Magnetic resonance imaging of spin-wave transport and interference in a magnetic insulator.
ABSTRACT: Spin waves-the elementary excitations of magnetic materials-are prime candidate signal carriers for low-dissipation information processing. Being able to image coherent spin-wave transport is crucial for developing interference-based spin-wave devices. We introduce magnetic resonance imaging of the microwave magnetic stray fields that are generated by spin waves as a new approach for imaging coherent spin-wave transport. We realize this approach using a dense layer of electronic sensor spins in a diamond chip, which combines the ability to detect small magnetic fields with a sensitivity to their polarization. Focusing on a thin-film magnetic insulator, we quantify spin-wave amplitudes, visualize spin-wave dispersion and interference, and demonstrate time-domain measurements of spin-wave packets. We theoretically explain the observed anisotropic spin-wave patterns in terms of chiral spin-wave excitation and stray-field coupling to the sensor spins. Our results pave the way for probing spin waves in atomically thin magnets, even when embedded between opaque materials.
Project description:We report on the direct observation of spin wave and elastic wave emission from magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic thin films. Driven by alternating homogeneous magnetic fields the magnetic domain walls act as coherent magnetisation wave sources. Directional and low damped elastic waves below and above the ferromagnetic resonance are excited. The wave vector of the magnetoelastically induced acoustic waves is tuned by varying the excitation frequency. The occurrence of elastic wave emission is proved by a combination of micromagnetic and mechanical finite element simulations. Domain wall emitted magnetostatic surface spin waves occur at higher frequencies, which characteristics are confirmed by micromagnetic simulations. The distinct modes of magnetisation wave excitation from micromagnetic objects are a general physical phenomenon relevant for dynamic magnetisation processes in structured magnetic films. Magnetic domain walls can act as reconfigurable antennas for spin wave and elastic wave generation. The wave orientation can be controlled separately via the domain wall orientation for elastic waves and via magnetization orientation for magnetostatic surface spin waves.
Project description:Spin-wave devices (SWD), which use collective excitations of electronic spins as a carrier of information, are rapidly emerging as potential candidates for post-semiconductor non-charge-based technology. Isotropic in-plane propagating coherent spin waves (magnons), which require magnetization to be out of plane, is desirable in an SWD. However, because of lack of availability of low-damping perpendicular magnetic material, a usually well-known in-plane ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is used with a large out-of-plane bias magnetic field, which tends to hinder the benefits of isotropic spin waves. We experimentally demonstrate an SWD that eliminates the requirement of external magnetic field to obtain perpendicular magnetization in an otherwise in-plane ferromagnet, Ni80Fe20 or permalloy (Py), a typical choice for spin-wave microconduits. Perpendicular anisotropy in Py, as established by magnetic hysteresis measurements, was induced by the exchange-coupled Co/Pd multilayer. Isotropic propagation of magnon spin information has been experimentally shown in microconduits with three channels patterned at arbitrary angles.
Project description:Local perturbations in the relative orientation of the magnetic moments in a continuous magnetic system can propagate in the form of waves. These so-called spin waves represent a promising candidate as an information carrier for spin-based low-power applications. A localized, energy-efficient excitation of coherent and short-wavelength spin waves is a crucial technological requirement, and alternatives to excitation via the Oersted field of an alternating current must be explored. Here, we show how a domain wall pinned at a geometrical constriction in a perpendicularly magnetized thin nanowire emits spin waves when forced to rotate by the application of a low direct current flowing along the wire. Spin waves are excited by the in-plane stray field of the rotating domain wall and propagate at an odd harmonic of the domain wall rotation frequency in the direction of the electron's flow. The application of an external field, opposing domain wall depinning induced by the current, breaks the symmetry for spin wave propagation in the two domains, allowing emission in both directions but at different frequencies. The results presented define a new approach to manufacture tuneable high-frequency spin wave emitters of easy fabrication and low power consumption.
Project description:Low dissipation data processing with spins is one of the promising directions for future information and communication technologies. Despite a significant progress, the available magnonic devices are not broadband yet and have restricted capabilities to redirect spin waves. Here we propose a breakthrough approach to spin wave manipulation in patterned magnetic nanostructures with unmatched characteristics, which exploits a spin wave analogue to edge waves propagating along a water-wall boundary. Using theory, micromagnetic simulations and experiment we investigate spin waves propagating along the edges in magnetic structures, under an in-plane DC magnetic field inclined with respect to the edge. The proposed edge spin waves overcome important challenges faced by previous technologies such as the manipulation of the spin wave propagation direction, and they substantially improve the capability of transmitting information at frequencies exceeding 10?GHz. The concept of the edge spin waves allows to design a broad of logic devices such as splitters, interferometers, or edge spin wave transistors with unprecedented characteristics and a potentially strong impact on information technologies.
