Ocular macrophage origin and heterogeneity during steady state and experimental choroidal neovascularization.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) commonly causes vision loss from aberrant angiogenesis, termed choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that are necessary for experimental CNV, present in human CNV samples, and can display diverse functions, which are dependent upon both their origin and tissue microenvironment. Despite these associations, choroidal macrophage heterogeneity remains unexplored. METHODS:We performed multi-parameter flow cytometry on wildtype (WT) and Ccr2-/- mice after laser injury to identify macrophage subtypes, and determine which subsets originate from classical monocytes. To fate map tissue resident macrophages at steady state and after laser injury, we used the Cx3cr1CreER/+ ; Rosa26zsGFP/+ mouse model. We reanalyzed previously published single-cell RNA-seq of human choroid samples from healthy and nAMD patients to investigate human macrophage heterogeneity, disease association, and function. RESULTS:We identified 4 macrophage subsets in mice: microglia, MHCII+CD11c-, MHCII+CD11c+, and MHCII-. Microglia are tissue resident macrophages at steady state and unaffected by laser injury. At steady state, MHCII- macrophages are long lived, tissue resident macrophages, while MHCII+CD11c- and MHCII+CD11c+ macrophages are partially replenished from blood monocytes. After laser injury, MHCII+CD11c- macrophages are entirely derived from classical monocytes, MHCII- macrophages originate from classical monocytes (90%) and an expansion of tissue resident macrophages (10%), and MHCII+CD11c+ macrophages are derived from classical monocytes (70%), non-classical monocytes (10%), and an expansion of tissue resident macrophages (20%). Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of human choroid found 5 macrophage subsets: two MHCII+CD11C- and three MHCII+CD11C+ populations. One MHCII+CD11C+ subset was 78% derived from a patient with nAMD. Differential expression analysis identified up-regulation of pro-angiogenic gene expression in one MHCII+CD11C- and two MHCII+CD11C+ subsets, including the disease-associated cluster. The upregulated MHCII+CD11C- pro-angiogenic genes were unique compared to the increased MHCII+CD11C+ angiogenesis genes. CONCLUSIONS:Macrophage origin impacts heterogeneity at steady state and after laser injury in mice. Both mice and human patients demonstrate similar macrophage subtypes. Two discrete pro-angiogenic macrophage populations exist in the human choroid. Targeting specific, pro-angiogenic macrophage subsets is a potential novel therapeutic for nAMD.
Project description:Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) commonly causes vision loss from aberrant angiogenesis, termed choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine that is correlated with AMD progression and nAMD activity. We hypothesize that anti-IL6 therapy is a potential nAMD therapeutic. We found that IL6 levels were increased after laser injury and expressed by macrophages. Il6-deficiency decreased laser-induced CNV area and exogenous IL6 addition increased choroidal sprouting angiogenesis. Il6-null mice demonstrated equally increased macrophage numbers as wildtype mice. At steady state, IL6R expression was detected on peripheral blood and ocular monocytes. After laser injury, the number of IL6R<sup>+</sup>Ly6C<sup>+</sup> monocytes in blood and IL6R<sup>+</sup> macrophages in the eye were increased. In human choroid, macrophages expressed IL6, IL6R, and IL6ST. Furthermore, IL6R<sup>+</sup> macrophages displayed a transcriptional profile consistent with STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activation and angiogenesis. Our data show that IL6 is both necessary and sufficient for choroidal angiogenesis. Macrophage-derived IL6 may stimulate choroidal angiogenesis via classical activation of IL6R<sup>+</sup> macrophages, which then stimulate angiogenesis. Targeting IL6 or the IL6R could be an effective adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant nAMD patients.
