Draft Genome Sequence of Psychrotolerant Shewanella sp. Strain VB17, Isolated from Marine Intertidal Sediment near Virginia Beach, Virginia.
ABSTRACT: We present the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. strain VB17, which was isolated from Virginia Beach, Virginia, intertidal sediment. The 5.2-Mb genome sequence of VB17 will be useful for studying the basis for seasonal low-temperature growth and eventual taxonomic classification of the species.
Project description:In coastal environments, evaporation is an important driver of subsurface salinity gradients in marsh systems. However, it has not been addressed in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches. Here, we used field data on an estuarine beach foreshore with numerical simulations to show that evaporation causes upper intertidal zone pore-water salinity to be double that of seawater. We found the increase in pore-water salinity mainly depends on air temperature and relative humidity, and tide and wave actions dilute a fraction of the high salinity plume, resulting in a complex process. This is in contrast to previous studies that consider seawater as the most saline source to a coastal aquifer system, thereby concluding that seawater infiltration always increases pore-water salinity by seawater-groundwater mixing dynamics. Our results demonstrate the combined effects of evaporation and tide and waves on subsurface salinity distribution on a beach face. We anticipate our quantitative investigation will shed light on the studies of salt-affected biological activities in the intertidal zone. It also impacts our understanding of the impact of global warming; in particular, the increase in temperature does not only shift the saltwater landward, but creates a different salinity distribution that would have implications on intertidal biological zonation.
Project description:Forced by tides and waves, large volumes of seawater are flushed through the beach daily. Organic material and nutrients in seawater are remineralized and cycled as they pass through the beach. Microorganisms are responsible for most of the biogeochemical cycling in the beach; however, few studies have characterized their diversity in intertidal sands, and little work has characterized the extent to which microbes are transported between different compartments of the beach. The present study uses next-generation massively parallel sequencing to characterize the microbial community present at 49 beaches along the coast of California. In addition, we characterize the transport of microorganisms within intertidal sands using laboratory column experiments. We identified extensive diversity in the beach sands. Nearly 1,000 unique taxa were identified in sands from 10 or more unique beaches, suggesting the existence of a group of "cosmopolitan" sand microorganisms. A biogeographical analysis identified a taxon-distance relationship among the beaches. In addition, sands with similar grain size, organic carbon content, exposed to a similar wave climate, and having the same degree of anthropogenic influence tended to have similar microbial communities. Column experiments identified microbes readily mobilized by seawater infiltrating through unsaturated intertidal sands. The ease with which microbes were mobilized suggests that intertidal sands may represent a reservoir of bacteria that seed the beach aquifer where they may partake in biogeochemical cycling.
Project description:Studies of microbial community structure in intertidal and supratidal beach sands along the California and Gulf of Mexico coasts have begun to reveal geographical patterns in microbial diversity through the use of next generation sequencing technology. Only a few studies have targeted communities along the Eastern seaboard, leaving a variety of microbial ecosystems uncharacterized. In this study, we examine the microbial community structure within three South Carolina beaches along the Grand Strand via sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to discern relationships between diversity and temporal or regional factors. Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria dominated the composition of these beaches. Diversity analyses revealed that highly diverse communities were similar in overall composition and diversity but showed different levels of community structure stability over time. The community structure in Pawleys Island sands showed no significant change over time, while Garden City experienced significant shifts between each sampling date. Community structure also differed between beaches and, to a lesser degree, sampling date. These data provide evidence of the high microbial diversity within these beach sands and suggest that even though beaches of the same geographic region can show similarity in composition and diversity at a particular timepoint, the nature of their community structure and underlying diversity may differ comparatively and over time.
