Genetic Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus From the 2018 Outbreak in South-Eastern Burundi.
ABSTRACT: African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease that causes high mortality, approaching 100%, in domestic pigs and wild boars. The disease has neither a cure nor a vaccine, and it is caused by an ASF virus (ASFV), the only member of the family Asfarviridae, genus Asfivirus, and the only known DNA arbovirus. Twenty-four genotypes of ASFV have been described to date, and all of them have been described in Africa. ASF is endemic in Burundi, and several outbreaks have been reported in the country; the disease continues to economically impact on small-scale farmers. This study aimed at genetic characterization of ASFV that caused an ASF outbreak in the Rutana region, Burundi, in the year 2018. Tissue samples from domestic pigs that died as a result of a severe hemorrhagic disease were collected in order to confirm the disease using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to conduct partial genome sequencing. Nucleotide sequences were obtained for the B646L (p72) gene, the intergenic fragment between the I73R and I329L genes, and the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the Burundian 2018 ASFV grouped the virus within B646L (p72) genotype X and clustered together with those reported during the 1984 and 1990 outbreaks in Burundi with high nucleotide identity to some ASFV strains previously reported in neighboring East African countries, indicating a regional distribution of this ASFV genotype. Analysis of the intergenic fragment between I73R and I329L genes showed that the Burundian 2018 ASFV described in this study lacked a 32-base pair (bp) fragment present in the reference genotype X strain, Kenya 1950. In addition, the strain described in this study had the signature AAABNAABA at the CVR (B602L) gene and showed 100% amino acid sequence identity to viruses responsible for recent ASF outbreaks in the region. The virus described in this study showed high genetic similarities with ASFV strains previously described in domestic pigs, wild suids, and soft ticks in East African countries, indicating a possible common wild source and continuous circulation in domestic pigs in the region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious transboundary animal disease which causes high mortality, approaching 100% in domestic pigs and it is currently considered as the most serious constraint to domestic pig industry and food security globally. Despite regular ASF outbreaks within Malawi, few studies have genetically characterized the causative ASF virus (ASFV). This study aimed at genetic characterization of ASFV responsible for the 2019 outbreak in northern Malawi. The disease confirmation was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by molecular characterization of the causative ASFV by partial genome sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction of the B646L (p72) gene, nucleotide alignment of the intergenic region (IGR) between I73R and I329L genes and translation of the central variable region (CVR) coded by B602L gene. RESULTS:All thirteen samples collected during this study in Karonga district in September 2019 were ASFV-positive and after partial genome sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction of the B646L (p72) gene, the viruses clustered into ASFV p72 genotype II. The viruses characterized in this study lacked a GAATATATAG fragment between the I173R and the I329L genes and were classified as IGR I variants. Furthermore, the tetrameric amino acid repeats within the CVR of the B602L gene of the 2019 Malawian ASFV reported in this study had the signature BNDBNDBNAA, 100% similar to ASFV responsible for the 2013 and 2017 ASF outbreaks in Zambia and Tanzania, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study confirm an ASF outbreak in Karonga district in northern Malawi in September 2019. The virus was closely related to other p72 genotype II ASFV that caused outbreaks in neighboring eastern and southern African countries, emphasizing the possible regional transboundary transmission of this ASFV genotype. These findings call for a concerted regional and international effort to control the spread of ASF in order to improve nutritional and food security.