Project description:Inflammation triggers the differentiation of Ly6Chi monocytes into microbicidal macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Yet, it is unclear whether environmental inflammatory cues control the polarization of monocytes toward each of these fates or whether specialized monocyte progenitor subsets exist before inflammation. Here, we have shown that naive monocytes are phenotypically heterogeneous and contain an NR4A1- and Flt3L-independent, CCR2-dependent, Flt3+CD11c-MHCII+PU.1hi subset. This subset acted as a precursor for Fc?RIII+PD-L2+CD209a+, GM-CSF-dependent moDCs but was distal from the DC lineage, as shown by fate-mapping experiments using Zbtb46. By contrast, Flt3-CD11c-MHCII-PU.1lo monocytes differentiated into Fc?RIII+PD-L2-CD209a-iNOS+ macrophages upon microbial stimulation. Importantly, Sfpi1 haploinsufficiency genetically distinguished the precursor activities of monocytes toward moDCs or microbicidal macrophages. Indeed, Sfpi1+/- mice had reduced Flt3+CD11c-MHCII+ monocytes and GM-CSF-dependent Fc?RIII+PD-L2+CD209a+ moDCs but generated iNOS+ macrophages more efficiently. Therefore, intercellular disparities of PU.1 expression within naive monocytes segregate progenitor activity for inflammatory iNOS+ macrophages or moDCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lacrimal gland secretory dysfunction in Sjögren syndrome (SS) causes ocular surface desiccation that is associated with increased cytokine expression and number of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the conjunctiva. This study evaluated the hypothesis that desiccating stress (DS) alters the percentage and gene expression of myeloid cell populations in the conjunctiva.<h4>Methods</h4>DS was induced by pharmacologic suppression of tear secretion and exposure to drafty low humidity environment. Bone marrow chimeras and adoptive transfer of CD45.1<sup>+</sup> bone marrow cells to CD45.2<sup>+</sup> C-C chemokine receptor 2 knockout (CCR2<sup>-/-</sup>) mice were used to track DS-induced myeloid cell recruitment to the conjunctiva. Flow cytometry evaluated myeloid cell populations in conjunctivae obtained from non-stressed eyes and those exposed to DS for 5 days. CD11b<sup>+</sup> myeloid lineage cells were gated on monocyte (Ly6C), macrophage (CD64, MHCII) and DC (CD11c, MHCII) lineage markers. NanoString immune arrays were performed on sorted MHCII<sup>+</sup> and MHCII<sup>-</sup> monocyte/macrophage cell populations.<h4>Results</h4>DS significantly increased the recruitment of adoptively transferred MHCII positive and negative myeloid cells to the conjunctiva in a CCR2 dependent fashion. The percentage of resident conjunctival monocytes (Ly6C<sup>+</sup>CD64<sup>-</sup>) significantly decreased while CD64<sup>+</sup>MHCII<sup>+</sup> macrophages increased over 5 days of DS (P<0.05 for both). Comparison of gene expression between the MHCII<sup>-</sup> monocyte and MHCII<sup>+</sup> populations in non-stressed conjunctiva revealed a ≥ 2 log<sup>2</sup> fold increase in 95 genes and decrease in 46 genes. Upregulated genes are associated with antigen presentation, cytokine/chemokine, M1 macrophage and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways. DS increased innate inflammatory genes in monocytes and MHCII<sup>+</sup> cells and increased M1 macrophage (Trem1, Ido1, Il12b, Stat5b) and decreased homeostasis (Mertk) and M2 macrophage (Arg1) genes in MHCII<sup>+</sup> cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There are myeloid cell populations in the conjunctiva with distinct phenotype and gene expression patterns. DS recruits myeloid cells from the blood and significantly changes their phenotype in the conjunctiva. DS also alters expression of an array of innate inflammatory genes. Immature monocytes in the unstressed conjunctiva appear to cascade to MHCII<sup>+</sup> macrophages during DS, suggesting that DS promotes maturation of monocytes to antigen presenting cells with increased expression of inflammatory genes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of SS keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
Project description:To this date, the criteria to distinguish peritoneal macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are not clear. Here we delineate the subsets of myeloid mononuclear cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Considering phenotypical, functional, and ontogenic features, peritoneal myeloid mononuclear cells are divided into 5 subsets: large peritoneal macrophages (LPMs), small peritoneal macrophages (SPMs), DCs, and 2 MHCII+CD11c+CD115+ subpopulations (i.e., MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14-CD206- and MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14+CD206+). Among them, 2 subsets of competent Ag presenting cells are demonstrated with distinct functional characteristics, one being DCs and the other being MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14-CD206- cells. DCs are able to promote fully activated T cells and superior in expanding cytokine producing inflammatory T cells, whereas MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14-CD206- cells generate partially activated T cells and possess a greater ability to induce Treg under TGF-? and retinoic acid conditions. While the development of DCs and MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14-CD206- cells are responsive to the treatment of FLT3 ligand and GM-CSF, the number of LPMs, SPMs, and MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14+CD206+ cells are only influenced by the injection of GM-CSF. In addition, the analysis of gene expression profiles among MHCII+ peritoneal myeloid mononuclear cells reveals that MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14+CD206+ cells share high similarity with SPMs, whereas MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14-CD206- cells are related to peritoneal DC2s. Collectively, our study identifies 2 distinct subpopulations of MHCII+CD11c+CD115+ cells, 1) MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14-CD206- cells closely related to peritoneal DC2s and 2) MHCII+CD11c+CD115+CD14+CD206+ cells to SPMs.
