water, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The stability of the micelles and the hydrolytic degradability of the backbone and side chains of the PEVEP block segment were assessed by DLS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 31P), respectively, in aqueous buffer solutions at pH values of 5.0 and 7.4 and at temperatures of 25 and 37 °C. The hydrolytic degradation products of the PEVEP segments of the block copolymers were then identified by electrospray ionization, gas chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The parent micelles and their degradation products were found to be non-cytotoxic at concentrations up to 3 mg/mL, when evaluated with RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and OVCAR-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells.
Project description:PEG is the gold standard polymer for pharmaceutical applications, however it lacks degradability. Degradation under physiologically relevant pH as present in endolysosomes, cancerous and inflammatory tissues is crucial for many areas. The authors present anionic ring-opening copolymerization of ethylene oxide with 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EPB) and subsequent modification to introduce acid-degradable vinyl ether groups as well as methacrylate (MA) units, enabling radical cross-linking. Copolymers with different molar ratios of EPB, molecular weights (M<sub>n</sub> ) up to 10?000?g?mol<sup>-1</sup> and narrow dispersities (?<1.05) were prepared. Both the P(EG-co-isoEPB)MA copolymer and the hydrogels showed pH-dependent, rapid hydrolysis at pH?5-6 and long-term storage stability at neutral pH (pH?7.4). By designing the degree of polymerization and content of degradable vinyl ether groups, the release time of an entrapped protein OVA-Alexa488 can be tailored from a few hours to several days (hydrolysis half-life time t<sub>1/2</sub> at pH?5: 13?h to 51?h).
Project description:A new and facile method for the fabrication of polysulfone-graphene oxide composite membranes is reported, where after casting, phase inversion is carried out with graphene oxide flakes (GO) in a coagulation bath. The membranes were characterized and the morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. A bacterial inhibition ratio of 74.5% was observed with membranes fabricated from a very low concentration of di-water-GO non-solvent (0.048% of GO). The membranes were successfully tested for permeate flux and fouling resistance using activated sludge filtration from an MBR system. The observed trend shows that GO can operate as a protective barrier for membrane pores against the bacterial community. To our knowledge this is the first time where the immersion precipitation mechanism was carried out in a coagulation bath with GO flakes under continuous stirring. Using this method, a very low concentration of GO is required to fabricate membranes with conventional GO composite membrane properties and better selectivity.
Project description:Membrane fouling has been a major issue in the development of more efficient water treatment processes. Specifically in surface waters filtration, organic matter, such as humic-like substances, can cause irreversible fouling. Therefore, this study evaluates the activity of a photocatalytic layer composed of Ce-doped zirconia nanoparticles in improving the fouling resistance during filtration of an aqueous solution of humic acid (HA). These nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol-gel processes and then characterized. Before the filtration experiments, the photodegradation of HA catalyzed by Ce-doped zirconia nanoparticles in dispersion was studied. It was observed that the sol-gel prepared Ce-ZrO₂ exhibited higher HA removal in practically neutral pH, achieving 93% efficiency in 180 min of adsorption in the dark followed by 180 min under visible-light irradiation using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Changes in spectral properties and in total organic carbon confirmed HA degradation and contributed to the proposal of a mechanism for HA photodegradation. Finally, in HA filtration tests, Ce-ZrO₂ photocatalytic membranes were able to recover the flux in a fouled membrane using visible-light by degrading HA. The present findings point to the further development of anti-fouling membranes, in which solar light can be used to degrade fouling compounds and possibly contaminants of emerging concern, which will have important environmental implications.