Project description:BACKGROUND:African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and severe hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs. The analysis of variable regions of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome led to more genotypic and serotypic information about circulating strains. The present study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of ASFV strains in symptomatic pigs in South Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Blood samples collected from 391 ASF symptomatic domestic pigs in 6 of 8 districts in South Kivu were screened for the presence of ASFV, using a VP73 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the universal primer set PPA1-PPA2. To genotype the strains, we sequenced and compared the nucleotide sequences of PPA-positive samples at three loci: the C-terminus of B646L gene encoding the p72 protein, the E183L gene encoding the p54 protein, and the central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene encoding the J9L protein. In addition, to serotype and discriminate between closely related strains, the EP402L (CD2v) gene and the intergenic region between the I73R and I329L genes were analyzed. RESULTS:ASFV was confirmed in 26 of 391 pigs tested. However, only 19 and 15 PPA-positive samples, respectively, were successfully sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for p72 (B646L) and p54 (E183L). All the ASFV studied were of genotype X. The CVR tetrameric repeat clustered the ASFV strains in two subgroups: the Uvira subgroup (10 TRS repeats, AAAABNAABA) and another subgroup from all other strains (8 TRS repeats, AABNAABA). The phylogenetic analysis of the EP402L gene clustered all the strains into CD2v serogroup 7. Analyzing the intergenic region between I73R and I329L genes revealed that the strains were identical but contained a deletion of a 33-nucleotide internal repeat sequence compared to ASFV strain Kenya 1950. CONCLUSION:ASFV genotype X and serogroup 7 was identified in the ASF disease outbreaks in South Kivu province of DRC in 2018-2019. This represents the first report of ASFV genotype X in DRC. CVR tetrameric repeat sequences clustered the ASFV strains studied in two subgroups. Our finding emphasizes the need for improved coordination of the control of ASF.
Project description:On 17 September 2019, the first outbreak of African swine fever in a pig farm was confirmed in South Korea. By 9 October, 14 outbreaks of ASF in domestic pigs had been diagnosed in 4 cities/counties. We isolated viruses from all infected farms and performed genetic characterization. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all of fourteen ASFV isolates in South Korea belong to genotype II and serogroup 8. Additionally, all isolates had an intergenic region (IGR) II variant with additional tandem repeat sequences (TRSs) between the I73R and I329L genes and showed characteristics of central variable region (CVR) 1 of the B602L gene and IGR 1 of MGF 505 9R/10R genes. These are identical to the genetic characteristics of some European isolates and Chinese isolates.
Project description:African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic fever of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Asfarviridae. In this study, molecular diagnosis and characterization of outbreak ASFV in northern Tanzania, was performed on spleen, lymph node, kidney, and heart samples collected in June and July 2013 from domestic pigs that died during a hemorrhagic disease outbreak. Confirmatory diagnosis of ASF was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by partial amplification of B646L gene of ASFV encoding the major capsid protein p72 using PPA1/PPA2 primers. PCR using PPA1/PPA2 primers produced an expected PCR product size, confirming ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania. In addition, nucleotide amplification and sequencing, and phylogenetic reconstruction of the variable 3'-end of the B646L gene and complete E183L gene encoding the inner envelope transmembrane protein p54 showed that the 2013 outbreak ASFV from northern Tanzania were 100 % identical and clustered into ASFV B646L (p72) and E183L (p54) genotype X. Furthermore, the tetrameric amino acid repeats within the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene coding for the J9L protein had the signature BNBA(BN)5NA with a single novel tetramer NVDI (repeat code N). The results of the present study confirm an ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania in the year 2013 and show that the present outbreak ASFV is closely related to other ASFV from ticks, warthogs, and domestic pigs previously reported from Tanzania.
Project description:African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed in the Caucasus region of Georgia, and it has since spread to neighboring countries. DNA fragments amplified from the genome of the isolates from domestic pigs in Georgia in 2007 were sequenced and compared with other ASF virus (ASFV) isolates to establish the genotype of the virus. Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. Analysis of these sequences indicated that the Georgia 2007 isolate is closely related to isolates belonging to genotype II, which is circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. One possibility for the spread of disease to Georgia is that pigs were fed ASFV-contaminated pork brought in on ships and, subsequently, the disease was disseminated throughout the region.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Eastern Africa particularly in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. Sequence analysis of variable genome regions have been extensively used for molecular epidemiological studies of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates. By combining p72, P54 and pB602L (CVR), a high level resolution approach is achieved for viral discrimination. The major aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the genetic relatedness of ASF outbreaks that occurred between 2010 and 2013 in Uganda to contribute to the clarification of the epidemiological situation over a four year period.<h4>Methods</h4>Tissue samples from infected domestic pigs associated with an ASF outbreak from 15 districts in Uganda were confirmed as being infected with ASFV using a p72 gene-based polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) assay recommended by OIE. The analysis was conducted by genotyping based on sequence data from three single copy ASFV genes. The E183L gene encoding the structural protein P54 and part of the gene encoding the p72 protein was used to delineate genotypes. Intra-genotypic resolution of viral relationships was achieved by analysis of tetramer amino acid repeats within the hypervariable CVR of the B602L gene.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty one (21) ASF outbreaks were confirmed by the p72 ASF diagnostic PCR, however; only 17 isolates were successfully aligned after sequencing. Our entire isolates cluster with previous ASF viruses in genotype IX isolated in Uganda and Kenya using p72 and P54 genes. Analysis of the CVR gene generated three sub-groups one with 23 tetrameric amino acid repeats (TRS) with an additional CAST sequence, the second with 22 TRS while one isolate Ug13. Kampala1 had 13 TRS.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We identified two new CVR subgroups different from previous studies. This study constitutes the first detailed assessment of the molecular epidemiology of ASFV in domestic pigs in the different regions of Uganda.