Project description:Macrophages are not only derived from circulating blood monocytes or embryonic precursors but also expand by proliferation. The origin determines macrophage fate and functions in steady state and pathological conditions. Macrophages predominantly infiltrate fibre-induced mesothelioma tumors and contribute to cancer development. Here, we revealed their ontogeny by comparing the response to needle-like mesotheliomagenic carbon nanotubes (CNT-7) with tangled-like non-mesotheliomagenic CNT-T. In a rat peritoneal cavity model of mesothelioma, both CNT induced a rapid macrophage disappearance reaction (MDR) of MHCII<sup>low</sup> resident macrophages generating an empty niche available for macrophage repopulation. Macrophage depletion after mesotheliomagenic CNT-7 was followed by a substantial inflammatory reaction, and macrophage replenishment completed after 7 days. Thirty days after non-mesotheliomagenic CNT-T, macrophage repopulation was still incomplete and accompanied by a limited inflammatory reaction. Cell depletion experiments, flow cytometry and RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that, after mesotheliomagenic CNT-7 exposure, resident macrophages were mainly replaced by an influx of monocytes, which differentiated locally into MHCII<sup>high</sup> inflammatory macrophages. In contrast, the low inflammatory response induced by CNT-T was associated by the accumulation of self-renewing MHCII<sup>low</sup> macrophages that initially derive from monocytes. In conclusion, the mesotheliomagenic response to CNT specifically relies on macrophage niche recolonization by monocyte-derived inflammatory macrophages. In contrast, the apparent homeostasis after non-mesotheliomagenic CNT treatment involves a macrophage regeneration by proliferation. Macrophage depletion and repopulation are thus decisive events characterizing the carcinogenic activity of particles and fibres.
Project description:(1) The cells from the monocyte line play an important role as regulators of cancer development and progression. Monocytes present pro- and anti-tumor immunity and differentiation into macrophages. Macrophages are predominant in the lung cancer environment and could be evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). (2) The aim of the study was analysis of monocytes: classical, intermediate and non-classical with expression of: CD62L, CD11c, CD18, HLA-DR in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their correlation with BALF macrophages from lungs with cancer (clBALF) and healthy lungs (hlBALF). (3) A total of 24 patients with NSCLC and 20 healthy donors were investigated. Monocyte subtyping and macrophage counts were performed by flow cytometry. (4) There are three types in peripheral blood (PB): classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical (CD14-/+CD16++). We noticed a higher proportion of classical and intermediate monocytes in lung cancer than in healthy donors (76.2 vs. 67.3, and 7.9 vs. 5.2 p < 0.05). We observed a higher proportion of macrophages in clBALF then in hlBALF. A higher CD62L expression on all monocyte subtypes in healthy donors than in study group was found. There were positive correlations between: classical CD11c+, intermediate CD11c+, intermediate HLA-DR+ monocytes in PB with macrophages in clBALF. We did not observe these correlations with macrophages from hlBALF. (5) A predominance of classical and intermediate monocytes in lung cancer and the correlation between intermediate monocytes with CD11c+ and HLA-DR+ and macrophages from the NSCLC milieu support a role of monocyte-line cells in cancer immunity. A high proportion of monocytes with low expression of CD62L indicates the participation of monocytes in attenuation of anticancer response.
Project description:Although recent evidence has pointed to the role of organ- and pathogenesis-specific macrophage subsets, it is still unclear which subsets are critically involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Using melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice fed Western diet (WD), which exhibit liver phenotypes similar to those of human NASH, we found a histological structure, termed hepatic crown-like structure (hCLS), in which CD11c+ macrophages surround dead/dying hepatocytes, a prominent feature of NASH. Here, we demonstrate that hCLS-constituting macrophages could be a novel macrophage subset that drives hepatocyte death-triggered liver fibrosis. In an "inducible NASH model," hepatocyte death induces hCLS formation and liver fibrosis sequentially in the short term. In combination with the long-term WD feeding model, we also showed that resident macrophages are a major cellular source of CD11c+ macrophages constituting hCLS, which exhibited gene expression profiles distinct from CD11c- macrophages scattered in the liver. Moreover, depletion of CD11c+ macrophages abolished hCLS formation and fibrogenesis in NASH. Our clinical data suggest the role of CD11c+ macrophages in the disease progression from simple steatosis to NASH. This study sheds light on the role of resident macrophages, in addition to recruited macrophages, in the pathogenesis of NASH.
