A systematic review of reported outcomes following Ponseti correction of idiopathic club foot
ABSTRACT: Aims To analyze outcomes reported in studies of Ponseti correction of idiopathic clubfoot. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify a list of outcomes and outcome tools reported in the literature. A total of 865 studies were screened following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and 124 trials were included in the analysis. Data extraction was completed by two researchers for each trial. Each outcome tool was assigned to one of the five core areas defined by the Outcome Measures Recommended for use in Randomized Clinical Trials (OMERACT). Bias assessment was not deemed necessary for the purpose of this paper. Results In total, 20 isolated outcomes and 16 outcome tools were identified representing five OMERACT domains. Most outcome tools were appropriately designed for children of walking age but have not been embraced in the literature. The most commonly reported isolated outcomes are subjective and qualitative. The quantitative outcomes most commonly used are ankle range of motion (ROM), foot position in standing, and muscle function. Conclusions There is a diverse range of outcomes reported in studies of Ponseti correction of clubfoot. Until outcomes can be reported unequivocally and consistently, research in this area will be limited. Completing the process of establishing and validating COS is the much-needed next step. Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-8:457–464.
Project description:Clubfoot is one of the most common congenital deformities affecting mobility. It leads to pain and disability if untreated. The Ponseti method is widely used for the correction of clubfoot. There is variation in how the result of clubfoot management is measured and reported. This review aims to determine and evaluate how success with the Ponseti method is reported in sub-Saharan Africa.Five databases were examined in August 2017 for studies that met the inclusion criteria of: (1) evaluation of the effect of clubfoot management; (2) use of the Ponseti method; (3) original study undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa; (4) published between 2000 and 2017. We used the PRISMA statement to report the scope of studies. The included studies were categorised according to a hierarchy of study methodologies and a 27-item quality measure identified methodological strengths and weaknesses. The definition of success was based on the primary outcome reported.Seventy-seven articles were identified by the search. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria, of which 14 (64%) reported a primary outcome. Outcomes were predominantly reported though case series and the quality of evidence was low. Clinical assessment was the most commonly reported outcome measure and few studies reported long-term outcome. The literature available to assess success of clubfoot management is characterised by a lack of standardisation of outcomes, with different measures reporting success in 68% to 98% of cases.We found variation in the criteria used to define success resulting in a wide range of results. There is need for an agreed definition of good outcome (successful management) following both the correction and the bracing phases of the Ponseti method to establish standards to monitor and evaluate service delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also known as clubfoot, is common congenital orthopedic foot deformity in children characterized by four components of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus, hindfoot varus, midfoot cavus, and forefoot adduction. Although a number of conservative and surgical methods have been proposed to correct the clubfoot deformity, the relapses of the clubfoot are not uncommon. Several previous literatures discussed about the technical details of Ponseti method, adherence of Ponseti protocol among walking age or older children. However there is a necessity to investigate the relapse pattern, compliance of bracing, number of casts used in treatment and the percentages of surgical referral under two years of age for clear understanding and better practice to achieve successful outcome without or reduce relapse. Therefore this study aims to review the current evidence of Ponseti method (manipulation, casting, percutaneous Achilles tenotomy, and bracing) in the management of clubfoot under two years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Articles were searched from 2000 to 2015, in the following databases to identify the effectiveness of Ponseti method treatment for clubfoot: Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL), PubMed, and Scopus. The database searches were limited to articles published in English, and articles were focused on the effectiveness of Ponseti method on children with less than 2 years of age. RESULTS:Of the outcome of 1095 articles from four electronic databases, twelve articles were included in the review. Pirani scoring system, Dimeglio scoring system, measuring the range of motion and rate of relapses were used as outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, all reviewed, 12 articles reported that Ponseti method is a very effective method to correct the clubfoot deformities. However, we noticed that relapses occur in nine studies, which is due to the non-adherence of bracing regime and other factors such as low income and social economic status.
