Four sesquiterpene glycosides from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf ameliorates palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in HepG2 Cells via AMPK signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance (IR), caused by impaired insulin signal and decreased insulin sensitivity, is generally responsible for the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sesquiterpene glycosides (SGs), the exclusive natural products from loquat leaf, have been regarded as potential lead compounds owing to their high efficacy in hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia. Here, we evaluated the beneficial effects of four single SGs isolated from loquat leaf, including SG1, SG2, SG3 and one novel compound SG4 against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. SG1, SG3 and SG4 could significantly enhance glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells at non-cytotoxic concentration. Meanwhile, Oil Red O staining showed the decrease of both total cholesterol and triglyceride content, suggesting the amelioration of lipid accumulation by SGs in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Further investigations found that the expression levels of phosphorylated AMPK, ACC, IRS-1, and Akt were significantly up-regulated after SGs treatment, on the contrary, the expression levels of SREBP-1 and FAS were significantly down-regulated. Notably, AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CC) blocked the regulative effects, while AMPK activator AICAR mimicked the effects of SGs in PA-treated insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. In conclusion, SGs (SG4>SG1?SG3>SG2) improved lipid accumulation in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells through the AMPK signaling pathway.
Project description:To investigate the fine-scale diversity of the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (henceforth referred to as "Ca. Accumulibacter"), two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) were operated with sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. During SBR operations, activated sludge always contained morphologically different "Ca. Accumulibacter" strains showing typical EBPR performances, as confirmed by the combined technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microautoradiography (MAR). Fragments of "Ca. Accumulibacter" 16S rRNA genes were retrieved from the sludge. Phylogenetic analyses together with sequences from the GenBank database showed that "Ca. Accumulibacter" 16S rRNA genes of the EBPR sludge were clearly differentiated into four "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades, Acc-SG1, Acc-SG2, Acc-SG3, and Acc-SG4. The specific FISH probes Acc444, Acc184, Acc72, and Acc119 targeting these clades and some helpers and competitors were designed by using the ARB program. Microbial characterization by FISH analysis using specific FISH probes also clearly indicated the presence of different "Ca. Accumulibacter" cell morphotypes. Especially, members of Acc-SG3, targeted by probe Acc72, were coccobacillus-shaped cells with a size of approximately 2 to 3 mum, while members of Acc-SG1, Acc-SG2, and Acc-SG4, targeted by Acc444, Acc184, and Acc119, respectively, were coccus-shaped cells approximately 1 mum in size. Subsequently, cells targeted by each FISH probe were sorted by use of a flow cytometer, and their polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene homologs were amplified by using a ppk1-specific PCR primer set for "Ca. Accumulibacter." The phylogenetic tree based on sequences of the ppk1 gene homologs was basically congruent with that of the 16S rRNA genes, but members of Acc-SG3 with a distinct morphology comprised two different ppk1 genes. These results suggest that "Ca. Accumulibacter" strains may be diverse physiologically and ecologically and represent distinct populations with genetically determined adaptations in EBPR systems.
Project description:Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) has been shown to play an important role in lignin biosynthesis in plants and is, therefore, a promising target for generating improved lignocellulosic biomass crops for sustainable biofuel production. <i>Populus</i> spp. has two <i>CSE</i> genes (<i>CSE1</i> and <i>CSE2</i>) and, thus, the hybrid poplar (<i>Populus alba</i> × <i>P. glandulosa</i>) investigated in this study has four <i>CSE</i> genes. Here, we present transgenic hybrid poplars with knockouts of each <i>CSE</i> gene achieved by CRISPR/Cas9. To knockout the <i>CSE</i> genes of the hybrid poplar, we designed three single guide RNAs (sg1-sg3), and produced three different transgenic poplars with either <i>CSE1</i> (CSE1-sg2), <i>CSE2</i> (CSE2-sg3), or both genes (CSE1/2-sg1) mutated. CSE1-sg2 and CSE2-sg3 poplars showed up to 29.1% reduction in lignin deposition with irregularly shaped xylem vessels. However, CSE1-sg2 and CSE2-sg3 poplars were morphologically indistinguishable from WT and showed no significant differences in growth in a long-term living modified organism (LMO) field-test covering four seasons. Gene expression analysis revealed that many lignin biosynthetic genes were downregulated in CSE1-sg2 and CSE2-sg3 poplars. Indeed, the CSE1-sg2 and CSE2-sg3 poplars had up to 25% higher saccharification efficiency than the WT control. Our results demonstrate that precise editing of <i>CSE</i> by CRISPR/Cas9 technology can improve lignocellulosic biomass without a growth penalty.
