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A structural view of PA2G4 isoforms with opposing functions in cancer.

ABSTRACT: The role of proliferation-associated protein 2G4 (PA2G4), alternatively known as ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1), in cancer has become apparent over the past 20 years. PA2G4 expression levels are correlated with prognosis in a range of human cancers, including neuroblastoma, cervical, brain, breast, prostate, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and other tumors. There are two PA2G4 isoforms, PA2G4-p42 and PA2G4-p48, and although both isoforms of PA2G4 regulate cellular growth and differentiation, these isoforms often have opposing roles depending on the context. Therefore, PA2G4 can function either as a contextual tumor suppressor or as an oncogene, depending on the tissue being studied. However, it is unclear how distinct structural features of the two PA2G4 isoforms translate into different functional outcomes. In this review, we examine published structures to identify important structural and functional components of PA2G4 and consider how they may explain its crucial role in the malignant phenotype. We will highlight the lysine-rich regions, protein-protein interaction sites, and post-translational modifications of the two PA2G4 isoforms and relate these to the functional cellular role of PA2G4. These data will enable a better understanding of the function and structure relationship of the two PA2G4 isoforms and highlight the care that will need to be undertaken for those who wish to conduct isoform-specific structure-based drug design campaigns.

SUBMITTER: Stevenson BW 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7681029 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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