Project description:UNLABELLED: Neglected clubfoot is common, disabling, and contributes to poverty in developing nations. The Ponseti clubfoot treatment has high efficacy in correcting the clubfoot deformity in ideal conditions but is demanding on parents and on developing nations' healthcare systems. Its effectiveness and the best method of care delivery remain unknown in this context. The 6-year Uganda Sustainable Clubfoot Care Project (USCCP) aims to build the Ugandan healthcare system's capacity to treat children with the Ponseti method and assess its effectiveness. We describe the Project and its achievements to date (March 2008). The Ugandan Ministry of Health has approved the Ponseti method as the preferred treatment for congenital clubfoot in all its hospitals. USCCP has trained 798 healthcare professionals to identify and treat foot deformities at birth. Ponseti clubfoot care is now available in 21 hospitals; in 2006-2007, 872 children with clubfeet were seen. USCCP-designed teaching modules on clubfoot and the Ponseti method are in use at two medical and three paramedical schools. 1152 students in various health disciplines have benefited. USCCP surveys have (1) determined the incidence of clubfoot in Uganda as 1.2 per 1000 live births, (2) gained knowledge surrounding attitudes, beliefs, and practices about clubfoot across different regions, and (3) identified barriers to adherence to Ponseti treatment protocols. USCCP is now following a cohort of treated children to evaluate its effectiveness in the Ugandan context. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Project description:Background:We aimed to develop and evaluate a tool for clubfoot therapists in low resource settings to assess the results of Ponseti treatment of congenital talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot, in children of walking age. Method:A literature review and a Delphi process based on the opinions of 35 Ponseti trainers in Africa were used to develop the Assessing Clubfoot Treatment (ACT) tool and score. We followed up children with clubfoot from a cohort treated between 2011 and 2013, in 2017. A full clinical assessment was conducted to decide if treatment was successful or if further treatment was required. The ACT score was then calculated for each child. Inter-observer variation for the ACT tool was assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the ACT score compared to full clinical assessment (gold standard). Predictors of a successful outcome were explored. Results:The follow up rate was 31.2% (68 children). The ACT tool consisted of 4 questions; each scored from 0 to 3, giving a total from 0 to 12 where 12 is the ideal result. The 4 questions included one physical assessment and three parent reported outcome measures. It took 5 min to administer and had excellent inter-observer agreement.An ACT score of 8 or less demonstrated 79% sensitivity and 100% specificity in identifying children that required further intervention, with a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90%. Children who completed two or more years of bracing were four times more likely to achieve an ACT score of 9 or more compared to those who did not (OR: 4.08, 95% CI: 1.31-12.65, p = 0.02). Conclusions:The ACT tool is simple to administer, had excellent observer agreement, and good sensitivity and specificity in identifying children who need further intervention. The score can be used to identify those children who definitely need referral and further treatment (score 8 or less) and those with a definite successful outcome (score 11 or more), however further discrimination is needed to decide how to manage children with a borderline ACT score of 9 or 10. Level of evidence:Level II, Diagnostic Study.
Project description:Despite being recognized as the gold standard in isolated clubfoot treatment, the Ponseti casting method has yielded variable results. Few studies have directly compared common predictors of treatment failure between institutions with high versus low failure rates.We asked: (1) is the provider's rigid adherence to the Ponseti method associated with a lower likelihood of unplanned clubfoot surgery, and (2) at the institution that did not adhere rigidly to Ponseti's principles, are any demographic or treatment-related factors associated with increased likelihood of unplanned clubfoot surgery?After institutional review board approval, a consecutive series of patients with a diagnosis of isolated clubfoot who underwent treatment between January 2003 and December 2007 were identified. At Institution 1, 91 of 133 patients met the eligibility criteria and were followed for a minimum of 2 years compared with 58 of 58 patients at Institution 2. At Institution 1, 16 providers managed care using a conservative casting approach based on the Ponseti method. However, treatment was adapted by the provider(s). At Institution 2, one orthopaedic surgeon managed care with strict adherence to the Ponseti method. Surgical indications at both institutions included the presence of a persistent equinovarus foot position while standing. A chart review was used to collect data related to proportion of patients undergoing unplanned additional treatment for deformity recurrences after Ponseti