Clinical Effects of Balanced Crystalloids vs Saline in Adults With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Subgroup Analysis of Cluster Randomized Clinical Trials.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Saline (0.9% sodium chloride), the fluid most commonly used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Balanced crystalloids, an alternative class of fluids for volume expansion, do not cause acidosis and, therefore, may lead to faster resolution of DKA than saline. Objective:To compare the clinical effects of balanced crystalloids with the clinical effects of saline for the acute treatment of adults with DKA. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study was a subgroup analysis of adults with DKA in 2 previously reported companion trials-Saline Against Lactated Ringer's or Plasma-Lyte in the Emergency Department (SALT-ED) and the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART). These trials, conducted between January 2016 and March 2017 in an academic medical center in the US, were pragmatic, multiple-crossover, cluster, randomized clinical trials comparing balanced crystalloids vs saline in emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This study included adults who presented to the ED with DKA, defined as a clinical diagnosis of DKA, plasma glucose greater than 250 mg/dL, plasma bicarbonate less than or equal to 18 mmol/L, and anion gap greater than 10 mmol/L. Data analysis was performed from January to April 2020. Interventions:Balanced crystalloids (clinician's choice of Ringer lactate solution or Plasma-Lyte A solution) vs saline for fluid administration in the ED and ICU according to the same cluster-randomized multiple-crossover schedule. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was time between ED presentation and DKA resolution, as defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. The secondary outcome was time between initiation and discontinuation of continuous insulin infusion. Results:Among 172 adults included in this secondary analysis of cluster trials, 94 were assigned to balanced crystalloids and 78 to saline. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 29 (24-45) years, and 90 (52.3%) were women. The median (IQR) volume of isotonic fluid administered in the ED and ICU was 4478 (3000-6372) mL. Cumulative incidence analysis revealed shorter time to DKA resolution in the balanced crystalloids group (median time to resolution: 13.0 hours; IQR: 9.5-18.8 hours) than the saline group (median: 16.9 hours; IQR: 11.9-34.5 hours) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]?=?1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.38; P = .004). Cumulative incidence analysis also revealed shorter time to insulin infusion discontinuation in the balanced crystalloids group (median: 9.8 hours; IQR: 5.1-17.0 hours) than the saline group (median: 13.4 hours; IQR: 11.0-17.9 hours) (aHR?=?1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.03; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance:In this secondary analysis of 2 cluster randomized clinical trials, compared with saline, treatment with balanced crystalloids resulted in more rapid resolution of DKA, suggesting that balanced crystalloids may be preferred over saline for acute management of adults with DKA. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02614040; NCT02444988.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Comparative clinical effects of balanced crystalloids and saline are uncertain, particularly in noncritically ill patients cared for outside an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:We conducted a single-center, pragmatic, multiple-crossover trial comparing balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A) with saline among adults who were treated with intravenous crystalloids in the emergency department and were subsequently hospitalized outside an ICU. The type of crystalloid that was administered in the emergency department was assigned to each patient on the basis of calendar month, with the entire emergency department crossing over between balanced crystalloids and saline monthly during the 16-month trial. The primary outcome was hospital-free days (days alive after discharge before day 28). Secondary outcomes included major adverse kidney events within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ?200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first. RESULTS:A total of 13,347 patients were enrolled, with a median crystalloid volume administered in the emergency department of 1079 ml and 88.3% of the patients exclusively receiving the assigned crystalloid. The number of hospital-free days did not differ between the balanced-crystalloids and saline groups (median, 25 days in each group; adjusted odds ratio with balanced crystalloids, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.04; P=0.41). Balanced crystalloids resulted in a lower incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days than saline (4.7% vs. 5.