Project description:African swine fever virus (ASFV), the cause of a devastating disease affecting domestic and wild pigs, has been present in Sardinia since 1978. In the framework of the regional ASF eradication plan, 4484 illegal pigs were culled between December 2017 and February 2020. The highest disease prevalence was observed in the municipality with the highest free-ranging pig density, and culling actions drastically reduced ASFV circulation among these animals. ASFV-antibody were detected in 36.7% of tested animals, which were apparently healthy, thus, the circulation of low-virulence ASFV isolates was hypothesized. ASFV genome was detected in 53 out of 2726 tested animals, and virus isolation was achieved in two distinct culling actions. Two ASFV haemadsorbing strains were isolated from antibody-positive apparently healthy pigs: 55234/18 and 103917/18. Typing analysis revealed that both isolates belong to p72 genotype I, B602L subgroup X; phylogenetic analysis based on whole genome sequencing data showed that they were closely related to Sardinian ASFV strains collected since 2010, especially 22653/Ca/2014. Our data suggested the absence of immune-escaped ASFV variants circulating among free-ranging pigs, indicating that other elements contributed to virus circulation among these animals. Understanding factors behind disease persistence in endemic settings might contribute to developing effective countermeasures against this disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease, affects domestic pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where regular outbreaks are reported leading to high mortality rates approaching 100% in the affected regions. No study on the characteristics of the complete genome of strains responsible for ASF outbreaks in the South Kivu province of DRC is available, limited a better understanding of molecular evolution and spread of this virus within the country. The present study aimed at determining the complete genome sequence of ASFV strains genotype X involved in 2018-2019 ASF disease outbreaks in South Kivu province of DRC.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Genomic DNA of a spleen sample from an ASFV genotype X-positive domestic pig in Uvira, during the 2018-2019 outbreaks in South Kivu, was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq X platform. Obtained trimmed reads using Geneious Prime 2020.0.4 were blasted against a pig reference genome then contigs were generated from the unmapped reads enriched in ASFV DNA using Spades implemented in Geneious 2020.0.4. The assembly of the complete genome sequence of ASFV was achieved from the longest overlapping contigs. The new genome was annotated with the genome annotation transfer utility (GATU) software and the CLC Genomics Workbench 8 software was further used to search for any ORFs that failed to be identified by GATU. Subsequent analyses of the newly determined Uvira ASFV genotype X genome were done using BLAST for databases search, CLUSTAL W for multiple sequences alignments and MEGA X for phylogeny.<h4>Results</h4>42 Gbp paired-end reads of 150 bp long were obtained containing about 0.1% of ASFV DNA. The assembled Uvira ASFV genome, termed Uvira B53, was 180,916 bp long that could be assembled in 2 contigs. The Uvira B53genome had a GC content of 38.5%, encoded 168 open reading frames (ORFs) and had 98.8% nucleotide identity with the reference ASFV genotype X Kenya 1950. The phylogenetic relationship with selected representative genomes clustered the Uvira B53 strain together with ASFV genotype X reported to date (Kenya 1950 and Ken05/Tk1). Multiple genome sequences comparison with the two reference ASFV genotype X strains showed that 130 of the 168 ORFs were fully conserved in the Uvira B53. The other 38 ORFs were divergent mainly due to SNPs and indels (deletions and insertions). Most of 46 multigene family (MGF) genes identified were affected by various genetic variations. However, 8 MGF ORFs present in Kenya 1950 and Ken05/Tk1 were absent from the Uvira B53 genome including three members of MGF 360, four of MGF 110 and one of MGF 100 while one MGF ORF (MGF 360-1L) at the left end of the genome was truncated in Uvira B53. Moreover, ORFs DP96R and p285L were also absent in the Uvira B53 genome. In contrast, the ORF MGF 110-5L present in Uvira B53 and Ken05/Tk1 was missing in Kenya 1950. The analysis of the intergenic region between the I73R and I329L genes also revealed sequence variations between the three genotype X strains mainly characterized by a deletion of 69 bp in Uvira B53 and 36 bp in Kenya 1950, compared to Ken05/Tk1. Assessment of the CD2v (EP402R) antigen unveiled the presence of SNPs and indels particularly in the PPPKPY tandem repeat region between selected variants representing the eight serogroups reported to date. Uvira B53 had identical CD2v variable region to the Uganda (KM609361) strain, the only other ASFV serogroup 7 reported to date.