casting, demographics, and treatment patterns.The proportion of subjects who underwent unplanned major surgical intervention was greater (odds ratio [OR], 51.1; 95% CI, 6.8-384.0; p < 0.001) at Institution 1 (60 of 131, 47%) compared with Institution 2 (two of 91, 2%). There was no difference (p = 0.200) in the proportion of patients who underwent additional casting, repeat tendo Achilles lengthening, and/or anterior tibialis tendon transfer only (minor recurrence) at Institution 1 (nine of 131, 7%) compared with Institution 2 (11 of 91, 13%). At Institution 1, an increase in the number of revision casts (multiple vs no casts, hazard ratio [HR] = 3.9; 95% CI, 2.0-7.6; p < 0.001) and an increase in the number of cast-related complications (multiple vs no complications, HR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.7; p = 0.019) were associated with increased risk of major surgery in the multivariate analysis.Rigid commitment to the Ponseti method in the conservative treatment of patients with isolated clubfoot was associated with a lower risk of subsequent unplanned surgical intervention. In addition, clubfoot treatment programs that use a care model that prioritizes continuity in care and dedication to the Ponseti method may decrease the proportion of patients who undergo unplanned surgical intervention.Level III, therapeutic study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of untreated congenital clubfoot among children older than walking age is higher in developing countries due to limited resources for early care after birth. The Ponseti method represents an intervention option for older, untreated children. METHODS:A metanalysis was conducted of observational studies selected through a systematic review of articles included in electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Library) until June 2017. A pooling analysis of proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and a publication bias assessment were performed as routine. Estimates of success, recurrence, and complication rates were weighted and pooled using the random effects model. RESULTS:Twelve studies, including 654 feet diagnosed with congenital clubfoot in children older than walking age (older than 1 year old), were included for analysis. The rate of satisfactory outcomes found via a cluster metanalysis of proportions using the random effects model was 89% (95% CI = 0.82-0.94, p < 0.01), relative to the total analysed. The recurrence rate was 18% (95% CI = 0.14-0.24, p = 0.015), and the rate of casting complications was 7% (95% CI = 0.03-0.15, p = 0.19). CONCLUSION:Application of the Ponseti method in children with untreated idiopathic clubfoot older than walking age leads to satisfactory outcomes, has a low cost, and avoids surgical procedures likely to cause complications. The results obtained exhibited considerable heterogeneity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are various established scoring systems to assess the outcome of clubfoot treatment after correction with the Ponseti method. We used five measures to compare the results in a cohort of children followed up for between 3.5 to 5?years. METHODS:In January 2017 two experienced physiotherapists assessed children who had started treatment between 2011 and 2013 in one clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. The length of time in treatment was documented. The Roye score, Bangla clubfoot assessment tool, the Assessing Clubfoot Treatment (ACT) tool, proportion of relapsed and of plantigrade feet were used to assess the outcome of treatment in the cohort. Inter-observer variation was calculated for the two physiotherapists. A comparative analysis of the entire cohort, the children who had completed casting and the children who completed more than two years of bracing was undertaken. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated for the five measures and compared to full clinical assessment (gold standard) and whether referral for further intervention was required for re-casting or surgical review. RESULTS:31% (68/218) of the cohort attended for examination and were assessed. Of the children who were assessed, 24 (35%) had attended clinic reviews for 4-5?years, and 30 (44%) for less than 2?years. There was good inter-observer agreement between the two expert physiotherapists on all assessment tools. Overall success of treatment varied between 56 and 93% using the different outcome measures. The relapse assessment had the highest unnecessary referrals (19.1%), and the Roye score the highest proportion of missed referrals (22.7%). The ACT and Bangla score missed the fewest number of referrals (7.4%). The Bangla score demonstrated 79.2% (95%CI: 57.8-92.9%) sensitivity and 79.5% (95%CI: 64.7-90.2%) specificity and the ACT score had 79.2% (95%CI: 57.8-92.9%) sensitivity and 100% (95%CI: 92-100%) specificity in predicting the need for referral. CONCLUSION:At three to five years of follow up, the Ponseti method has a good success rate that improves if the child has completed casting and at least two years of bracing. The ACT score demonstrates good diagnostic accuracy for the need for referral for further intervention (specialist opinion or further casting). All tools demonstrated good reliability.
