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The Origins and Roles of Methylthiolated Cytokinins: Evidence From Among Life Kingdoms.


ABSTRACT: Cytokinins (CKs) are a group of adenine-derived, small signaling molecules of crucial importance for growth and multiple developmental processes in plants. Biological roles of classical CKs: isopentenyladenine (iP), trans and cis isomers of zeatin (tZ, cZ), and dihydrozeatin, have been studied extensively and their functions are well defined in many aspects of plant physiology. In parallel, extensive knowledge exists for genes involved in tRNA modifications that lead to the production of tRNA-bound methylthiolated CKs, especially in bacterial and mammalian systems. However, not much is known about the origins, fates, and possible functions of the unbound methylthiolated CKs (2MeS-CKs) in biological systems. 2MeS-CKs are the free base or riboside derivatives of iP or Z-type CKs, modified by the addition of a thiol group (-SH) at position 2 of the adenine ring that is subsequently methylated. Based on the evidence to date, these distinctive CK conjugates are derived exclusively via the tRNA degradation pathway. This review summarizes the knowledge on the probable steps involved in the biosynthesis of unbound 2MeS-CKs across diverse kingdoms of life. Furthermore, it provides examples of CK profiles of organisms from which the presence of 2MeS-CKs have been detected and confirms a close association and balance between the production of classical CKs and 2MeS-CKs. Finally, it discusses available reports regarding the possible physiological functions of 2MeS-CKs in different biological systems.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7680852 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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