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Among noncritically ill adults treated with intravenous fluids in the emergency department, there was no difference in hospital-free days between treatment with balanced crystalloids and treatment with saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SALT-ED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02614040 .).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent trials have suggested use of balanced crystalloids may decrease the incidence of major adverse kidney events compared to saline in critically ill adults. The effect of crystalloid composition on biomarkers of early acute kidney injury remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>From February 15 to July 15, 2016, we conducted an ancillary study to the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) comparing the effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) among 261 consecutively-enrolled critically ill adults admitted from the emergency department to the medical ICU. After informed consent, we collected urine 36?± 12?h after hospital admission and measured NGAL and KIM-1 levels using commercially available ELISAs. Levels of NGAL and KIM-1 at 36?± 12?h were compared between patients assigned to balanced crystalloids versus saline using a Mann-Whitney U test.<h4>Results</h4>The 131 patients (50.2%) assigned to the balanced crystalloid group and the 130 patients (49.8%) assigned to the saline group were similar at baseline. Urinary NGAL levels were significantly lower in the balanced crystalloid group (median, 39.4?ng/mg [IQR 9.9 to 133.2]) compared with the saline group (median, 64.4?ng/mg [IQR 27.6 to 339.9]) (P <?0.001). Urinary KIM-1 levels did not significantly differ between the balanced crystalloid group (median, 2.7?ng/mg [IQR 1.5 to 4.9]) and the saline group (median, 2.4?ng/mg [IQR 1.3 to 5.0]) (P =?0.36).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this ancillary analysis of a clinical trial comparing balanced crystalloids to saline among critically ill adults, balanced crystalloids were associated with lower urinary concentrations of NGAL and similar urinary concentrations of KIM-1, compared with saline. These results suggest only a modest reduction in early biomarkers of acute kidney injury with use of balanced crystalloids compared with saline.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02444988 . Date registered: May 15, 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication encountered during the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Plasma-Lyte with lower chloride concentration than saline has been shown to be associated with reduced incidence of AKI in adults with septic shock. No study has compared this in DKA. METHODS:This double-blind, parallel-arm, investigator-initiated, randomized controlled trial compared 0.9% saline with Plasma-Lyte-A as initial fluid in pediatric DKA. The study was done in a tertiary care, teaching, and referral hospital in India in children (>?1?month-12?years) with DKA as defined by ISPAD. Children with cerebral edema or known chronic kidney/liver disease or who had received pre-referral fluids and/or insulin were excluded. Sixty-six children were randomized to receive either Plasma-Lyte (n =?34) or 0.9% saline (n =?32). MAIN OUTCOMES:Primary outcome was incidence of new or progressive AKI, defined as a composite outcome of change in creatinine (defined by KDIGO), estimated creatinine clearance (defined by p-RIFLE), and NGAL levels. The secondary outcomes were resolution of AKI, time to resolution of DKA (pH?>?7.3, bicarbonate>?15?mEq/L & normal sensorium), change in chloride, pH and bicarbonate levels, proportion of in-hospital all-cause mortality, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), and length of ICU and hospital stay. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The incidence of new or progressive AKI was similar in both [Plasma-Lyte 13 (38.2%) versus 0.9% saline 15 (46.9%); adjusted OR 1.22; 95% CI 0.43-3.43, p =?0.70]. The median (IQR) time to resolution of DKA in Plasma-Lyte-A and 0.9% saline were 14.5 (12 to 20) and 16 (8 to 20) h respectively. Time to resolution of AKI was similar in both [Plasma-Lyte 22.1 versus 0.9% saline 18.8?h (adjusted HR 1.72; 95% CI 0.83-3.57; p =?0.14)]. Length of hospital stay was also similar in both [Plasma-Lyte 9 (8 to 12) versus 0.9% saline 10 (8.25 to 11) days; p =?0.39]. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of new or progressive AKI and resolution of AKI were similar in both groups. Plasma-Lyte-A was similar to 0.9% Saline in time to resolution of DKA, need for RRT, mortality, and lengths of PICU and hospital stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical trial registry of India, CTRI/2018/05/014042 (ctri.nic.in) (Retrospectively registered).