Project description:The inter-annual variability of the fish and macrocrustacean spring community on an intertidal sandy beach near the Canche estuary (North of France) was studied from 2000 to 2013 based on weekly spring sampling over an 11-year period. Twenty-eight species representing 21 families were collected during the course of the study. The community was dominated by a few abundant species accounting for > 99% of the total species densities. Most individuals caught were young-of-the-year indicating the importance of this ecosystem for juvenile fishes and macrocrustaceans. Although standard qualitative community ecology metrics (species composition, richness, diversity, evenness and similarity) indicated notable stability over the study period, community structure showed a clear change since 2009. Densities of P. platessa, P. microps and A. tobianus decreased significantly since 2009, whereas over the period 2010-2013, the contribution of S. sprattus to total species density increased 4-fold. Co-inertia and generalised linear model analyses identified winter NAO index, water temperature, salinity and suspended particular matter as the major environmental factors explaining these changes. Although the recurrent and dense spring blooms of the Prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa is one of the main potential threats in shallow waters of the eastern English Channel, no negative impact of its temporal change was detected on the fish and macrocrustacean spring community structure.
Project description:Evaluating impacts to biodiversity requires ecologically informed comparisons over sufficient time spans. The vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to anthropogenic and climate change-related impacts makes them potentially valuable indicators of biodiversity change. To evaluate multidecadal change in biodiversity, we compared results from intertidal surveys of 13 sandy beaches conducted in the 1970s and 2009-11 along 500 km of coast (California, USA). Using a novel extrapolation approach to adjust species richness for sampling effort allowed us to address data gaps and has promise for application to other data-limited biodiversity comparisons. Long-term changes in species richness varied in direction and magnitude among beaches and with human impacts but showed no regional patterns. Observed long-term changes in richness differed markedly among functional groups of intertidal invertebrates. At the majority (77%) of beaches, changes in richness were most evident for wrack-associated invertebrates suggesting they have disproportionate vulnerability to impacts. Reduced diversity of this group was consistent with long-term habitat loss from erosion and sea level rise at one beach. Wrack-associated species richness declined over time at impacted beaches (beach fill and grooming), despite observed increases in overall intertidal richness. In contrast richness of these taxa increased at more than half (53%) of the beaches including two beaches recovering from decades of off-road vehicle impacts. Over more than three decades, our results suggest that local scale processes exerted a stronger influence on intertidal biodiversity on beaches than regional processes and highlight the role of human impacts for local spatial scales. Our results illustrate how comparisons of overall biodiversity may mask ecologically important changes and stress the value of evaluating biodiversity change in the context of functional groups. The long-term loss of wrack-associated species, a key component of sandy beach ecosystems, documented here represents a significant threat to the biodiversity and function of coastal ecosystems.
Project description:The role of habitat complexity has been widely neglected in the study of meiofaunal community patterns. We studied the intertidal nematode community of a structurally complex macrotidal beach exhibiting contrasting microhabitats (sandbars and runnels) to understand the influence of environmental gradients and habitat heterogeneity in the community structure. We tested whether topographical complexity affected (1) the zonation pattern in terms of abundance and diversity, and (2) local diversity by promoting compartmentalization into distinct faunal groups. Our analyses revealed three major faunal assemblages along the exposure gradient associated to differences in mean grain size and chlorophyll a. Diversity patterns involved a mid-intertidal peak, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and another peak at the limit with the subtidal region, consistent with the transition zone. These results highlight the predominance of environmental gradients in establishing intertidal zonation. However, microhabitats differed in environmental conditions and possessed significantly distinct nematofaunal communities. Runnels featured higher levels of taxonomic and functional diversity, many unique genera, and the community differed from the assemblage at the limit to the subtidal, stressing their role as distinct microhabitats. The nematofauna of the structurally complex beach was more diverse than the one from a homogeneous beach nearby, supporting the hypothesis that structural heterogeneity promotes diversity by compartmentalization and highlighting the importance of microhabitats in the assessment of biodiversity. Contrary to previous predictions, our results indicate potentially high regional marine nematode diversity in the Upper Gulf of California.
