Extracellular Vesicles From High Glucose-Treated Podocytes Induce Apoptosis of Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.
ABSTRACT: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a serious and common complication of diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as crucial vectors in cell-to-cell communication during the development of DKD. EVs may mediate intercellular communication between podocytes and proximal tubules. In this study, EVs were isolated from podocyte culture supernatants under high glucose (HG), normal glucose (NG), and iso-osmolality conditions, and then co-cultured with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). MicroRNAs (miRNA) sequencing was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs of podocyte EVs and bioinformatics analysis was performed to explore their potential functions. The results showed that EVs secreted from HG-treated podocytes induced apoptosis of PTECs. Moreover, five differentially expressed miRNAs in response to HG condition were identified. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these five miRNAs are likely involved in biological processes and pathways related to the pathogenesis of DKD. Overall, these findings demonstrate the pro-apoptotic effects of EVs from HG-treated podocytes on PTECs and provide new insights into the pathologic mechanisms underlying DKD.
Project description:Tubular injury and fibrosis are associated with progressive kidney dysfunction in advanced glomerular disease. Glomerulotubular crosstalk is thought to contribute to tubular injury. microRNAs (miRNAs) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) can modulate distant cells. We hypothesized that miRNAs in EVs derived from injured podocytes lead to tubular epithelial cell damage. As proof of this concept, tubular epithelial (HK2) cells were cultured with exosomes from puromycin-treated or healthy human podocytes, and damage was assessed. Sequencing analysis revealed the miRNA repertoire of podocyte EVs. RNA sequencing identified 63 upregulated miRNAs in EVs from puromycin-treated podocytes. Among them, five miRNAs (miR-149, -424, -542, -582, and -874) were selected as candidates for inducing tubular apoptosis according to a literature-based search. To validate the effect of the miRNAs, HK2 cells were treated with miRNA mimics. EVs from injured podocytes induced apoptosis and p38 phosphorylation of HK2 cells. The miRNA-424 and 149 mimics led to apoptosis of HK2 cells. These results show that miRNAs in EVs from injured podocytes lead to damage to tubular epithelial cells, which may contribute to the development of tubular injury in glomerular disease.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the single most common cause of albuminuria and end-stage kidney disease in the United States. We found increased expression of Wnt/?-catenin (Ctnnb1) pathway transcripts and proteins in glomeruli and podocytes of patients and mouse models of DKD. Mice with podocyte-specific expression of stabilized Ctnnb1 exhibited basement membrane abnormalities, albuminuria, and increased susceptibility to glomerular injury. Mice with podocyte-specific deletion of Ctnnb1 or podocyte-specific expression of the canonical Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1) also showed increased susceptibility to DKD. Podocytes with stabilized Ctnnb1 were less motile and less adhesive to different matrices. Deletion of Ctnnb1 in cultured podocytes increased the expression of podocyte differentiation markers and enhanced cell motility; however, these cells were more susceptible to apoptosis. These results indicate that Wnt/Ctnnb1 signaling in podocytes plays a critical role in integrating cell adhesion, motility, cell death, and differentiation. Balanced Ctnnb1 expression is critical for glomerular filtration barrier maintenance.
Project description:Elevated levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and disturbed mitochondrial dynamics play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, the mechanisms by which FFA leads to mitochondrial damage in glomerular podocytes of DKD and the effects of Berberine (BBR) on podocytes are not fully understood. Methods: Using the db/db diabetic mice model and cultured mouse podocytes, we investigated the molecular mechanism of FFA-induced disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics in podocytes and testified the effects of BBR on regulating mitochondrial dysfunction, podocyte apoptosis and glomerulopathy in the progression of DKD. Results: Intragastric administration of BBR for 8 weeks in db/db mice significantly reversed glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, podocyte damage, basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. BBR strongly inhibited podocyte apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, BBR could stabilize mitochondrial morphology in podocytes via abolishing palmitic acid (PA)-induced activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that BBR may have a previously unrecognized role in protecting glomerulus and podocytes via positively regulating Drp1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics. It might serve as a novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of DKD.