Project description:In East Africa, the prevalent <i>Bemisia tabaci</i> whiteflies on the food security crop cassava are classified as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) species. Economically damaging cassava whitefly populations were associated with the SSA2 species in the 1990s, but more recently, it has been to SSA1 species. To investigate whether biological traits (number of first instar nymphs, emerged adults, proportion of females in progeny and development time) of the cassava whitefly species are significant drivers of the observed field abundance, our study determined the development of SSA1 sub-group (SG) 1 (5 populations), SG2 (5 populations), SG3 (1 population) and SSA2 (1 population) on cassava and eggplant under laboratory conditions. SSA1-(SG1-SG2) and SSA2 populations' development traits were similar. Regardless of the host plant, SSA1-SG2 populations had the highest number of first instar nymphs (60.6 ± 3.4) and emerged adults (50.9 ± 3.6), followed by SSA1-SG1 (55.5 ± 3.2 and 44.6 ± 3.3), SSA2 (45.8 ± 5.7 and 32.6 ± 5.1) and the lowest were SSA1-SG3 (34.2 ± 6.1 and 32.0 ± 7.1) populations. SSA1-SG3 population had the shortest egg-adult emergence development time (26.7 days), followed by SSA1-SG1 (29.1 days), SSA1-SG2 (29.6 days) and SSA2 (32.2 days). Regardless of the whitefly population, development time was significantly shorter on eggplant (25.1 ± 0.9 days) than cassava (34.6 ± 1.0 days). These results support that SSA1-(SG1-SG2) and SSA2 <i>B. tabaci</i> can become highly abundant on cassava, with their species classification alone not correlating with observed abundance and prevalence.
Project description:In sub-Saharan Africa cassava growing areas, two members of the Bemisia tabaci species complex termed sub-Saharan Africa 1 (SSA1) and SSA2 have been reported as the prevalent whiteflies associated with the spread of viruses that cause cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) pandemics. At the peak of CMD pandemic in the late 1990s, SSA2 was the prevalent whitefly, although its numbers have diminished over the last two decades with the resurgence of SSA1 whiteflies. Three SSA1 subgroups (SG1 to SG3) are the predominant whiteflies in East Africa and vary in distribution and biological properties. Mating compatibility between SSA1 subgroups and SSA2 whiteflies was reported as the possible driver for the resurgence of SSA1 whiteflies. In this study, a combination of both phylogenomic methods and reciprocal crossing experiments were applied to determine species status of SSA1 subgroups and SSA2 whitefly populations. Phylogenomic analyses conducted with 26 548 205 bp whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the full mitogenomes clustered SSA1 subgroups together and separate from SSA2 species. Mating incompatibility between SSA1 subgroups and SSA2 further demonstrated their distinctiveness from each other. Phylogenomic analyses conducted with SNPs and mitogenomes also revealed different genetic relationships among SSA1 subgroups. The former clustered SSA1-SG1 and SSA1-SG2 together but separate from SSA1-SG3, while the latter clustered SSA1-SG2 and SSA1-SG3 together but separate from SSA1-SG1. Mating compatibility was observed between SSA1-SG1 and SSA1-SG2, while incompatibility occurred between SSA1-SG1 and SSA1-SG3, and SSA1-SG2 and SSA1-SG3. Mating results among SSA1 subgroups were coherent with phylogenomics results based on SNPs but not the full mitogenomes. Furthermore, this study revealed that the secondary endosymbiont-Wolbachia-did not mediate reproductive success in the crossing assays carried out. Overall, using genome wide SNPs together with reciprocal crossings assays, this study established accurate genetic relationships among cassava-colonizing populations, illustrating that SSA1 and SSA2 are distinct species while at least two species occur within SSA1 species.