Project description:Intravenous fluid therapy is the most common intervention received by acutely ill patients. Historically, saline (0.9% sodium chloride) has been the most frequently administered intravenous fluid, especially in North America. Balanced crystalloid solutions (e.g., lactated Ringer's, Plasma-Lyte) are an increasingly used alternative to saline. Balanced crystalloids have a sodium, potassium, and chloride content closer to that of extracellular fluid and, when given intravenously, have fewer adverse effects on acid-base balance. Preclinical research has demonstrated that saline may cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, inflammation, hypotension, acute kidney injury, and death. Studies of patients and healthy human volunteers suggest that even relatively small volumes of saline may exert physiological effects. Randomized trials in the operating room have demonstrated that using balanced crystalloids rather than saline prevents the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and may reduce the need for vasopressors. Observational studies among critically ill adults have associated receipt of balanced crystalloids with lower rates of complications, including acute kidney injury and death. Most recently, large randomized trials among critically ill adults have examined whether balanced crystalloids result in less death or severe renal dysfunction than saline. Although some of these trials are still ongoing, a growing body of evidence raises fundamental concerns regarding saline as the primary intravenous crystalloid for critically ill adults and highlights fundamental unanswered questions for future research about fluid therapy in critical illness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both balanced crystalloids and saline are used for intravenous fluid administration in critically ill adults, but it is not known which results in better clinical outcomes. METHODS:In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial conducted in five intensive care units at an academic center, we assigned 15,802 adults to receive saline (0.9% sodium chloride) or balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A) according to the randomization of the unit to which they were admitted. The primary outcome was a major adverse kidney event within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ?200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first. RESULTS:Among the 7942 patients in the balanced-crystalloids group, 1139 (14.3%) had a major adverse kidney event, as compared with 1211 of 7860 patients (15.4%) in the saline group (marginal odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.99; conditional odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99; P=0.04). In-hospital mortality at 30 days was 10.3% in the balanced-crystalloids group and 11.1% in the saline group (P=0.06). The incidence of new renal-replacement therapy was 2.5% and 2.9%, respectively (P=0.08), and the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction was 6.4% and 6.6%, respectively (P=0.60). CONCLUSIONS:Among critically ill adults, the use of balanced crystalloids for intravenous fluid administration resulted in a lower rate of the composite outcome of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction than the use of saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SMART-MED and SMART-SURG ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02444988 and NCT02547779 .).
Project description:Saline, the intravenous fluid most commonly administered to critically ill adults, contains a high chloride content, which may be associated with acute kidney injury and death. Whether using balanced crystalloids rather than saline decreases the risk of acute kidney injury and death among critically ill adults remains unknown.The Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) is a pragmatic, cluster-level allocation, cluster-level crossover trial being conducted between 1 June 2015 and 30 April 2017 in five intensive care units at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA. SMART compares saline (0.9% sodium chloride) with balanced crystalloids (clinician's choice of lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A®). Each intensive care unit is assigned to provide either saline or balanced crystalloids each month, with the assigned crystalloid alternating monthly over the course of the trial. All adults admitted to participating intensive care units during the study period are enrolled and followed until hospital discharge or 30 days after enrollment. The anticipated enrollment is approximately 14,000 patients. The primary outcome is Major Adverse Kidney Events within 30 days-the composite of in-hospital death, receipt of new renal replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (discharge creatinine ?200% of baseline creatinine). Secondary clinical outcomes include in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit-free days, ventilator-free days, vasopressor-free days, and renal replacement therapy-free days. Secondary renal outcomes include new renal replacement therapy receipt, persistent renal dysfunction, and incidence of stage 2 or higher acute kidney injury.This ongoing pragmatic trial will provide the largest and most comprehensive comparison to date of clinical outcomes with saline versus balanced crystalloids among critically ill adults.For logistical reasons, SMART was prospectively registered separately for the medical ICU (SMART-MED; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02444988 ; registered on 11 May 2015; date of first patient enrollment: 1 June 2015) and the nonmedical ICUs (SMART-SURG; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02547779 ; registered on 9 September 2015; date of first patient enrollment: 1 October 2015).