Project description:Sediment-oil-agglomerates (SOA) are one of the most common forms of contamination impacting shores after a major oil spill; and following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, large numbers of SOAs were buried in the sandy beaches of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. SOAs provide a source of toxic oil compounds, and although SOAs can persist for many years, their long-term fate was unknown. Here we report the results of a 3-year in-situ experiment that quantified the degradation of standardized SOAs buried in the upper 50?cm of a North Florida sandy beach. Time series of hydrocarbon mass, carbon content, n-alkanes, PAHs, and fluorescence indicate that the decomposition of golf-ball-size DWH-SOAs embedded in beach sand takes at least 32 years, while SOA degradation without sediment contact would require more than 100 years. SOA alkane and PAH decay rates within the sediment were similar to those at the beach surface. The porous structure of the SOAs kept their cores oxygen-replete. The results reveal that SOAs buried deep in beach sands can be decomposed through relatively rapid aerobic microbial oil degradation in the tidally ventilated permeable beach sand, emphasizing the role of the sandy beach as an aerobic biocatalytical reactor at the land-ocean interface.
Project description:Actinobacteria are the major source of bioactive natural products that find their value in research and drug discovery programmes. Antimicrobial resistance and the resulting high demand for novel antibiotics underscore the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria endowed with biosynthetic potential. Intertidal ecosystems endure regular periods of immersion and emersion, and represent an untapped source of Actinobacteria. In this study, we studied the diversity and biosynthetic potential of cultivable Actinobacteria from intertidal sediments of Diu Island in the Arabian Sea. A total of 148 Actinobacteria were selectively isolated using a stamping method with eight isolation media. Isolates were grouped into OTUs based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, and categorized within actinobacterial families such as Glycomycetaceae, Micromonosporaceae, Nocardiaceae, Nocardiopsaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Streptomycetaceae, and Thermomonosporaceae. The biosynthetic potential of the Actinobacteria, necessary for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, was screened and confirmed by extensive fingerprinting approaches based on genes coding for polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The observed biosynthetic potential was correlated with the antibacterial activity exhibited by these isolates in laboratory conditions. Ultimately, the results demonstrate that intertidal sediment is a rich source of diverse cultivable Actinobacteria with high potential to synthesize novel bioactive compounds in their genomes.
Project description:Most monitoring studies of marine anthropogenic debris have focused on sandy beaches, so little is known about litter on rocky shorelines. We surveyed litter trapped on a rocky intertidal shore in False Bay, South Africa, between May 2015 and March 2018. An exceptional upwelling of seabed litter occurred in November 2017 (70 items?m-1). Excluding this event, monthly clean-ups at spring low tide collected 2 (1.3-3.1) items?m-1?month-1 and 31 (19.4-49.4) g?m-1?month-1 of which 74% was plastic (31% by mass). Litter loads peaked in autumn when seasonal rains washed litter into False Bay, suggesting that most litter comes from local land-based sources. Litter composition differed from that on a nearby sandy beach, with more glass and other dense items on the rocky shore, but 60% of plastic items floated in water. Sand inundation and biotic interactions helped to trap buoyant plastics in the intertidal zone.
Project description:Shewanella species are widespread in various environments. Here, the genome sequence of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant iron reducing bacterium from deep-sea sediment was determined with related functional analysis to study its environmental adaptation mechanisms. The genome of WP3 consists of 5,396,476 base pairs (bp) with 4,944 open reading frames (ORFs). It possesses numerous genes or gene clusters which help it to cope with extreme living conditions such as genes for two sets of flagellum systems, structural RNA modification, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) biosynthesis and osmolyte transport and synthesis. And WP3 contains 55 open reading frames encoding putative c-type cytochromes which are substantial to its wide environmental adaptation ability. The mtr-omc gene cluster involved in the insoluble metal reduction in the Shewanella genus was identified and compared. The two sets of flagellum systems were found to be differentially regulated under low temperature and high pressure; the lateral flagellum system was found essential for its motility and living at low temperature.