Project description:In this study, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), which is overexpressed in human prostate cancer cells, was cloned to be fused to the IgM constant fragment (Fc) for enhancing immunogenicity and expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Then, the transgenic plants were propagated by in vitro tissue subculture. Gene insertion and expression of the recombinant PAP-IgM Fc fusion protein were confirmed in each tested the first, second, and third subculture generations (SG1, SG2, and SG3, respectively). Transcription levels were constantly maintained in the SG1, SG2, and SG3 leaf section (top, middle, and base). The presence of the PAP-IgM Fc gene was also confirmed in each leaf section in all tested subculture generations. RNA expression was confirmed in all subculture generations using real-time PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. PAP-IgM Fc protein expression was confirmed in all leaves of the SG1, SG2, and SG3 recombinant transgenic plants by using quantitative western blotting and chemiluminescence immunoassays. These results demonstrate that the recombinant protein was stably expressed for several generations of in vitro subculture. Therefore, transgenic plants can be propagated using in vitro tissue subculture for the production of recombinant proteins.
Project description:<i>Bemisia tabaci</i> is an important vector of cassava brown streak viruses and cassava mosaic begomoviruses, the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic disease (CMD), respectively. A study was carried out to determine the genetic variability of <i>B. tabaci</i> associated with cassava and the occurrence of CMD in Zambia in 2013 and 2015. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of only the sub-Saharan Africa 1 (SSA1) genetic group in Zambia. The SSA1 population had three population subgroups (SGs): SSA1-SG1, SSA1-SG2 and SSA1-SG3. All three SSA1 population subgroups occurred in Western Province. However, only SSA1-SG3 occurred in Eastern Province, while only SSA1-SG1 occurred in North Western and Luapula Provinces. Adult <i>B. tabaci</i> were most abundant in Western Province in 2013 (11.1/plant) and 2015 (10.8/plant), and least abundant (0.2/plant) in Northern Province in both 2013 and 2015. CMD was prevalent in all seven provinces surveyed, with the highest incidence recorded in Lusaka Province in both 2013 (78%) and 2015 (83.6%), and the lowest in Northern Province in both 2013 (26.6%) and 2015 (29.3%). Although SSA1-SG1 occurred at greater abundances than the other subgroups, there was no direct association demonstrated between whitefly subgroup and incidence of CMD. Establishing which <i>B. tabaci</i> genetic groups and populations are associated with CMD and their distribution in the country is a key factor in guiding the development of CMD control strategies for cassava-dependent households.
Project description:The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely adapted for RNA-guided genome editing and gene regulation in diverse organisms yet its in vivo target specificity is poorly understood. Here we provide the first genome-wide binding maps of nuclease-deactivated Cas9 loaded with guide RNAs in mammalian cells. We find a 5-nucleotide seed region in the guide RNA targets Cas9 to thousands of sites in the genome. Chromatin accessibility limits binding to the other hundreds of thousands sites with matching seed sequences, and consequently 70% of off-target binding sites are associated with genes. U-rich seeds have low numbers of off-target sites limited by both low guide RNA abundance and scarcity of complimentary sites in accessible chromatin. Unexpectedly, off-target sites show little evidence of cleavage, supporting a two-state model reminiscent of eukaryotic RNAi machinery where a short seed match triggers binding but extensive pairing is required for cleavage. ChIP-seq of HA-dCas9 loaded with 4 sgRNAs (Phc1-sg1, Phc1-sg2, Nanog-sg2, and Nanog-sg3) in mouse, and 2 sgRNAs in human (EMX1-sg1 and EMX1-sg3)