Project description:Background:Podocyte migration is actively involved in the process of podocyte loss and proteinuria production, which is closely associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-Exos) effectively inhibit podocyte apoptosis in the treatment of DN. However, how ADSCs-Exos affect the migration of podocytes is obscure. This study is aimed at exploring the regulatory role of ADSCs-Exos on cell migration and the underlying mechanism. Methods:ADSCs-Exo was authenticated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blotting, and flow cytometry. Cell viability and migration ability of podocytes were measured by CCK8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Relative expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The transmitting between PKH26-labeled exosome and podocytes was evaluated by IF assay. Dual luciferase reporter assay was employed to detect the relationship between miR-215-5p and ZEB2. Results:The exposure to serum from DN patient (hDN-serum) significantly inhibited cell viability of podocytes, but ADSCs-Exo addition notably blunts cytotoxicity induced by the transient stimulus of hDN-serum. Besides, ADSCs-Exo administration powerfully impeded high glucose- (HG-) induced migration and injury of podocyte. With the podocyte dysfunction, several miRNAs presented a significant decline under the treatment of HG including miR-251-5p, miR-879-5p, miR-3066-5p, and miR-7a-5p, all of which were rescued by the addition of ADSCs-Exo. However, only miR-251-5p was a key determinant in the process of ADSCs-Exo-mediated protective role on podocyte damage. The miR-251-5p inhibitor counteracted the improvement from the ADSCs-Exo preparation on HG-induced proliferation inhibition and migration promotion. Additionally, miR-215-5p mimics alone remarkably reversed HG-induced EMT process of podocyte. Mechanistically, we confirmed that ADSCs-Exos mediated the shuttling of miR-215-5p to podocyte, thereby protecting against HG-induced metastasis, possibly through inhibiting the transcription of ZEB2. Conclusion:ADSCs-Exo has the protective effect on HG-evoked EMT progression of podocytes thru a mechanism involving ZEB2. Potentially, the ADSCs-Exo preparation is a useful therapeutic strategy for improving podocyte dysfunction and DN symptoms clinically.
Project description:Fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease carrying ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) loss-of-function mutations are characterized by cardiolipin accumulation, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid. Suppression of ABCA1 expression occurs in glomeruli from patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and in human podocytes exposed to DKD sera collected prior to the development of DKD. We demonstrated that siRNA ABCA1 knockdown in podocytes led to reduced oxygen consumption capabilities associated with alterations in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and with cardiolipin accumulation. Podocyte-specific deletion of Abca1 (Abca1fl/fl) rendered mice susceptible to DKD, and pharmacological induction of ABCA1 improved established DKD. This was not mediated by free cholesterol, as genetic deletion of sterol-o-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1) in Abca1fl/fl mice was sufficient to cause free cholesterol accumulation but did not cause glomerular injury. Instead, cardiolipin mediates ABCA1-dependent susceptibility to podocyte injury, as inhibition of cardiolipin peroxidation with elamipretide improved DKD in vivo and prevented ABCA1-dependent podocyte injury in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, we describe a pathway definitively linking ABCA1 deficiency to cardiolipin-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. We demonstrated that this pathway is relevant to DKD and that ABCA1 inducers or inhibitors of cardiolipin peroxidation may each represent therapeutic strategies for the treatment of established DKD.
Project description:Inherited and acquired mitochondrial defects have been associated with podocyte dysfunction and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC1?) is one of the main transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We hypothesized that increasing PGC1? expression in podocytes could protect from CKD. We found that PGC1? and mitochondrial transcript levels are lower in podocytes of patients and mouse models with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). To increase PGC1? expression, podocyte-specific inducible PGC1?-transgenic mice were generated by crossing nephrin-rtTA mice with tetO-Ppargc1a animals. Transgene induction resulted in albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of PGC1? in podocytes increased mitochondrial biogenesis and maximal respiratory capacity. PGC1? also shifted podocytes towards fatty acid usage from their baseline glucose preference. RNA sequencing analysis indicated that PGC1? induced podocyte proliferation. Histological lesions of mice with podocyte-specific PGC1? expression resembled collapsing focal segmental glomerular sclerosis. In conclusion, decreased podocyte PGC1? expression and mitochondrial content is a consistent feature of DKD, but excessive PGC1? alters mitochondrial properties and induces podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation, indicating that there is likely a narrow therapeutic window for PGC1? levels in podocytes.