Project description:The Ponseti method for treating clubfoot was introduced in Norway in 2003, and a cohort of children has been followed for 8 to 11 years. In a previous study, we found good results after follow-up of two to five years, with 3% rate of extensive surgery (posterior release or posteromedial release). During 8 to 11 years of follow-up, the rate of extensive surgery increased to 11%. The children had been treated with a bilateral brace or a unilateral brace. In this multicentre study we aimed to compare these two post-corrective treatment methods.In all, 94 children (133 feet) were initially treated according to the Ponseti method, and had post-corrective treatment with either a bilateral foot abduction brace or a unilateral above-the-knee brace. The children were examined at a mean age of 9.3 years (8 to 11) regarding flexibility and deformity of the foot and ankle. Information including type of brace, brace compliance and surgical procedures was -obtained from the patient records. The parents answered questionnaires and radiographs were taken of the feet.Feet treated with a bilateral brace had better dorsal flexion (p = 0.008), plantar flexion (p = 0.02), external rotation (p = 0.001) and less forefoot adduction (p = 0.04) than feet treated with a unilateral brace. Children using a bilateral brace had a better Functional Rating System score (p = 0.005) and Disease Specific Instrument score (p = 0.02).Children treated with a bilateral brace had better parent-reported outcomes and more flexible feet than children treated with a unilateral brace. Our results do not support the use of a unilateral foot abduction brace in clubfoot treatment.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The Ponseti Method has dramatically altered the management of clubfoot, with particular implications for limited-resource settings. We sought to describe outcomes of care and risk factors for sub-optimal results using the Ponseti Method in Haiti.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a records review of patients presenting from 2011-2015 to a CURE Clubfoot clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We report patient characteristics (demographics and clinical), treatment patterns (cast number/duration and tenotomy rates), and outcomes (relapse and complications). We compared treatment with benchmarks in high-income nations and used generalized linear models to identify risk factors for delayed presentation, increased number of casts, and relapse.<h4>Results</h4>Amongst 168 children, age at presentation ranged from 0 days (birth) to 4.4 years, 62% were male, 35% were born at home, 63% had bilateral disease, and 46% had idiopathic clubfeet. Prior treatment (RR 6.33, 95% CI 3.18-12.62) was associated with a higher risk of delayed presentation. Risk factors for requiring ? 10 casts included having a non-idiopathic diagnosis (RR 2.28, 95% CI 1.08-4.83) and higher Pirani score (RR 2.78 per 0.5 increase, 95% CI 1.17-6.64). Female sex (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01-2.34) and higher Pirani score (RR 1.09 per 0.5 increase, 95% CI 1.00-1.17) were risk factors for relapse. Compared to North American benchmarks, children presented later (median 4.1 wks [IQR 1.6-18.1] vs. 1 wk), with longer casting (12.5 wks [SD 9.8] vs. 7.1 wks), and higher relapse (43% vs. 22%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Higher Pirani score, prior treatment, non-idiopathic diagnosis, and female sex were associated with a higher risk of sub-optimal outcomes in this low-resource setting. Compared to high-income nations, serial casting began later, with longer duration and higher relapse. Identifying patients at risk for poor outcomes in a low-resource setting can guide counseling, program development, and resource allocation.
Project description:Background:We examined the correlation between initial Pirani and Dimeglio scores and their individual components to the number of casts for older clubfoot children. Methods:Twenty seven patients (39 feet) aged 2-11 years with idiopathic clubfeet were treated using the Ponseti technique and correlation with number of corrective casts calculated. The number of cast required was counted from application of primary cast to the time of initiation of the foot abduction orthosis. Results:Average 8.45?±?2.31 (range, 4-13) casts were used for treatment. A low correlation (r?=?0.203) was identified when total Dimeglio score was compared with the number of casts. No correlation was identified for Pirani score (r?=?0.023). Among individual components, only cavus deformity had a significant positive correlation to cast numbers. Conclusions:The Pirani and Dimeglio classifications still remain the most widely practiced clubfoot severity grading systems for the older clubfoot child. However, their prognostic value to predict the total cast duration from initial severity remains questionable.