Project description:Spleen is known to contain multiple dendritic and myeloid cell subsets, distinguishable on the basis of phenotype, function and anatomical location. As a result of recent intensive flow cytometric analyses, splenic dendritic cell (DC) subsets are now better characterized than other myeloid subsets. In order to identify and fully characterize a novel splenic subset termed "L-DC" in relation to other myeloid cells, it was necessary to investigate myeloid subsets in more detail. In terms of cell surface phenotype, L-DC were initially characterized as a CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) subset in murine spleen. Their expression of CD43, lack of MHCII, and a low level of CD11c was shown to best differentiate L-DC by phenotype from conventional DC subsets. A complete analysis of all subsets in spleen led to the classification of CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(lo)Ly6G(-) cells as monocytes expressing CX3CR1, CD43 and CD115. Siglec-F expression was used to identify a specific eosinophil population, distinguishable from both Ly6C(lo) and Ly6C(hi) monocytes, and other DC subsets. L-DC were characterized as a clear subset of CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) cells, which are CD43(+), Siglec-F(-) and CD115(-). Changes in the prevalence of L-DC compared to other subsets in spleens of mutant mice confirmed the phenotypic distinction between L-DC, cDC and monocyte subsets. L-DC development in vivo was shown to occur independently of the BATF3 transcription factor that regulates cDC development, and also independently of the FLT3L and GM-CSF growth factors which drive cDC and monocyte development, so distinguishing L-DC from these commonly defined cell types.
Project description:Gland macrophages are primed for gland development and functions through interactions within their niche. However, the phenotype, ontogeny, and function of steady-state salivary gland (SG) macrophages remain unclear. We herein identified CD11c<sup>+</sup> and CD11c<sup>-</sup> subsets among CD64<sup>+</sup> macrophages in steady-state murine SGs. CD11c<sup>-</sup> macrophages were predominant in the SGs of embryonic and newborn mice and decreased with advancing age. CD11c<sup>+</sup> macrophages were rarely detected in the embryonic period, but rapidly expanded after birth. CD11c<sup>+</sup>, but not CD11c<sup>-</sup>, macrophage numbers decreased in mice treated with a CCR2 antagonist, suggesting that CD11c<sup>+</sup> macrophages accumulate from bone marrow-derived progenitors in a CCR2-dependent manner, whereas CD11c<sup>-</sup> macrophages were derived from embryonic progenitors in SGs. CD11c<sup>+</sup> and CD11c<sup>-</sup> macrophages strongly expressed colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 receptor, the injection of an anti-CSF-1 receptor blocking antibody markedly reduced both subsets, and SGs strongly expressed CSF-1, indicating the dependency of SG resident macrophage development on CSF-1. The phagocytic activity of SG macrophages was extremely weak; however, the gene expression profile of SG macrophages indicated that SG macrophages regulate gland development and functions in SGs. These results suggest that SG CD11c<sup>+</sup> and CD11c<sup>-</sup> macrophages are developed and instructed to perform SG-specific functions in steady-state SGs.
Project description:Human monocytes have been grouped into classical (CD14++CD16-), non-classical (CD14dimCD16++), and intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subsets. Documentation of normal function and variation in this complement of subtypes, particularly their differentiation potential to dendritic cells (DC) or macrophages, remains incomplete. We therefore phenotyped monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy subjects and performed functional studies on high-speed sorted subsets. Subset frequencies were found to be tightly controlled over time and across individuals. Subsets were distinct in their secretion of TNF?, IL-6, and IL-1? in response to TLR agonists, with classical monocytes being the most producers and non-classical monocytes the least. Monocytes, particularly those of the non-classical subtype, secreted interferon-? (IFN-?) in response to intracellular TLR3 stimulation. After incubation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, classical monocytes acquired monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) markers and morphology and stimulated allogeneic T cell proliferation in MLR; intermediate and non-classical monocytes did not. After incubation with IL-3 and Flt3 ligand, no subset differentiated to plasmacytoid DC. After incubation with GM-CSF (M1 induction) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (M2 induction), all subsets acquired macrophage morphology, secreted macrophage-associated cytokines, and displayed enhanced phagocytosis. From these studies we conclude that classical monocytes are the principal source of mo-DCs, but all subsets can differentiate to macrophages. We also found that monocytes, in particular the non-classical subset, represent an alternate source of type I IFN secretion in response to virus-associated TLR agonists.