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that balanced crystalloids improve quality of recovery more than normal saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) in stable emergency department (ED) patients. Secondary outcomes measured differences in health care use. METHODS:A single-site, participant- and evaluator-blinded, 2-arm parallel allocation (1:1), comparative effectiveness, randomized controlled trial allocated adults receiving intravenous fluids in the ED before discharge to receive 2 L of lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline solution. The primary outcome was symptom scores measured by the validated Quality of Recovery-40 instrument (scores 40 to 200) 24 hours after enrollment. Secondary outcomes included subsequent health care use and medication compliance. RESULTS:Participants (N=157) were enrolled and follow-up was analyzed for 94 (follow-up rate of 60%) with intention-to-treat methodology. There was no difference in postenrollment Quality of Recovery-40 scores between normal saline solution and lactated Ringer's solution groups (mean difference 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] -6.8 to 11.6). Although preenrollment scores were higher in the lactated Ringer's solution group (mean difference 10.5; 95% CI 1.9 to 19.0), adjusting for presurvey imbalances did not change the primary outcome (adjusted difference -3.9; 95% CI -12.9 to 5.2). There were no differences in return to ED (mean difference 7.5%; 95% CI -8.7% to 23.8%), prescriptions filled (mean difference 22.2%; 95% CI -3.3% to 47.6%), or seeking care from another provider (mean difference -2.0%; 95% CI -19.9% to 15.9%) at 7 days. CONCLUSION:Normal saline solution and lactated Ringer's solution were associated with similar 24-hour recovery scores and 7-day health care use in stable ED patients. These results supplement those of recent trials by informing fluid choice for stable ED patients.
Project description:The high chloride content of 0.9% saline leads to adverse pathophysiological effects in both animals and healthy human volunteers, changes not seen after balanced crystalloids. Small randomized trials confirm that the hyperchloremic acidosis induced by saline also occurs in patients, but no clinical outcome benefit was demonstrable when compared with balanced crystalloids, perhaps due to a type II error. A strong signal is emerging from recent large propensity-matched and cohort studies for the adverse effects that 0.9% saline has on the clinical outcome in surgical and critically ill patients when compared with balanced crystalloids. Major complications are the increased incidence of acute kidney injury and the need for renal replacement therapy, and that pathological hyperchloremia may increase postoperative mortality. However, there are no large-scale randomized trials comparing 0.9% saline with balanced crystalloids. Some balanced crystalloids are hypo-osmolar and may not be suitable for neurosurgical patients because of their propensity to cause brain edema. Saline may be the solution of choice used for the resuscitation of patients with alkalosis and hypochloremia. Nevertheless, there is evidence to suggest that balanced crystalloids cause less detriment to renal function than 0.9% saline, with perhaps better clinical outcome. Hence, we argue that chloride-rich crystalloids such as 0.9% saline should be replaced with balanced crystalloids as the mainstay of fluid resuscitation to prevent 'pre-renal' acute kidney injury.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Crystalloids and different component colloids, used for volume resuscitation, are sometimes associated with various adverse effects. Clinical trial findings for such fluid types in different patients' conditions are conflicting. Whether the mortality benefit of balanced crystalloid than saline can be inferred from sepsis to other patient group is uncertain, and adverse effect profile is not comprehensive. This study aims to compare the survival benefits and adverse effects of seven fluid types with network meta-analysis in sepsis, surgical, trauma, and traumatic brain injury patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL) and reference lists of relevant articles occurred from inception until January 2020. Studies on critically ill adults requiring fluid resuscitation were included. Intervention studies reported on balanced crystalloid, saline, iso-oncotic albumin, hyperoncotic albumin, low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (L-HES), high molecular weight HES, and gelatin. Network meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects model to calculate odds ratio (OR) and mean difference. Risk of Bias tool 2.0 was used to assess bias. Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis (CINeMA) web application was used to rate confidence in synthetic evidence.<h4>Results</h4>Fifty-eight trials (n?=?26,351 patients) were identified. Seven fluid types were evaluated. Among patients with sepsis and surgery, balanced crystalloids and albumin achieved better survival, fewer acute kidney injury, and smaller blood transfusion volumes than saline and L-HES. In those with sepsis, balanced crystalloids significantly reduced mortality more than saline (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.95) and L-HES (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.69-0.95) and reduced acute kidney injury more than L-HES (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.65-0.99). However, they required the greatest resuscitation volume among all fluid types, especially in trauma patients. In patients with traumatic brain injury, saline and L-HES achieved lower mortality than albumin and balanced crystalloids; especially saline was significantly superior to iso-oncotic albumin (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.87).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our network meta-analysis found that balanced crystalloids and albumin decreased mortality more than L-HES and saline in sepsis patients; however, saline or L-HES was better than iso-oncotic albumin or balanced crystalloids in traumatic brain injury patients.<h4>Trial registration</h4>PROSPERO website, registration number: CRD42018115641).