Project description:To determine whether extending the interval between chemoradiation (CRT) and surgery, and administering additional chemotherapy during the waiting period has an impact on tumor response, CRT-related toxicity and surgical complications in patients with advanced rectal cancer.Locally advanced rectal cancer is usually treated with preoperative CRT followed by surgery approximately 6 weeks later. The Timing of Rectal Cancer Response to Chemoradiation Consortium designed a prospective, multicenter, Phase II clinical trial to investigate extending the interval between CRT and surgery, and administering additional chemotherapy during the waiting period. Here, we present preliminary results of this trial, reporting the tumor response, CRT-related toxicity and surgical complications.Stage II and III rectal cancer patients were treated concurrently with 5-Fluorouracil (FU) and radiation for 5 to 6 weeks. Patients in study group (SG) 1 underwent total mesorectal excision (TME) 6 weeks later. Patients in SG2 with evidence of a clinical response 4 weeks after CRT received 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX-6 (mFOLFOX-6) followed by TME 3 to 5 weeks later. Tumor response, CRT-related toxicity and surgical complications were recorded.One hundred and forty-four patients were accrued. One hundred and thirty-six (66, SG1; 70, SG2) were evaluated for CRT-related toxicity. One hundred and twenty-seven (60, SG1; 67, SG2) were assessed for tumor response and surgical complications. A similar proportion of patients completed CRT per protocol in both SGs, but the cumulative dose of sensitizing 5-FU and radiation was higher in SG2. CRT-related toxicity was comparable between SGs. Average time from CRT-to-surgery was 6 (SG1) and 11 weeks (SG2). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was 18% (SG1) and 25% (SG2). Postoperative complications were similar between SGs.Intense neoadjuvant therapy consisting of CRT followed by additional chemotherapy (mFOLFOX-6), and delaying surgery may result in a modest increase in pCR rate without increasing complications in patients undergoing TME for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Project description:Goat's milk, considered a substitute for cow's milk, has a high nutritional value. However, goat's milk contains various allergens, predominantly ?-lactoglobulin (BLG). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the BLG locus in goat fibroblasts for sgRNA optimization and generate BLG knock-out goats through co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) into goat embryos at the one-cell stage. We firstly tested sgRNA editing efficiencies in goat fibroblast cells, and approximately 8.00%-9.09% of the cells were modified in single sgRNA-guided targeting experiment. Among the kids, the genome-targeting efficiencies of single sgRNA were 12.5% (10 ng/?L sg1) and 0% (10 ng/?L sg2) and efficiencies of dual sgRNAs were 25.0% (25 ng/?L sg2+sg3 group) and 28.6% (50 ng/?L sg2+sg3 group). Relative expression of BLG in BLG knock-out goat mammary glands significantly (p < 0.01) decreased as well as other milk protein coding genes, such as CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA (p < 0.05). As expected, BLG protein had been abolished in the milk of the BLG knock-out goat. In addition, most of the targeted kids were chimeric (3/4), and their various body tissues were edited simultaneously. Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research.
Project description:Background:Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is generally defined as an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by the automatic activation of the innate immune system in the absence of a detectable pathogenic stimulant. We hypothesize that the pathogenic factors, besides the genetic causes, may affect the development of FMF symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of human foamy virus (HFV) positivity on the occurrence of the clinical symptoms of FMF. Materials and Methods:Two hundred and twenty-two FMF patients with definitive diagnosis according to Tel Hashomer criteria (study group 1 [SG1]), 205 symptomatic FMF patients who had definitive diagnosis according to the same criteria but did not carry any of the 12 most commonly occurring MEFV gene mutations (study group 2 [SG2]), and 200 healthy individuals were included as control group (study group 3 [SG3]) in the study. The genetic analysis was applied in the Molecular Genetics Laboratory of the Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz May?s University. This study was designed as a case-control study. HFV positivity was tested by amplifying the HFV bel1 gene sequence with polymerase chain reaction technique. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 23.0 software. Results:HFV positivity showed significant differences between the study groups (P = 0.002). While 43 (19.02%) of the 222 SG1 patients were positive for the HFV bel1 gene sequence, 33 (16.09%) of the 205 SG2 patients were positive for the same sequence. Only 15 (7.5%) of the SG3 participants were positive for the presence of HFV bel1 gene sequence. Conclusion:The results of our study suggested that HFV positivity can be a stimulant pathogenic factor of natural immune system which can cause the emergence of FMF symptoms.