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We report the first complete genome sequence of an African swine fever virus (ASFV) p72 genotype X and CD2v serogroup 7, termed Uvira B53. This study provides additional insights on genetic characteristics and evolution of ASFV useful for tracing the geographical spread of ASF and essential for improved design of control and management strategies against ASF.
Project description:African Swine Fever (ASF) is a viral disease that affects animals of the Suidae family, and soft ticks from the genus Ornithodoros can also be infected by the ASF virus (ASFV). The disease was first described in Africa at the beginning of the twentieth century as an acute disease characterized by high mortality and fatal hemorrhages. ASF has caused outbreaks in numerous countries and it continues to be devastating nowadays for the porcine sector in those countries affected, and a massive threat for those free of the disease. ASF can follow clinical courses from peracute to chronic in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) depending on a variety of factors, including the immune status of the animals and the virulence of the ASFV strain. The key features of the pathogenesis of the disease in domestic swine are a) a severe lymphoid depletion including lymphopenia and a state of immunodeficiency, and b) hemorrhages. However, African wild swine like bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), and warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) can be infected by ASFV showing no clinical signs of disease and acting as natural reservoir hosts. In this article we review the key features of the gross and microscopic pathology together with a description of the pathogenesis of ASFV infection in domestic pigs following the different clinical courses. The pathogenesis of ASF in wild and domestic swine is also described, what can provide important information for the design of control strategies, such as vaccines.
Project description:Background African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs that threatens livelihoods and food security. In Africa, ASF virus (ASFV) circulates in sylvatic (transmission between warthogs and soft argasid ticks) and domestic (transmission between domestic pigs) cycles, with outbreaks resulting from ASFV spill-over from sylvatic cycle. A number of outbreaks were reported in different parts of Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. The present study investigated ASFV transmission patterns through viral DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3120 tissue samples were collected from 2396 domestic pigs during outbreaks at different locations in Tanzania between 2015 and 2017. Partial sequencing of the B646L (p72) gene was conducted for diagnostic confirmation and molecular characterization of ASFV. Phylogenetic analysis to study the relatedness of current ASFV with those that caused previous outbreaks in Tanzania and representatives of all known 24 ASFV was performed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood model with 1000 bootstrap replications in MEGA 6.0. Results ASFV was confirmed to cause disease in sampled domestic pigs. ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X were detected from reported outbreaks in 2015–2017. The current ASFV isolates were similar to those recently documented in the previous studies in Tanzania. The similarities of these isolates suggests for continuous circulation of ASFV with virus maintenance within the domestic pigs. Conclusions Genetic analysis confirmed the circulation of ASFV genotypes II, IX, and X by partial B646L (p72) gene sequencing. The similarities of current isolates to previously isolated Tanzanian isolates and pattern of disease spread suggest for continuous circulation of ASF with virus’ maintenance in the domestic pigs. Although certain viral genotypes seem to be geographically restricted into certain zones within Tanzania, genotype II seems to expand its geographical range northwards with the likelihood of spreading to other states of the East African Community. The spread of ASFV is due to breach of quarantine and transportation of infected pigs via major highways. Appropriate control measures including zoosanitary measures and quarantine enforcement are recommended to prevent ASF domestic circulation in Tanzania.