Project description:The mechanisms involved in renal repair by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are not entirely elucidated. The paracrine secretion of bioactive molecules has been implicated in the protective effects. Besides soluble mediators, MSCs have been shown to release extracellular vesicles (EVs), involved in renal repair process for different injury models. EVs have been shown to mediate communication between cells through the transference of several molecules, like protein, bioactive lipids, mRNA, and microRNAs (miRNAs). The miRNAs are noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally modulate gene expression and are involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, including those related to repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of MSC-EVs in the modulation of miRNAs inside renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) in an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by ATP depletion. In this model we evaluated whether changes in miRNA expression were dependent on direct miRNA transfer or on transcription induction by MSC-EVs. The obtained results showed an enhanced incorporation of MSC-EVs in injured PTECs with protection from cell death. This biological effect was associated with EV-mediated miRNA transfer and with transcriptional modulation of miRNAs expressed by injured PTECs. Prediction of miRNA targets showed that miRNAs modulated in PTECs are involved in process of renal recovery with downregulation of coding-mRNAs associated with apoptosis, cytoskeleton reorganization, and hypoxia, such as CASP3 and 7, SHC1 and SMAD4. In conclusion, these results indicate that MSC-EVs may transfer and modulate the expression of several miRNAs involved in the repair and recovery process in PTECs.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and therapeutic strategies for delaying its progression are limited. Loss of podocytes by apoptosis characterizes the early stages of DKD. To identify novel therapeutic options, we investigated the effects of Xuesaitong (XST), consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, on podocyte apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. XST (5?mg/kg·d) or Losartan (10?mg/kg·d) was given to diabetic rats for 12 weeks. Albuminuria, renal function markers, and renal histopathology morphological changes were examined. Podocyte apoptosis was determined by triple immunofluorescence labelling including a TUNEL assay, WT1, and DAPI. Renal expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1 was detected. In diabetic rats, severe hyperglycaemia and albuminuria developed, and apoptotic podocytes were markedly increased in diabetic kidneys. However, XST attenuated albuminuria, mesangial expansion, podocyte apoptosis, and morphological changes of podocytes in diabetic rats. Decreased expression of PTEN, as well as increased expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1, was detected. These abnormalities were partially restored by XST treatment. Thus, XST ameliorated podocyte apoptosis partly through modulating the PTEN-PDK1-Akt-mTOR pathway. These novel findings might point the way to a natural therapeutic strategy for treating DKD.
Project description:Tangshen Formula (TSF) is a Chinese Medicine formula that has been reported to alleviate proteinuria and protect renal function in humans and animals with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, little is known about its mechanism in improving proteinuria. The dysregulation of podocyte cell-matrix adhesion has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of proteinuric kidney diseases including DKD. In the present study, the underlying protective mechanism of TSF on podocytes was investigated using the murine model of type 2 DKD db/db mice in vivo and advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-stimulated primary mice podocytes in vitro. Results revealed that TSF treatment could significantly mitigate reduction of podocyte numbers and foot process effacement, reduce proteinuria, and protect renal function in db/db mice. There was a significant increase in expression of transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) and a decrease in expression of talin1 in podocytes of db/db mice. The results of AGEs-stimulated primary mice podocytes showed increased cell migration and actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. Moreover, primary mice podocytes stimulated by AGEs displayed an increase in TRPC6-dependent Ca2+ influx, a loss of talin1, and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFATC) 2. These dysregulations in mice primary podocytes stimulated by AGEs could be significantly attenuated after TSF treatment. 1-Oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a TRPC6 agonist, blocked the protective role of TSF on podocyte cell-matrix adherence. In conclusion, TSF could protect podocytes from injury and reduce proteinuria in DKD, which may be mediated by the regulation of the TRPC6/Talin1 pathway in podocytes.
Project description:Notch pathway activation in podocytes has been shown to play an important role in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) development; however, the receptors and ligands involved in the process have not been identified. Here, we report that conditional deletion of Notch1 in podocytes using NPHS2(cre)Notch1(flox/flox) animals resulted in marked amelioration of DKD. On the contrary, podocyte-specific genetic deletion of Notch2 had no effect on albuminuria and mesangial expansion. Notch1-null podocytes were protected from apoptosis and dedifferentiation in vitro, likely explaining the protective phenotype in vivo. Deletion of Notch1 in podocytes also resulted in an increase in Notch2 expression, indicating an interaction between the receptors. At the same time, transgenic overexpression of Notch2 in podocytes did not induce phenotypic changes, while constitutive expression of Notch1 caused rapid development of albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. In summary, our studies indicate that Notch1 plays a distinct (nonredundant) role in podocytes during DKD development.