Project description:The ability to sense the magnetic state of individual magnetic nano-objects is a key capability for powerful applications ranging from readout of ultradense magnetic memory to the measurement of spins in complex structures with nanometer precision. Magnetic nano-objects require extremely sensitive sensors and detection methods. We create an atomic spin sensor consisting of three Fe atoms and show that it can detect nanoscale antiferromagnets through minute, surface-mediated magnetic interaction. Coupling, even to an object with no net spin and having vanishing dipolar stray field, modifies the transition matrix element between two spin states of the Fe atom-based spin sensor that changes the sensor's spin relaxation time. The sensor can detect nanoscale antiferromagnets at up to a 3-nm distance and achieves an energy resolution of 10 ?eV, surpassing the thermal limit of conventional scanning probe spectroscopy. This scheme permits simultaneous sensing of multiple antiferromagnets with a single-spin sensor integrated onto the surface.
Project description:To know the properties of a particle or a wave, one should measure how its energy changes with its momentum. The relation between them is called the dispersion relation, which encodes essential information of the kinetics. In a magnet, the wave motion of atomic spins serves as an elementary excitation, called a spin wave, and behaves like a fictitious particle. Although the dispersion relation of spin waves governs many of the magnetic properties, observation of their entire dispersion is one of the challenges today. Spin waves whose dispersion is dominated by magnetostatic interaction are called pure-magnetostatic waves, which are still missing despite of their practical importance. Here, we report observation of the band dispersion relation of pure-magnetostatic waves by developing a table-top all-optical spectroscopy named spin-wave tomography. The result unmasks characteristics of pure-magnetostatic waves. We also demonstrate time-resolved measurements, which reveal coherent energy transfer between spin waves and lattice vibrations.
Project description:Spin-Cherenkov effect enables strong excitations of spin waves (SWs) with nonlinear wave dispersions. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) results in anisotropy and nonreciprocity of SWs propagation. In this work, we study the effect of the interfacial DMI on SW Cherenkov excitations in permalloy thin-film strips within the framework of micromagnetism. By performing micromagnetic simulations, it is shown that coherent SWs are excited when the velocity of a moving magnetic source exceeds the propagation velocity of the SWs. Moreover, the threshold velocity of the moving magnetic source with finite DMI can be reduced compared to the case of zero DMI. It thereby provides a promising route towards efficient spin wave generation and propagation, with potential applications in spintronic and magnonic devices.
Project description:Precise control of magnetic domain walls continues to be a central topic in the field of spintronics to boost infotech, logic, and memory applications. One way is to drive the domain wall by current in metals. In insulators, the incoherent flow of phonons and magnons induced by the temperature gradient can carry the spins, i.e., spin Seebeck effect, but the spatial and time dependence is difficult to control. Here, we report that coherent phonons hybridized with spin waves, magnetoelastic waves, can drive magnetic bubble domains, or curved domain walls, in an iron garnet, which are excited by ultrafast laser pulses at a nonabsorbing photon energy. These magnetoelastic waves were imaged by time-resolved Faraday microscopy, and the resultant spin transfer force was evaluated to be larger for domain walls with steeper curvature. This will pave a path for the rapid spatiotemporal control of magnetic textures in insulating magnets.
Project description:Unveiling spins of physical systems usually gives people a fundamental understanding of the geometrical properties of waves from classical to quantum aspects. A great variety of research has shown that transverse waves can possess nontrivial spins and spin-related properties naturally. However, until now, we still lack essential physical insights about the spin nature of longitudinal waves. Here, demonstrated by elastic waves, we uncover spins for longitudinal waves and the mixed longitudinal-transverse waves that play essential roles in spin-momentum locking. Based on this spin perspective, several abnormal phenomena beyond pure transverse waves are attributed to the hybrid spin induced by mixed longitudinal-transverse waves. The unique hybrid spin reveals the complex spin essence in elastic waves and advances our understanding about their fundamental geometrical properties. We also show that these spin-dependent phenomena can be exploited to control the wave propagation, such as nonsymmetric elastic wave excitation by spin pairs, a unidirectional Rayleigh wave, and spin-selected elastic wave routing. These findings are generally applicable for wave cases with longitudinal and transverse components.
Project description:Imaging the fields of magnetic materials provides crucial insight into the physical and chemical processes surrounding magnetism, and has been a key ingredient in the spectacular development of magnetic data storage. Existing approaches using the magneto-optic Kerr effect, x-ray and electron microscopy have limitations that constrain further development, and there is increasing demand for imaging and characterisation of magnetic phenomena in real time with high spatial resolution. Here we show how the magneto-optical response of an array of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy spins in diamond can be used to image and map the sub-micron stray magnetic field patterns from thin ferromagnetic films. Using optically detected magnetic resonance, we demonstrate wide-field magnetic imaging over 100?×?100??m(2) with sub-micron spatial resolution at video frame rates, under ambient conditions. We demonstrate an all-optical spin relaxation contrast imaging approach which can image magnetic structures in the absence of an applied microwave field. Straightforward extensions promise imaging with sub-?T sensitivity and sub-optical spatial and millisecond temporal resolution. This work establishes practical diamond-based wide-field microscopy for rapid high-sensitivity characterisation and imaging of magnetic samples, with the capability for investigating magnetic phenomena such as domain wall and skyrmion dynamics and the spin Hall effect in metals.